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Full text of "Sketches of North Carolina, historical and biographical, : illustrative of the principles of a portion of her early settlers."

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"^we/fify  gfyir^inia 

ALrHED  H  BYBD.M  A  nft87> 

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In  the  Clerk*!  Office  of  the  Diftrict  Court  for  the  Soathem  iHftrlct  of  New  York. 

^   •    1    •      •   !  • 
•  •     •    •  ••       ••    • 

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•  •  < 

R.  Okaiohsas^  Power  Pt«m 
113  Falton  8tT««t 

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To  the  Ministers  of  the  Synod  of  North  Carolina,  with  whom  I  have  been 
associated  in  arduous  labors  for  about  seven  years,  and  whose  counsel  and 
assistance  and  cheerful  welcome  it  has  been  my  happiness  to  enjoy, — 


Aq^  to  the  Elders  and  Chuitlies  with  whom  I  have  labored  in  the  cause 
of  benevolence  \  whose  attachment  to  sound  doctrine  and  the  church  of  their 
fiithers  has  been  so  often  and  so  agreeably  displayed ;  whose  hospitahty  has 
sjH-ead  anwnd  me,  times  almost  innumerable,  the  comforts  and  luxuries  of 


And  to  the  Children,  who  by  their  afi^ti(Niate  cheerfulness  have  been  my 

solace  in  hours  of  weariniBs  and  exhaustion ;  the  hope  of  the  Church  and  of 

the  Stater- 

MOST  tenderly: 

And  to  the  Citizens  of  the  sedate  and  sober  State  of  North  Carolina  gene- 
lally,  inheriting  so  much  that  is  estimable  from  past  generations^ — 


Is  this  Volume  dedicated  by 



Jhmneif,  HampsAirt  Cnmif,  Firgini^t  I 
October,  IB46.     S 

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North  Cabolina,  in  ihtk  days  of  colonial  dependence,  was  thp  ^tf  ||ffl  ^f  the 
joor  and  ^yig^opOTegsod.  In  her  bordftrs  the  emigrant,  the  fugitive,  and  the 
exile  fcnnd  a  home*  Whatever  may  have  been  the  caitse  of  leaving  the  land 
of  flimr  nativity — poUticd  servitude, — tyranny  over  conscience^— Qr  poverty  of 
means,  with  the  hope  of  bettering  their  ccMiditioiv— the  descendants  of  these 
enterprising,  snfiiaring,  afilicted,  yet  prospered  people,  have  cause  to  bless  the 
kind  Providence  that  led  &eir  fltthers,  in  their  wanderings,  to  such  a  place  of 

Her  sandy  pladm,  and  threatening  brewers  jutting  out  mto  the  ocean,  met 
the  voya^onr  sent  out  by  Sir  Walter  Ralei^  in  1584,  and  the  island  of  Woco- 
ken  affinrded  the  landing-place,  *^  as  some  delieate  garden  abounding  with  all 
kinds  of  odoriferous  flowers,"  and  witnessed  ths  ceremonial  of  taking  possession 
of  the  country  &r  the  Queen  ol  England,  who  soon  after  gave  it  the  name  of 
Virginia.  The  island  of  Roanoke,  between  Pamtico  and  Albemarle  Sounds,  in 
the  domains  of  €hranganimeo,  afiofded  the  first  colony  of  English  a  home  so 
quiet,  with  a  climate  so  mild,  and  with  fruits  so  abundant,  that  the  tempest- 
tossed  mariners  extolled  it  in  their  letters  to  their  countrymen  as  an  earthly 
paradise.  So  no  doubt  it  seemed  to  them  the  fint  summer  of  their  residence, 
in  1585 ;  and  notwithstandhig  the  disastrous  conclusion  of  that  and  succeeding 
colonies,  so  the  adjoining  country  has  seemed  to  many  generations  that  have 
risen,  and  flourished,  and  passed  away,  in  the  long  succession  of  years,  since 
the  wile  of  Granganimec,  jtn  sfrage  state,  feasted  the  first  adventurers. 

Her  extended  champaign  around  the  head  Btreams  of  the  numerous  rivers 
that  flow  through  her  own  bordors,  and  those  of  South  Carolina,  to  the  ocean, 
cherished  into  numbers,  aad  wctdth,  and  civil  and  religious  independence,  the 
emigrants  from  a  rougher  climate  and  more  juaftiendly  soil,  of  the  north  of  Ire- 
knd  and  theHighlands  of  Scotland.  The  quiet  of  the  vast  solitudes  and  forests 
of  North  CaroIInS"Iured^Aese  hard-working  men,  who,  m  their  poverty  and 
transatlantic  sul^ection,  cherished  the  principles  of  religion,  wealth  and  inde- 
pendence, to  seek  in  them  the  abode  of  domestic  blessedness,  and  the  repose  of 
liberty.  Par  from  the  ocean,  in  a  province  without  seaports,  and  unfrequented 
by  wealthy  emigrants,  the  clustered  settlements  had  space  and  time  to  follow 
out  their  principles  of  religion,  morality  and  politics  to  their  legitimate  ends ; 
and  the  first  declaration  of  Entire  Independence  of  the  British  crown  was  heard 
in  the  province  that  afibrded  a  TQsting^plaee  to  the  first  colony. 

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Ctoolina  was  settled  by  emigrants  from  difierent  parts  of  the  kingdom  of 
Great  Britain  and  her  American  provinces,  in  such  numbers,  and  in  such  re* 
mote  situations,  that  it  is  comparatively  easy  to  follow  the  line  of  their  descend* 
ants,  aad  trace  out  the  wackings  of  their  principles  and  habits  upon  themselves, 
the  commonwealth,  and  the  oaontry  at  large.  Every  state  of  s^iety  owes 
•  much  of  its  character  for  excellence^or  demerit,  to  the  generations  that  pre- 
ceded; the  present  is  a  refleolBd  image  of  Ihihgast;  and  men  must  search  among 
their  ancestors  for  the  principles,  and  causes,  and  sj^rings  of  action,  and  mould* 
ing  liiiliences,  that  have  made  society  and  themselves  what  they  are.  The 
preflnt  {KOiieration  of  Carolinians  look  back  to  the  men  thai  drove  the  wild 
beasts  from  the  forests,  and  displaced  t&e  savages,  as  the  fathers  of  %.  republic 
more  blessed  than  the  most  favored  of  antiquity ;  and  may  well  ask  what 
principles  of  religion  and  morals, — what  habits  made  us  what  we  are.  In  an- 
swer to  these  questions  there  is  no  good  civil  history  of  the  State ;  and  with  the 
honorable  exception  of  die  life  of  CaldweU,  by  Mr.  Caruthers,  there  is  no  church 
history ;  and  the  traditions  that  reached  back  to  the  settlement  of  die  country, 
axe,  for  the  most  part,  passing  away,'  or  becoming  dimmed  in  the  horizon  of  uncer> 
tainty.  The  prospect,  then,  is,  that  the  coming  generations  will  be  ignorant  of 
their  ancestors  and  their  deeds,  and  like  the  (xreeks  and  Romans,  be  compelled 
to  go  back  to  a  &bulous  antiquity  to  search  in  dreams  and  conjectures  for  the 
first  link  in  a  chain  of  causes,  the  progression  of  which  is  so  full  of  blessedness. 

It  may  be  well  for  some  people,  that  the  mist  of  antiquity  hides  in  uncer- 
tainty, the  lowness  of  their  origin ;  and  that  aspersion  has  sometimes  been  cast 
on  Carolina.  But  if  any  people  may  glory  in  their  fore&thers,  the  Carolinians, 
at  least  a  part  of  them,  may  glory  in  theirs,  and  cherish  their  principles  with 
the  firm  confidence  that  they  will  make  their  descendants  better,  and  the  pro- 
gress of  excellence  shall  never  end.  No  human  mind  can  tell  with  certainty, 
or  even  conjecture  plausibly,  where  the  principles  of  the  men,  that  did  so  much 
for  their  posterity,  will  lead ;  thoAgh  they  may  be  certain  the  pathway  shall  be 
resplendent,  and  the  goal  glorious. 

The  history  of  principles  is  the  history  of  States.  And  the  youth  of  Caro- 
lina might  study  both  on  one  interesting  page,  were  there  a  £ur  record  of  past 
events  presented  to  their  perusal.  They  might  learn  at  home  something  better 
than  the  histories  of  Greece  and  Rome,  or  the  Assyrian  and  Babylonian,  or  ail 
the  eastern  and  western  empires  of  the  world,  have  ever  taught  They  would 
find  examples  worthy  of  all  praise,  and  actions  deserving  a  generous  emulation. 
They  would  be  impressed  most  deeply  with  the  conviction  that  people  and  ac- 
tions worthy  of  such  examples  must  be  the  citizens  and  the  acts  of  the  happiest 
nation  on  earth. 

The  following  pages  are  an  efibrt  to  open  the  way  for  some  future  historian 
to  do  full  justice  to  the  past,  by  recording  tbe  events  that  are  so  honorable,  and 
to  the  future  by  presenting  a  page  full  of  interest  and  instruction,  all  true,  and 
all  encouraging.    They  contain  the  history  of  the  Presbyterian  population  of 

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North  Ciax>liDa  as  &r  as  it  has  been  yet  collected  from  traditional  records  of  the 
charches  and  eccktohistical  bodies  and  printed  volumes  that  refer  incidentally 
to  this  people  and  their  principles  and  their  doings.  Though  the  history  of  a 
denomination,  it  is  not  sectarian,  because  it  must  of  necessity  be  the  history  of 
a  large  fftrt  of  the  State ;  and  because  it  is  also  a  fisir  record  of  events.  £very 
denomination  has  the  Hberty  of  producing  a  series  of  events  in  their  past  histoiy 
of  equal  or  greater  interest,  and  it  will  be  naithrr  bigoted,  sectarian,  or  ani- 

The  author  has  had  some  peculiar  advantages  in  gathering  the  ftcte  related 
in  the  following  pages.    For  about  seven  years  he  was  constantly«ngm;ed  in 
the  active  duties  ^  Secreta^  of  For6%n  Missions ;  and  in  their  fulfilment  was 
called  to  visit  most  of  the  Presbyterian  congregations  in  North  Cardina  and 
Virginia  repeatedly.    In  conversation  with  the  aged  ministers  and  members  of 
fte  churdi^he  heard  many  things  to  which  he  listened  with  emotion,  and  asked 
to  hear  them  again ;  and  then  repeated  them  to  others ;  and  then  wrote  them 
down ;  and  then  corrected  and  enlarged  the  notes ;  and  then  occasionally  pub- 
lished a  chapter  in  the  Watchman  of  the  South,  the  reading  of  which  often 
induced  persons  in  possession  of  interesting  fojcta  to  communicate  them  either 
to  the  writer  personally,  or  to  the  public  through  the  Watchmah ;  and  then  to 
consulting  manuscripts  and  records  as  far  as  they  were  known  to  have  any 
relation  to  the  matters  in  hand,  or  as  they  fell  itt  his  way,  and  commonly  he 
stumbled,  as  it  were,  upon  them  most  unexpectedly,  as  he  passed  around  in  his 
arduous  undertakings ;  and  then  as  the  agency  in  which  he  was  engaged  was 
drawing  to  a  close,  in  looking  over  the  memoranda  of  interesting  events  that 
had  accumulated  upon  his  hands,  the  purpose  was  formed  of  making  a  volume 
of  sketches  relating  to  past  events  in  the  Presbyterian  settlements  of  Virginia 
and  Carolina,  few  of  which  had  ever  been  in  print  except  in  the  ooluimis  of  a 
weekly  periodical,  and  most  were  &st  passing  away  Irom  the  knowledge  of  the 
living,  as  that  generation  whose  fathers  were  actors  in  the  most  interesting 
scenes  of  the  early  settlement,  and  from  whom  many  of  these  traditions  were 
received  by  the  writer,  were  fast  entering  the  unseen  world,  when  he  com- 
menced committing  their  communications  to  paper,  and  have  now  but  here  and 
there  a  solitary  representative  in  the  land  of  the  living.    In  this  state  of  tha 
case  the  Synod  of  North  Carolina,  during  the  annual  session  held  in  Fayette- 
ville,  November,  1844,  by  a  committee,  mvited  the  writer  to  use  his  materials, 
and  others  that  might  be  put  into  his  hands,  in  preparing  a  history  of  the  Pres- 
byterian Church  in  North  CaroUna ;  such  a  history  as  might  show  the  influ- 
ence of  Presbyterian  doctrines,  habits,  and  population,  upon  the  past  and  present 
generations  of  citizens  of  the  North  State,  and  in  sonne  degree  also  upon  the 
population  of  those  States  which  owe  much  to  the  emigration  from  Carolina. 
The  only  hesitation  the  writer  felt  in  acceding  to  this  honorable  proposal,  arose 
from  the  circumstance,  that  as  the  population  of  a  part  of  Virginia  and  North 
Carolina  were  homogeneous,  and  were  for  a  long  Ihne  connected  in  the  same 

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Presbytery,  and  have  always  since  been  more  or  less  coatmcted  in  their  religions 
and  benerolent'  actions,  there  might  arise  a  difficulty  in  giving  a  fair  history  of 
the  church  and  people,  disconnected  from  the  church  in  Virginia,  which  was 
«^or  in  point  of  time  and  always  intimately  connected  in  action.    But  upon 
Hither  rejection  and  conversation  with  judicious  friends,  it  appeared  there  were 
ample  materials,  purely  Carolinian,  to  form  a  volume  of  the  size  desired  by  the 
gvoerallty  of  readers,  and  equally  as  ample  materials,  purely  Virginian,  for 
another ;  and  the  giatification  of  the  readers,  and  the  public  advantage,  *woiild 
t)e  consoked  by  giving  the  volumes  separate.    The  invitation  of  Synod  was 
then,  a^r  a  few  explanations,  accepted,  and  the  brethren  generaHy  most  cheer- 
fully made  ofi^r  of  their  collections  of  facts  and  materials  for  the^  history,  which 
they  had  for  some  time  been  gathering  respecting  their  own  particular  charges. 
The  writer  is  under  particular  obligations  to  many  individuals  for  the  mate- 
rials for  the  succeeding  volume.    To  Rev.  John  Robinson,  DJD,,  now  no  more, 
from  whom  he  received  the  first  impulse  to  make  the  collection  of  traditions,  by 
hearing  from  him,  at  his  own  fireside,  the  recital  of  some  of  the  events  that  must 
immortalize  Mecklenburg ;  and  whom  he  visited  for  the  purpose  of  correcting 
and  enlarging  his  traditions,  in  December,  1843,  and  found  preparations  Biaking 
for  his  funeral ; — a  noble,  urbane,  powerful  preacher  of  the  gospel :  to  Rev.  * 
'  £.  B.  Currie,  in  whose  retired  cottage  the  writer  gathered  the  principal  isuctB 
lelating  to  Rev.  James  McGready  and  the  revivals  that  accompanied  and  fol- 
lowed his  preaching ;  and  many  of  the  fisicts  respecting  the  churches  in  Gran- 
ville and  Caswell  counties ;  the  infirmities  of  whose  age  but  enrich  his  experi- 
ence :  to  the  Rev.  Robert  Tate,  from  whom  I  received  much  that  is  recorded 
respecting  the  churches  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  State,  himself  the  patriarch 
of  the  present  churches  in  New  Hanover :  to  the  Rev.  Dr.  Morrison^  for  ma- 
terials for  the  interesting  Memoir  of  his  &ther-in-law,  J.  Graham ;  and  also  for 
much  concerning  Dr.  Hjmter  and  Dr.  Wilson:  to  Dr.  T.  C.  Caldwell,  for 
many  traditions  relating  to  Sugaw  Creek,  received  from  his  &ther,  and  for  an 
interesting  visit  to  the  old  grave-yard :   to  Dr.  Hunter,  of  Groshen,  for  many 
£BLcts  and  incidents  concerning  his  fiAther,  Rev.  Humphrey  Hunter,  D.D. :  to 
Rev.  Eli  W,  Caruthers,  for  the  valuable  selections  from  his  Life  of  Rev.  David 
Caldwell,  D.D, :  to  ex-Governor  Swain,  President  of  the  University  of  North 
Carolina,  for  materials  for  the  sketch  of  the  University,  and  ]{,ev.  Joseph  Cald- 
well, D.D.,  and  for  other  interesting  fieu^ts :  to  Rev.  Colin  Mclvor,  stated  clerk 
of  the  Synod,  for  a  copy  of  the  minutes  of  the  Synod  of  the  Carolinas,  and  for 
the  translation  of  a  Gaelic  pamphlet :   to  Mr.  Charles  W.  Harris,  for  some 
curious  manuscripts  relating  to  Poplar  Tent,  from  the  pen  of  Mrs.  Alexander : 
to  Rev.  Alexander  Wilson,  D.D.,  for  fSsicts  concerning  the  county  of  Granville, 
and  the  church  in  Ireland  previous  to  the  emigration :   and  to  Rev.  Messrs. 
Cyrus  Johnson,  J.  M.  M.  Caldwell,  John  M.  Wilson,  James  M.  H.  Adams,.  E. 
F.  Rockwell,  A.  Gilchrist,  C.  Shaw,  and  Archibald  Smith,  for  manuscripts, 
pamphlets  and  volumes  relating  to  the  history  of  Presbyterianism  in  their  con- 

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giegatiofis:  to  GovemorB  Morehead  and  Graham,  and  the  public  oAers  ui 
Rafeigh,  for  access  to  the  records  of  the  State  and  the  public  libisiy :  4d1Dr. 
Ramsey,  of  Tennessee,  for  mnch  valuable  information :  and  to  J.  B,  Jones, 
the  author  of  the  Defence  of  North  Carolina,  from  whick  maoy  interesting 
&cts  have  been  borrowed :  and  to  Dr.  Pattillo,  of  Chariotte,  for  many  papers 
relating  to  his  gnjodMber,  Other  sources  of  information  are  ackodwtidjgQd 
in  the  bod^  of  the  work.  ^ 

It  is  more  than  possible  that  upon  the  perusal  of  these  pages  other  documei^ 
will  be  brought  to  li^t  that  shall  confirm  the  principal  &cts  here  produced, 
add  others,  and  perhaps  modifj:  some. 

The  strict  order  of  chronology  could  not  be  followed  in  the  succession  of 
chapters,  but  it  is,  as  &r  as  possible,  in  the  events  themselves,  and  also  in  the 
narration.  ' 

The  volume  takes  tho  name  of  "Sketches^*  rather  than  that  of  "  History,^*  for 
reasons  that  will  be  apparent  on  perusal ;  and  the  author  has  but  one  cause  of 
dissatisfaction  in  reviewing  the  work,  and  that  is,  that  the  Sketches  are  not 
more  worthy  of  the  scenes  and  the  actors. 

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AMERICA,  MAT,  1775. 

Tbm  Village  of  Charlotte,  its  Situation,  and  Origin  of  its  Name.  The  Con*  ' 
ventioD,  May  19th,  1775,  the  Preparatory  Steps,  its  Organization  and 
ObJQpt.  Ai^Incident  related  by  General  Graham.  Committee  present  the 
Resolutions  drawn  by  Dr.  Brevard.  The  Mecklenbitro  Declaratioit, 
Unanimously  Adopted.  The  Second  Mecklenburg  Declaration. 
Capt  Jack  takes  the  Decltration  to  Philadelphia^  reads  the  Papers  in  Sa- 
lisbury, is  opposed  by  Dunn  and  Boote.  The  Delegates  decline  laying 
the  Declaration  before  Congress;  Circulation  and  Preservation  of  the 
Copies.  The  Action  of  the  Committee  in  the  Case  of  Dunn  and  Boote> 
Associations  first  formed  according  to  the  Recommendations  of  Continental 
Congress.  Provincial  Council.  County  Committees  of  Safety.  A  Certi- 
ficate. First  Declaration  of  Independence  by  the  Constituted 
Authorities  of  a  State.  Inquiry  concerning  the  Origin  of  the  People 
forming  the  Convention .....*      33 


BLOOD  shed  on  THE  ALAMANCE— TTle  First  Blood  Shed  in  the  Revolution^ 
May  16M,  1776. 

The  Situation  and  Origin  of  the  name  of  Hillsborough  ;  its  Connection  with 
Past  Events.  Discontent  in  Orange  and  neighboring  Counties.  Governor  • 
Tqron  marches  to  Orange  with  Armed  Forces ;  his  first  Visit  and  its  Fail- 
ure. The  Excitement  of  the  People.  The  Eastern  nen  mistake  the 
Western.  The  Commencement  of  the  Disturbances.  The  Sheriff  hin* 
dered  in  his  Duty,  1760.  Pamphlet  in  Granville,  1765.  Causes  of  the  Com- 

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plaints  among  the  People.  Frauds  of  Childs  and  Corbin  in  Signing  I%- 
tents.  The  Proclamations  Disregarded.  Example  of  Hardship  in  going 
to  Market  Proposed  meeting  at  Maddock's  Mill,  Oct.  10th,  1766.  Meet- 
ing at  Deep  River.  Fanning's  opinion  of  the  Meeting.  Another  Meet- 
ing, 1767.  Commencement  of  the  Rsgulatioh.  Building  the  Govern- 
or's Palace  in  Newbem.  Another  Meeting  in  1768  addresses  the  Govern- 
or ;  his  reply.  Unjustifiable  outbreaks  unfairly  charged  on  the  Regula- 
tion, ^vernor  Proclaims  the  Regulation  an  Insurrection ;  Ninian  Bell 
Hamilton.  The  Regulators  in  Arms,  August  1 1th,  1768.  The  Governor's 
Justice,  his  Proclamation.  The  persons  excepted.  Report  of  Maurice 
Moore,  1776.  Extract  from  Records  of  C«\irt  in  Hillsborough.  Acts  of 
Personal  violence ;  a  Mock  Trial.  Four  New  Counties  made.  The  Go- 
vernor's Circular,  1771.  General  Waddel  goes  to  Salisbury.  The  Black 
Boys.  Waddel  retires  before  the  Regulators.  Orders.  Certificate.  Go- 
vernor crosses  the  Haw,  May  13th,  approaches  the  Regulators ;  Negotia- 
tion. The  Governor  kills  Robert  Thompson.  The  Flag  of  Truce  fired 
on.  The  Governor  commands  his  men  to  fire.  Regulators  Routed. 
Governor  hangs  James  Few.  Case  of  Captain  Messer.  Governor  leads 
his  prisoners  in  chains.  Execution  of  six  prisoners  near  Hillsborough. 
Tryon  returns  to  Newbem.  Fanning's  Flight  Husband's  Flight.  In- 
quiry into  the  origin  of  the  men  engaged  in  the  Regulation 4& 



Widow  Brevard ;  her  son  Alexander.  Judge  Brevard.  Her  son  Ephraim ; 
his  Education  ^  the  part  he  took  in  the  Convention  in  Mecklenburg ;  the 
Circumstances  of  his  Death.  Death  of  Mrs.  Jackson.  Instructions  por 
THE  Dei^gatss  op  Mxckij:nburg  County.  The  Principles  of  Civil 
and  Religious  Liberty 6a 



The  Emigrants  previous  to  about  173^,  from  Virginia,  Colonies  of  Huguenots 
and  Palatines.  Quakers  or  Friends.  The  Presbyterians  in  Daplin,  and 
in  Frederick,  Augusta,  and  Virginia.  Settlements  on  the  Eno.  West- 
ern Counties  set  off.  Encouragement  to  Emigrate.  Lord  Granville^s  por- 
tion of  Carolina  set  off.  The  Scotch  on  Cape  Fear.  Congregations  and 
Churches  in  the  Upper  Country.  Origin  of  the  people  worthy  of  notice. 
Influence  of  Religious  Principle 77 

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TABLE    OP   CONT«HT»»  XVii 



To  be  found  in  Ireland  under  Elizabeth  and  James.  Reformation  in  Eng- 
land partly  Voluntaiy ;  in  Ireland  Jiri^luntary.  King's  Supremacy  ac- 
knowledged, 1536.  The  Bible  in  Ireland,  1556.  Con^iracy  of  Tyrconnel 
and  Tjrrone,  1605,  and  Ulster  forfoited  to  the  Crown.  The  Province  sur- 
veyed by  Chichester  and  allotted  to  three  lands  of  occupants.  Lands  gen- 
erally occupied,  1610.  Stewart's  account  of  the  Emigrants  to  Ireland. 
Con  O'Neill  loses  part  of  his  Estate.  Emigrants  under  Montgomery. 
Situation  of  the  County  in  1618.   The  name  8eoteh*Iruh  ;  their  character.      8i 



The  Emigrants  from  Scotland.  Stewart's  character  of  them.  The  opinion 
in  Scotland  about  the  Emigration.  Christian  Ministers  go  over  to  Ireland 
to  tht  Emigrants  :~lst,  Edward  Brice;  2d,  John  Ridge;  3d,  M.  Hub- 
bard ;  4th,  James  Glendenning ;  5th,  Robert  Cunningham ;  6th,  Robert 
Blair ;  7th,  James  Hamilton.  The  Success  of  these  Ministers.  Com- 
mencement of  the  Great  Mevival.    Stewart's  account  of  it     The  Month' 

Ty  Meeting  at  Antrim.  Stewart's  and  Blait's  account  of  it.  More 
Ministers  pass  over  to  Ireland.  The  8th,  Josias  Welch ;  9th,  Andrew 
Stewart;  10th, Qeorge  Dunbar;  Andrew  Brown,  the  Deaf  Mute;  Uth, 
Henry  Colwort ;  12th,  John  Livingston,  of  Kirks,  of  Shotf  s  Memory ;  13th, 
John  McClelland ;  14th,  John  Semple.  Monthly  Meeting  at  Antrim  im- 
proved.   Bodily  Exercises  no  mark  of  Religion 91 




Cause  of  the  attempt  at  Emigration.  Four  Ministers  forbid  the  Ministry. 
Delegates  appointed  to  New  England.  Cotton  Mather's  notice  of  the  mat- 
ter. The  Eagle  Wing  sails,  1636,  with  a  band  of  Emigrants.  Livingston's 
account  of  the  Voyage.  Child  Baptized  at  sea.  Vessel  driven  back  to 
Ireland.  The  reception  of  the  Emigrants.  The  Ministers  return  to  Scot- 
land in  1637 ;  their  flocks  go  over  to  receive  the  Sacraments.  The  Influ- 
ence of  these  men  on  Ireland  and  the  World 102 

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First  Meeting  of  a  Presbytery  in  Ireland,  1642.  Steps  Preparatory.  Con- 
Tocation  of  the  Irish  Clergy  appointed  Usher  to  draw  up  a  Confession  of 
Faith.  Its  character.  Heyltn*s  account  of  the  Church  in  Usher's  time. 
Blair  and  Livingston's  course  respecting  Ordination.  Laymen  conduct 
public  worship  after  the  Clergy  retire  to  Scotland.  The  Scottish  armj 
introduced  to  crush  Rebellion,  1641.  Massacre  of  Protestants.  Six  Chap- 
lains accompany  the  Scotch  regiments;  also  Mr.  Livingston.  Regular 
Presbyterian  Churches  formad  in  the  Regiments.    The  Presbytery  Con- 

'■  stituted.  Sessions  formed  in  the  country  around.  The  people  petition  the 
General  Assembly  of  Scotland  for  Supplies.  Six  Ministers  sent  to  regu- 
late  the  Churches.  The  Congregation  take  possession  of  some  of  the  va- 
cant Parish  Churches.  Sone  persons  EpiscopaUy  ordained,  join  the  Pres- 
bytery. Solemn  League  and  Covenant  adopted  in  Scotland,  1643,  and  in 
many  parts  of  Ireland,  1644.  Its  effect.  Number  of  Presbyterian  Minis- 
ters in  Ireland  from  1647  to  1657.  The  first  Presbyteryjdivided  into  five 
Presbyteries.  Number  of  Ministers  in  1660  and  in  1689.  The  Presbyte- 
ry of  Lagan  license  the  first  Presbyterian  Minister  settled  in  the  United 
States ;  Francis  Makemie 10& 



They  were  LoyaL  Reasons  for  their  ancestors  being  choson  to  colonise  Ire- 
land. Their  views  of  the  authority  of  Parliament  after  the  King's  Death . 
How  the  Magistrates  are  to  be  chosen.  2d.  They  insisted  on  choosing 
their  own  Ministers  of  Reli^n ;  this  the  source  of  all  their  trouble ;  Re- 
publicans in  their  nations.  3d.  They  demanded  .ordination  by  Presbyters 
instead  of  Bishops.  4th.  Strict  discipline  in  morals  and  in  the  instruc- 
tion of  Youth.  Their  Fiewa  of  Education.  Connection  of  their  Religion 
with  their  politics.  Their  agreement  in  fundamentals ;  and  disagreement 
in  smaller  matters. 120 



Some  families  Settled  as  6arly  as  1729.  The  Clark  fanttly  as  early  as  1730, 
from  the  Hebrides.     Charles  Edward,  the  Pretender,  appears,  lands  in 

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Scotland.  The  heads  of  the  great  Clans  against  his  plans ;  joined  by  the 
young  men.  Is  for  a  time  snccessM.  fs  rained  at  Culloden.  Executions 
follow  h^  defeat ;  the  country  laid  waste ;  but  the  Prince  escapes.  An- 
ecdote of  a  Scotch  gentleman.  Anecdote  of  Kennedy.  The  Rebels  con- 
demned ;  17  sufbr,  the  rest  exiled,  go  to  Cape  Fear ;  causes  of  settling 
there.  The  Religion  of  the  Scotch.  No  Minister  came  with  the  first 
Ehnigrants.  The  Rev.  James  Campbell ;  biith-place ;  emigrates  to  Ame- 
rica ;  gives  over  Preaching.  By  means  of  Whitefield  resumes  his  Minis- 
try. Emigrates  to  Cape  Fear.  His  extensive  labors ;  his  regular  preach- 
ing places.  Bluff  and  its  Elders.  Barbacue  and  its  Elders.  Use  of  the 
Gaelic  Language.    The  Rev.  John  McLeod 125 



The  Scotch  not  Radicals ;  desired  a  Government  of  Law.  The  Bible  their 
guide.  Revolution.  Natural  right  in  given  cases.  Their  National  Cov-i 
enants ;  their  object  Hetherington*s  view  of  the  Covenants.  Rutherford's 
Lex  Rex.  Charles  2d  and  JUtnea  1st,  swore  to  the  Covenants ;  the  Oath. 
Division  of  sentiment  about  the  Revolution.  The  Association  in  Cum- 
berland, drawn  by  Robert  Rowan,  1775.  Governor  Martin  commissions 
Donald  M'Donald  as  Brigadier.  He  erects  the  Royal  Standard,  Feb. ,  1776. 
The  Camp  at  Campbellton,  or  Cross  Creeks.  Col,  Moore  marches  against 
him  M'Donald  sends  an  Embassy.  Moves  down  to  Moore*s  Creek. 
Makes  an  attack  on  Caswell  and  Livingston,  and  is  defeated.  The  action 
ofthe  Provincial  Congress  respecting  the  Prisoners 137 



Her  first  appearance  in  the  Trials  of  the  Pretender.  Roderick  Makenzie. 
The  Prince  lands  on  South  Uist ;  is  followed  by  three  thousand  armed 
dken.  Plans  for  his  escape  in  disguise.  Appeal  to  Flora  McDonald ;  she 
accepts  the  offer.  O'Neill  joins.  Interview  with  the  Prince.  A  Pass- 
port procured  for  the  Prince  disguised  as  a  servant  The  danger  of  disco- 
very. They  set  sail.  A  tempest.  Land  at  Kilbride.  New  dangers  from 
Soldiers;  escape.  The  Prince's  farewell.  His  escape  from  Scotland. 
Flora  M'Donald  seized  and  conveyed  to  London.  The  compa^ons  of  her 
confinemeBt  The  nobility  become  interested  in  her  favor.  Prince  Frede- 
rick procures  her  release.  She  is  introduced  at  Courts  loaded  with  pre- 
sents and  sent  home.  Marrias  Allen  M'Donald  and  emigrates  to  North 
Carolina.    Her  stay  at  Cross  Creeks,  at  Cameron^s  Hill,  and  in  Anson 

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County ;  j«ui8  the  Royal  Standard  at  Cross  Creeks.  After  her  husban<f  s 
release  they  return  to  Scotland.  Attacked  by  a  Privateer  on  the  Voyage ; 
her  heroism.    Her  &mily;  (the  close  of  her  life;  her  bnrial-placa  .    .    .    148 



The  first  Presbyterian  Minister  that  visited  North  Carolina.  Missionaries 
sent  by  the  Synod.  The  oldest  Presbyterian  Congregation  in  the  State  in 
Duplin.  The  Welsh  Tract  Their  position  on  the  Map.  M* Aden's  pa- 
rentage, &c.  M'ADxir'i  Journal.  The  earliest  Missionary  Journal  in 
Carolina  that  has  been  preserved.  Passes  through  Berkeley  and  Frederick 
Counties  in  Virginia.  Stops  at  Opecquon.  Stays  some  time  in  Augusta. 
Visits  John  Brown  of  Providence.  $e<»ps  a  day  of  Fasting  on  Timber 
Ridge.  At  Forks  of  James  River  receives  news  of  Braddock's  Defeat 
Crosses  the  mountain  and  goes  to  Mr.  Henry's  Congregation.  Enters 
North  Carolina.  Commences  his  Mission  proper.  Visits  Eno  and  Tar 
River.  Returns  to  Eno.  Goes  to  the  Hawfield,  to  the  Bufialo  Setdement. 
Goes  to  the  Tadkin.  Crosses  Tadkin  and  passes  slowly  on  te  Sugar 
Creek.  Sets  off  for  South  Carolina..  Lodges  out  for  the  first  time.  Des- 
titution in  the  upper  part  of  South  Carolina.  Retraces  his  steps  to  the 
Yadkin,  and  then  turns  down  the  country  towards  the  Cape  Fear.  Visits 
the  Scotch  settlements.  Goes  to  Wilmington.  Goes  to  the  Welsh  Tract* 
^d  is  detained  by  their  entreaties.  Visits  Goshen.  Calls  made  out  for 
him  firom  Goshen  and  the  Welsh  Tract  Sets  out  for  home.  Meets  Go- 
vernor Dobbs.  Crosses  Pamtica  Goes  to  the  Red  Banks.  Stops  at  Fish- 
ing Qfeek.  Goes  to  Nutbush.  Revisits  Hico,  Hawfields  and  ^e  Eno. 
Journal  ends  abruptly  and  leaves  him  at  McMessaer  on  James  River. 
M* Aden's  labors  as  Pastor  in  North  Carolina.  His  residence  in  Duplin. 
Removes  to  Caswell.  Extract  from  letter  from  Dr.  M'Aden.  House 
plundered  by  the  British  Army.  Place  of  Burial.  Churches  in  Duplin 
and  New  Hanover  after  his  removal.  Rev.  Messrs.  Dr.  Robinson,  Mr. 
Stanford,  Mr.  Httch,  Mr.  Mclver.  Mr.  James  Tate  ;  his  visits  up  Black 
River ;  his  character.  William  Bingham.  Colin  Lindsey ;  difficulties ; 
removes;  suspended;  his  wife.  Rev.  Robert  Tate.  M* Aden's  places  of 
Preaching  while  residing  in  Caswell.  Formation  of  Upper,  Middle,  and 
Lower  Hico.  Bethany  or  Rattlesnake.  A  Preaching  place  in  Pittsylva- 
nia.   TheJBell  fomily 158 



The  third  Minister  in  Carolina.    His  ancestry.    Rev.  Thomas  Craighead. 

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First  Ecoietiafltical  notice  of  Alezinder  Cnighetd,  in  connexion  with  Mr. 
John  PaoL  They  adopt  the  ConfoMion.  Mr.  Craighead's  manner  of 
preaching.  Geti  into  difficvltiet  with  his  brethren.  Defends  himself. 
Case  carried  np  to  Synod.  He  withdraws  with  the  New  Brunswick  Pres- 
bytery. Removes  to  Virginia.  A  Member  of  HanoTer  Presbytery.  Flies 
from  Virginia  and  Is  settled  in  Carolina.  Here  ends  his  days,  1776.  His 
loTe  of  Liberty.  His  Pamphlet  His  situation  in  Mecklenburg.  Sows 
THE  Sbsm  or  THE  MscKLBimuKo  DccLAKATioiT.  The  Settlement  of 
this  Upper  country.  The  two  tides  of  Emigration.  The  line  of  settle- 
ment Location  of  Sugar  Creek  Meeting  House.  The  Paebnt  of  the 
Sbfsh  Cohokboations.  The  Prairies.  Extent  of  the  Congregations. 
The  bounds  of  the  Sbten  settled  in  1764.  A  risit  to  the  old  graye-yard. 
Craighead's  Grmre.  His  Family.  Joseph,  Alexander.  Grave-yard  at 
the  Brick  Church  S.  C.  Caldwell ;  his  Services,  Character  and  Manner. 
The  Alexanders.  Their  Emigration.  Lord  Stirling.  Mrs.  Jackson  and 
her  sen.    Boferd's  Defeat    Mrs.  FU^n.    Neighboring  Localities.  .    .    . 




Situation  of  HopeweU.  Capt  Bradley.  General  Davidson.  John  M'Enitt 
Alexander.  Settlement  of  the  Country.  Anecdote  of  Alexander  and  Dr. 
Flinn.  State  of  Society.  The  papers  of  the  Convention.  Judge  Came- 
ron's Statement.  Reasons  for  the  temporary  obscurity  of  the  Convention. 
The  Convention  called  in  question.  Dr.  Alexander  vindicates  it  Testi- 
mony of  diflTerent  persons ;  Dr.  Hunter,  General  Graham,  and  Major  David- 
son, and  Dr.  Cummins,  and  Mr.  Jack,  and  Col.^folk,  of  Raleigh.  Obitu- 
ary of  Dr.  R  M'Enitt  Alexander.  Rules  of  l/nion  between  the  Churches 
of  Hopewell  and  Sugar  Creek  in  1793 200 



Mr.  Davies  becomes  acquainted  with  Pattillo.  Mr.  Pattillo  goes  to  reside 
with  him.  His  reasons  lor  commencing  a  journal.  Extracts  from  it ;  his 
birth ;  becomes  a  merchant's  clerk ;  removes  to  Virginia ;  commences 
teftcbing  school ;  his  rdigious  convictions ;  oral  meditations ;  an  error; 
his  desire  to  preach  the  Gospel ;  his  Licensure ;  how  sustained  while 
preparing  for  the  Ministry ;  his  house  struck  with  lightning.  Extracts 
from  Records  of  Hanover  Presbytery.  Goes  to  Hawfields,  N.  C,  17(55. 
ReoMves  to  Granville,  17*^4.  Member  of  Provincial  Congress,  1775.  Ex- 
tracts from  the  records  of  Provinoial  Congress.  The  Churches  iii  Gran- 
ville.   First  Sacrament    Anecdote  of  Tennant    Extract  from  a  Will 


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made  1782.  Act  of  the  Congregatione.  Mr.  Pattillo's  marriage ;  his  Col- 
lege Degree ;  his  writings  and  publications ;  his  death.  Extract  from  Mr. 
*  Lacey's  funeral  sermon.  Extract  from  a  letter  respecting  his  death.  His 
successors,  John  Matthews,  M.  Currie  and  S.  L.  Graham.  Origin  of  Con- 
gregations 6f  Hawfields  and  Eno.  Visits  of  Missionaries ;  M*  Aden's  risit 
in  1755  and  '56  ;  Mr.  Debou,  William  Hodges,  William  Paisley.  Fibst 
Camp  Meetings  iir  the  Southerit  States.  Mr.  E.  B.  Currie,  Sam- 
uel Paisley ;  other  supplies.  Death  of  John  Paisley.  The  Regulators 
not  ignorant  people 213 



Unusual  time  of  Ministerial  seryices.  Birth  an^  parentage  of  Dr.  Caldwell. 
His  admissi<ii  to  the  Church.  Takes  his  degree  in  College  at  the  age  of 
thirty-six.  Prepares  for  the  ministry.  His  frankness  and  perseyer- 
ance.  Extract  from  minvtes  of  Synod  of  New  York  and  New  Jersey. 
The  Congregation  of  Bufialo.  Caldwell  visits  Carolina.  Alamance 
x>rganized.  Mr.  Caldwell's  commisftion  as  Missionary.  Is  ordained 
July,  1765  ;  installed,  1768;  married,  1766;  opens  a  Classical  School; 
his  success  in  educating  youth.  Mrs.  Caldwell's  influence.  Revivals  in 
his  school.  He  practises  Medicine.  Is  a  close  student  Orange  Presby- 
tery formed.  The  character  of  the  Regulators.  Mr.  Caldwell's  inter- 
course wf6i  them.  His  sufferings  in  the  war.  His  labors  and  influence 
after  the  Revolution.  Section  of  the  Constitution.  Harmonizes  with 
Dr.  Brevard  in  his  paper  of  1775.  Public  favor  seeks  him.  Appointment 
of  Clerk  of  a  Court  His  sermon  during  the  last  war  with  England.  De- 
gree Of  D.D.  conferred  on  him  by  the  University  of  N.  C.    His  death. 

*  Death  of  Mrs.  Caldwell.  Their  Burial-place.  Dilly  Paine,  or  the  Tra- 
dition about  Mrs.  Paisley 231 



Siyiation  of  New  Providence.  Few  manuscripts  left  Wallis' grave.  First 
Minister  of  Providence.  His  nephew.  W.  R.  Davie,  Major  and  Colonel. 
Rev.  Robert  Henry.  Articles  of  agreement  with  Clear  Creek.  Thomas 
Reese.  The  sufferings  of  the  Congregation.  James  Wallis'  birth  and 
education.  His  contest  with  Infidelity.  The  character  of  the  Revolu- 
tionary soldiers  in  Mecklenburg  and  Upper  Carolina.  Anecdote  of  old 
Mr.  Alexander.  The  discussion  about  the  Bible.  An  Infidel  Debating 
Society^  Cause  of  dissatisfaction  about  Psalmody;  a  division  follows. 
Great  Camp  Meeting.  He  teaches  a  Classical  School  Is  made  Trustee 
of  the  University.    Sharon  set  off  as  a  Church. 244 

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His  place  of  residence.  His  employment  His  habits  of  intercourse.  His 
origin.  Time  and  place  of  his  birth.  His  education.  Enters  the  army, 
1778.  In  various  expeditions.  Taken  with  a  feyer.  At  work  in  the 
field  when  the  news  of  the  enemy's  approach  reached  him.  Takes  the 
field  as  Adjutant.  The  attack  on  Charlotte.  The  enemy  three  times  re- 
pulsed. The  Carolina  forces  retreat  Locke  killed.  Graham  left  for 
dead.  Reyives  and  is  conveyed  away.  Taken  to  the  Hospital.  After  his 
recovery  raises  a  company  of  fifty-five  men  at  his  own  expense,  Dec.,  1780. 
Battle  of  Cowptfis,  Jan.  1781.  Posted  at  Cowan's  Ford.  Davidson  killed. 
Graham  follows  the  enemy.  Surprifes  Hart* s  Mill.  At  the  surprise  of 
Col.  Pyles.  The  time  of  enlistment  expiring,  his  men  return  hom^.  Ru- 
therford raises  a  force  and  Grahun  becomes  Major.  Marches  to  Wil-  * 
mington.  His  last  engagement  Sheriff.  Member  of  Assembly.  Mar- 
ries. Removes  to  Lincoln  county.  Appointed  General.  Marches  against 
the  Indians.  Basis  of  his  political  cre^.  Extract  from  Judge  Murphy's 
Oration.  His  religious  creed.  His  moral  and  religious  character  and  in- 
tercourse with  men.    Death  and  burial.     His  Portrait 251 


BATTLE  or  KllfO's  MOUNTAIlf . 

By  whom  drawn  up.  Situation  of  the  country  after  Gates'li  defeat,  1780. 
Comwallis  sends  out  Col.  Ferguson.  His  march.  The  increase  of  his 
force.  Their  arms.  His  threats  to  the  Mountain  Men  (Tennesseeans  and 
Eentuckians).  McDowell,  and  Sevier,  and  Shelby,  in  consultation.  Raise 
forces.  The  number  in  camp  at  place  of  rendezvous.  Ferguson  retreati 
and  sends  a  dispatch  to  Comwallis.  His  march  to  King's  mountain.  The 
Colonels  send  for  a  General  Officer.  In  the  meantime  GcL  Campbell 
commands.  Col.  Williams  of  South  Carolina  joins  them  on  their  march. 
Approach  Ferguson's  Camp.  Plan  of  Battle.  Come  in  sight  of  the  ene- 
my. Position  of  the  enemy's  camp.  Order  of  the  troops.  The  battle  be- 
gins. Ferguson  charges  and  is  driven  back ;  second  and  third  chains. 
Fire  all  round  the  mountain.  Ferguson  charges  repeatedly  and  is  driven 
back ;  is  wounded ;  is  killed.  Bearer  of  the  flag  shot  down ;  another  is 
raised.  They  throw  down  their  anns.  The  killed  and  wounded.  The 
court-martial.  Executions.  Monument  to  Major  Chronicle  and  others. 
Col.  Williams.  Colonels  M'Dowell,  Hambrite,  Sevier  and  Cleveland. 
CoL  Campbell,  of  Virginia ;  his  burial  place,  ^necdote  of  Col.  Ferguson. 
Anecdote  of  Campbell.    Anecdote  of  Preston 264 

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Plan  of  the  battle.  Circumitancee  of  the  pvaait  Its  end.  Barning  of 
M' Aden's  libraiy.  The  preludes  of  the  batde.  Col.  Webster's  escape. 
Comwallis  in  Bvffido  Congregation ;  in  Alamance ;  at  Dr.  Caldwell's.  Tl» 
sufl^ngs  of  the  family.  The  burning  of  his  library.  The  commence- 
ment of  the  battle.  The  battle-ground.  The  situation  of  Greene's  army. 
Extract  of  a  letter  showing  the  effects  of  the  first  (be.  Extract  from  » 
soldier's  diary.    Death  of  Col.  Webster.    The  militia. 272 


HINVTBS  09  VHK   STNOO  OF  THE  CAKOLIKAS  rSOM  1788  TO  1801,  I]fC&VSlTX„ 

Formation  of  the  Synod.  The  Presbyteries  and  their  members.  The  firrt 
meeting  in  Centre  Rowan.  An  overture  respecting  the  Catechism.  Sec- 
ond meeting.  The  report  respecting  the  Catechism  taken  jop  again.  Over- 
ture on  horse-racing,  card-playing,  dancing  and  revelling.  Overture  on  at- 
tending on  divine  worship.  Ordered  that  the  overtures  and  answers 
be  read  in  all  the  churches.  Marriage  with  wife's  sister's  daughter 
condenmed.  Tldrd  Meeting,  Overtures  for  printing  part  of  Dr.  Dod- 
dridge's worka,  Day  of  Thanksgiving.  Fourth  Meeting.  Preparation 
made  for  printing  Dr.  Doddridge's  work  on  Regeneration,  and  his  Rise 
and  Progress.  Decision  respecting  Psalmody.  Question  respecting  Uni- 
v«rsaliits  sent  up  t#  the  Assembly.  Question  respecting  admitting  Mem- 
bars,  are  they  to  asseni  to  the  Co^funon  of  Faith  7  fcc.  Commission  of 
Synod  appointed.  Steps  taken  to  collect  materials  for  history  of  the  Pres- 
byterian Church.  Domestic  Missions  commenced  in  earnest  Four  Mis- 
sionaries appointed.  Statistical  reports  from  the  Presbyteries  of  Orange 
and  South  Gscelina.  F{fth  Meeting.  Decision  of  the  General  Assembly 
on  the  question  sent  up  the  last  meeting  respecting  admitting  Univer- 
salisls  to  communion,  in  the  negative.  Printing  of  Doddridge's  work.  Re- 
port from  the  Commission  of  Synod  on  Missionary  operations^  A  peculiar 
instnction  to  the  missionaries.  Their  report  on  judicial  business.  Synod 
approved  their  doings.  Sixth  Meeting,  Erring  members  to  be  q>eedily  called 
upon.  Letter  from  the  Rev.  Henry  Pattillo ;  his  request  that  it  be  admitted 
to  record.  Propose  to  send  out  laymen  rather  than  seize  upon  foreigners. 
Report  concerning  Doddridge's  works.  Commission  of  Synod  report  con- 
cerning the  Missionaries.  Seventh  Meeting.  Sjmod  direct  the  Presby- 
tery of  Orange  to  decide  on  tly  case  of  Mr.  Archibald ;  which  they  forth- 
with did,  and  he  was  suspended.    Directions  respecting  materials  lor  his- 

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toiy  of  the  Church.  Commiflsion  of  Synod  report  reepectiDg  the  Mission- 
aries ;  ftdl  report  Mutual  reports  from  Ministers  and  Sessions  to  Pre^y- 
teries.  Eighth  Meeting.  Direct  the  Presbytery  of  Orange  to  ordain  Mr. 
McGee  tine  tituio.  Presbytery  of  Orange  divided  and  Concord  consti- 
tuted. Report  to  Synod  respecting  the  printing  of  Doddridge's  works. 
Day  of  ftsting  appointed.  Mnth  Meeting,  Failure  of  printing  Dod- 
dridge's work.  Hopewell  Presbytery  set  off  Question  respecting  the  evi- 
daMe  of  baptized  aivrea.  Injunction  to  give  slaves  religious  instructions. 
Attention* of  Synod  taken  up  by  the  difficulties  in  Abingdon  t^esbytery ; 
a  new  Presbytery  constituted  there.  Mr.  Gilleland's  memorial  about  his 
course  respecting  slavery.  Synod  agree  with  his  Presbytery.  Tenth 
Meeting,  A  Commission  of  Synod  appointed ;  suspend  the  Independent 
Presbytery.  Minutes  of  the  Cgmmisrimi  of  Synod,  Its  members ;  14 
ministers  and  12  elders.  The  Como^aiion  restore  the  suspended  mem- 
bers. Charges  against  Hezekiah  Balch.  Ist  charge ;  of  this  he  was 
cleared.  2d  charge ;  false  doctrines.  This  referred  to  the  General  As- 
sembly ;  a  curious  statement  3d  charge ;  in  part  sustained.  4th  charge ; 
on  this  he  was  condemned  by  the  Commission  as  irregular.  Abingdon 
Presbytery  divided,  and  Union  Presbytery  set  off*.  Overture  on  promis- 
cuous communion.  Eleventh  Meeting.  Suspension  removed  from  Mr. 
Crawford.  Charges  against  Mr.  Balch  read.  Mr.  Balch  brings  charges 
against  the  old  session.  Extraordinary  Session,  1799.  Thirty  folio  pages 
of  evidence  produced  and  read.  3d  and  4th  charges  against  Mr,  Balch 
not  sustained.  On  the  5th  charge  the  Synod  decided  against  Mr.  Balch. 
The  two  other  charges  not  sustained.  Synod  suspend  Mr.  Balch  and  four 
elders.  The  matter  settled.  Twelfth  Meeting,  1799.  Overture  on  the 
subject  of  marriage  in  the  forbidden  degree.  Mr.  Bowman's  case  taken 
up.  Reports  from  four  of  the  Presbyteries.  South  Carolina  Presbytery 
divided.  Thirteenth  Meeting.  Two  independent  Ministers  invited  i»  a 
seat  Overture  respecting  a  petition  to  the  Legislature  on  Abolition  dis- 
miaaed.  The  Missionary  business.  Two  Missionaries  sent  to  the  Natches. 
Will  a  private  acknowledgment  of  wrong  be  taken  for  a  public  conces- 
sion? Negative.  Mr.  Balch  complains  of  the  Presbytery  of  Abingdon. 
Greenville  Presbytery  set  off!  ComplaintaboutMr.  Witherspoon.  Four- 
teenth Meeting'  Reports  from  the  Missionaries  to  the  Natcbfip..  Case  of 
incestuous  marriage.  Mr.  Balch's  complaints  taken  up.  Mr«  Wither- 
spoon's  case  decided.  Synod's  solemn  recommendations.  Synod  orderid 
the  subject  of  Missions  to  be  laid  before  the  Congregations,  and  collections 
to  be  taken  up.  Case  of  Green  Spring  and  Sinking  Spring.  Missionari^ 
to  Mississippi  Territory 281 



Tennes8Q#  settled  early  from  Carolina.    Meaning  of  Mountain  Men,  &c. 

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Emigratioii  from  other  States.  The  first  Minister  ia  Tennessee.  The 
Rev.  Sunnel  Doak.  Martin  Academy.  Washington  College.  His  early 
life  and  ^his  usefulness.  Rev.  Samuel  Houston.  Rev.  Messrs.  He2ekiah 
Balch  and  Samuel  Carrick.  Mr.  Craighead.  Abingdon  Presbytery.  Trus- 
tees of  Washington  College,  of  Blount  Coll^;e,  and  of  Greenville  College.    308 



Clergymen  in  the  army ;  some  gave  up  their  ministry.  Jafnes  Hall  served 
as  a  soldier  and  continued  a  preacher.  Birth-place.  Place  of  Emigration. 
Names  of  families  emigrating.  Minute  of  Synod  of  Philadelphia  in  1753. 
Minute  in  1754.  Minute  in  1757.  Minute  of  Synod  of  New  York  in 
1755.  Minute  from  the  Synod  of  New  York  and  Philadelphia.  Efibrts 
for  Ministers.  Salary  promised ;  eighty  pounds  for  half  the  time.  Hall's 
early  instruction.  The  coming  of  a  MiBsionary.  Minute  for  1764  by  Synod. 
Mr.  Hall  unites  with  the  church.  His  early  habits  and  desires  as  a 
Christian.  Devotes  himself  to  the  Ministry.  A  perplexing  incident  the 
cause  of  his  remaining  single  through  life.  Hii  age  when  he  commences 
the  Classics.  His  taste  for  Mathematics.  Is  gradt&ted  at  Princeton. 
Dr.  Witherspoon*s  opinion  of  him.  Licensed  to  preach  the  Gospel.  Min- 
isters in  Carolina  at  that  time.  Mr.  Hall  installed  Pastor.  His  Elders. 
Espouses  cause  of  the  Revolution.  Raises  a  company  of  cavalry  to 
go  to  South  Carolina.  An  incident  reconnoitreing.  Raises  a  second  com- 
pany. A  third  company  raised  and  Mr.  Hall  goes  with  them.  A  novel 
scene  in  preaching.  His  qualifications  as  a  commander.  General  Greene 
proposes  him  for  General  to  fill  the  place  of  Davidson.  A  revival  of  Re- 
ligion in  his  charge.  His  first  attendance  on  the  Synod.  Commences 
his  Missionary  excursions.  A  pioneer  to  the  Natches.  His  reports  of 
his  Missions.  His  attendance  on  the  General  Assembly.  His  journeys  to 
the  Assembly.  An  incident  Trains  men  for  the  Ministry.  Clio^s  JVlur- 
sery.  Opens  an  Academy  of  Science  at  his  own  house.  Prepares  a 
Grammar  for  his  young  people.  A  circulating  library.  List  of  preachers 
educated  by  him.  Favors  the  establishment  of  a  Theological  Seminary. 
Member  of  the  Bible  Society.  Anecdote.  His  boldness  and  independ- 
ence, an  anecdote  of.  His  manner  of  preaching.  His  occasional  melan- 
choly, anecdote  of  it.  His  tenderness  for  the  suffering  of  others  under  it. 
Made  Doctor  of  Divinity  by  Nassau  Hall  and  University  of  N.  C.  His 
death  and  buriaL 315 



The  successor  of  Dr.  Hall  in  his  charge  of  Concord  and  Fourth  Creek* 

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Origin  and  bkfb.  Is  wnt  to  England.  Emigrates  to  New  Jersey  and  enters 
College.  JCeviTal  in  Princeton  College  in  1772.  His  religious  experi- 
ence. Ofeat  opposition.  Anecdote.  Becomes  convicted,  hopefully  con- 
yertedr  His  succeeding  course.  His  view  of  College  Honors.  Visits 
England.  Wishes  to  enter  the  Ministry.  His  Father's  wishes.  His 
Father  offended  and  disinherits  him.  He  returns  to  America.  Commen- 
ces Theological  reading  with  Dr.  Witherspoon.  His  perplexity  of  mind. 
Commences  the  study  of  Medicine.  Enters  the  Army.  His  father's 
death.  A  Legacy.  Settles  hi  Princeton.  His  deportment  in  the  Army. 
Mr.  Hall  persuades  him  to  remoTe  to  Iredell,  N.  C.  His  marriage.  De- 
sires to  enter  the  Ministry.  The  people  also  desire  it.  Licensed  by 
Orange  Presbytery  in  1791.  Becomes  Pastor  of  Concord  and  Fourth  Creek. 
The  Revival  of  1802.  His  views  of  it  Leaves  Fourth  Creek.  His 
successors  there.  His  death.  His  chiracter  by  John  M.  Wilson  of  Rocky 
River.    His  manner  of  preaching.    His  dying  exercises 337 



Settlement  of  Thyatira.  Mc Aden's  course  through  the  settlement,  1755. 
Visit  of  Messrs.  Speneertmd  McWhorter.  Samuel  E.  McCorkle.  Birth- 
place. His  parents  emigrate  to  North  Carolina.  Their  locations.  The 
Father  an  Elder  and  the  Son  Pastor  of  the  Church.  Commences  a  Classi- 
cal course.  Takes  his  degree  at  Nassau  Hall,  1772.  Extracts  from  his 
diary.  His  early  experience.  His  exercises  during  the  Revival  of  1772. 
Extract  from  Boston.  Reads  Hopkins.  Is  deeply  distressed.  Reads 
Smalley.  Mr.  Green's  Sermon.  He  commences  reading  for  the  Ministry. 
Licensed  and  called  to  Thyatira.  His  Marriage.  Anecdote  of  Mrs. 
Steele  and  General  Green.  Obituary  of  Mrs.  Steele.  Her  letter  to  her 
Children  after  her  death.  A  prayer  fit)m  her  pen.  Mr.  McCorkle's  re- 
sidence. Opens  a  Classical  School.  A  Teacher's  department  The  first 
Graduates  of  the  University  of  N.  C.  Is  appointed  a  Professor  in  the 
University.  Declines  the  appointment  Bounds  of  Thyatira.  Third 
Creek  formed  from  it  Rev.  J.  D.  Eilpatrick.  His  views  of  the  Revival 
in  1802.  Anecdote  of  him.  Back  Creek  formed.  Salisbury  Church 
formed.  Mr.  McCorkle's  Bible  Classes.  His  Pulpit  preparations.  His 
printed  Sermons.  His  appearance.  Resemblance  to  Mr.  Jefferson.  His 
Pulpit  instfuctions.  Delegates  to  the  Assembly.  His  views  of  the  Revival 
of  1802.  Struck  with  Death  in  the  Pulpit.  His  Funeral.  Thomas  Espy. 
His  birth.  His  early  exercises  on  Religion.  Commences  a  Classical 
course.  Unites  with  the  Church,  1820.  Enters  College.  Goes  to  Vir- 
ginia. Commences  preparations  for  the  Ministry.  Licensure.  Influence 
of  W»  avample.    A  Missionary  to  Burke,  N.  C.     Is  ordained  Evange- 

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list.    Leaves  Centre  and  goes  to  Salisbary.    Seized  with  a  hemorrhage. 

His  last  sickness.    A  testimony  concerning  him.    His  death 349 



His  agency  in  Revivals.  No  memoir  of  him  has  hitherto  appeared.  His 
origin,  immigration  to  North  Carolina.  Reasons  of  his  education.  His 
early  Religious  views.  A  change  in  them.  Its  influence  on  his  after  life 
and  Preaching.  Licensed  by  Red  Stone  Pre^ytery.  Returns  to  Caro- 
lina. Religion  suffered  during  the  War.  McGready  attends  a  f\meral 
His  appearance.  His  first  Sermons.  His  pulpit  preparations.  His  print- 
.ed  sermons.  His  manner  of  delivery.  Places  of  preaching.  His  residence. 
Visits  Dr.  Caldwell's  School  with  happy  effect  Excitement  on  Religion. 
Opposition  on  Stony  Creek.  McGready  and  others  remove  to  the  West 
Extract  from  McGready*s  statement  of  the  condition  of  things  in  Kentucky. 
Commencement  of  the  Revival  in  1800.  The  exercises  of  a  bodily  nature. 
Crowds  attend  meetings  for  days  in  succession.  The  Revival  commences 
in  North  Carolina,  I8OI9  at  Cross  Roads.  Also  at  Hawfields.  The  first 
Camp  Meeting  in  North  Carolina.  The  Revival  spreads  over  the  State. 
Dr.  Caldwell  appoints  a  meeting  in  Randolph  County.  An  interesting 
pamphlet  printed  in  Philadelphia,  containing  an  account  of  the  Revival 
A  Clergyman's  account  of  the  exercises  experienced  by  himself.  His 
opinion  of  them 367 



Mr.  Hunter  first  a  Soldier  and  then  a  Minister.  Settlement  of  Steele  Creek. 
Names  of  its  Ministers.  Location  of  the  Church.  The  Grave  Yard.  A 
visit  to  it  The  inscriptions  of  a  Soldier.  Anecdote.  Other  inscriptions 
of  a  different  age.  Monuments  to  little  children.  Poetic  inscriptions. 
The  use  of  Psalms  and  Hymns.  Grave  of  two  Brothers.  Monument  of 
Rev.  Mr.  Hunter.  Extract  from  Gordon's  History.  Mr.  Hunter's  birth- 
place. Emigrates  to  America  when  a  child.  Grows  up  in  Mecklenburg. 
Attends  the  Convention.  Enlists  as  a  Soldier.  Commences  his  Classical 
course.  Certificate.  A  Lieutenant  against  the  Indians.  Goes  to  Queen's 
Museum.  Certificate.  College  broken  up.  Enters  the  Army.  Is  at  the 
battle  of  Camden.  Witnesses  the  death  of  De  Kalb.  The  circumstances  of 
it  Prisoners  in  confinement.  Anecdote  of  Hunter.  Escapes  firom  con- 
finement Joins  the  Army  again.  Resumes  his  studies.  Two  Certifi- 
cates. Enters  Mount  Zion  College.  His  degree.  His  licensure.  A 
call  with  the  Signatures.   Removes  to  Lincoln.   Settlement  of  Goshen.   Its 

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Xiocatioii.  Preacher  at  Steele  Creek.  Practises  Medicine.  His  performan- 
ces as  a  Minister.  His  Death.  Notice  of  it.  His  appearance  and  cha- 
racter.   . 414 



Fall  of  General  Davidson  on  the  Catawba.  His  birth  and  burial.  Bounda- 
ries of  Centre.  The  first  white  child  born  between  the  two  riyers.  Origin 
of  the  inhabitants.  Rev.  Thomas  H.^McCanle.  Classical  school.  Dr. 
McRee  the  Minister  for  about  tfirty  years.  His  birth  and  Parentage. 
His  Father's  library.  Custom  to  Catechise.  His  College  course  and  pre- 
paration for  the  Ministry.  Settlement  at  Steele  Creek.  Extract  from  a 
Letter.   Essay  on  Psalmody.    Settles  in  Centre.  Extract  from  a  Letter.    .    462 



Ministers  to  be  disengaged  from  Politics.  Hezekiah  James  Balch  in  the 
Convention,  Minutes  of  Synod  respecting  him.  His  congregations.  His 
Death.  Location  of  Poplar  Tent  Settlement  and  building  of  the  Meeting 
House.  Mr.  Alexander's  account  Dr.  Robinson's.  Meaning  of  word 
Tent.  Their  use.  The  name  of  Poplar  Tent  No  Monument  to  Mr. 
Balch.  Names  of  the  Elders.  Robert  Archibald.  Psalmody.  Anecdote 
ot  Discussion  about  Poplar  Tent  not  harassed  in  the  War.  Mr.  Archi- 
bald's habits.  Becomes  erroneous  in  his  Creed.  Anecdote  of  him.  Mr. 
Alexander  Caldwell.  John  Robinson.  His  birth-place  and  parentage. 
Excellent  Memory.  His  agency  in  the  present  work.  His  Education. 
His  College  Degree.  His  Licensure.  His  personal  appearance.  Com- 
mences Preaching  in  a  trying  time.  His  first  place  of  Labor.  Removes  to 
Fayetteville.  Removes  to  Poplar  Tent.  Returns  to  Fayetteville.  First 
Communion  in  Fayetteville.  His  manner  of  preaching  there.  The  opinion 
of  his  worth  thirty-two  years  after.  His  kind  feelings.  His  advanced  years. 
Anecdote.  Friend  of  Education.  Anecdote  of  his  Courage.  One  of  his 
Faithfulness.  Meeting  of  Synod  during  his  last  sickness.  His  death  and 
burial 438 



1812  iircz.xrsivF. 
Fifteenth  Meeting,    Missionary  report  from  Matthews  and  Hall.   A  com- 

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mission  of  Synod  appointed.  Grammar  Schools  to  be  erected;  and 
Youth  licensed  for  the  Ministry.  Oyerture  about  exhorters.  Petitions 
from  Abingdon.  Stated  Clerk  appointed.  Sixteenth  Meeting.  Mission- 
ary to  Catawbas  appointed.  Overture  respecting  Candidates.  •Seven- 
teenth Meeting.  Greenville  Presbytery  dissolved.  Missionaries  sent  to 
Natches.  Overture  respecting  other  denominations.  Other  overtures. 
Eighteenth  Meeting.  Report  of  the  Mission  among  the  Catawbas.  Non- 
attending  Presbyteries  written  to.  Respecting  the  Presbytery  of  Charles- 
ton. J>nneteenth  Meeting.  The  Records  transcribed  by  the  new  clerk, 
Mr.  Davies.  Overture  the  Assembly  for  Division.  Overture  respecting 
Ministers  holding  Civil  offices.  Tu)entieth  Meeting.  A  memorial  re- 
specting William  C.  Davis.  Application  of  the  Presbytery  of  Union  to 
change  their  connexion.  Missi9nary  operations.  Questions  concerning 
Elders  in  Synod.  Twenty-first  Meeting.  The  Missionary  operations. 
«The  Minutes  of  Synod  on  the  Reports.  The  case  of  Mr.  Davis  taken 
up.  Overture  respecting  Qualifications  of  Parents  asking  baptism  for 
Children.  Report  on  the  subject  of  Communing  with  the  Methodists. 
Twenty-second  Meeting.  Missionary  matters.  A  long  and  interesting 
Report  from  Mr.  Hall.  He  prepares  questions  for  the  people.  His  visit 
to  Knobb  Creek.  Case  of  Mr.  Davis  comes  up.  The  charges  against  him. 
His  explanations.  The  decision  of  Presbytery.  Synod,.dis8atisfied  with  it, 
takes  up  the  case.  Mr.  Davis  appeals  to  the  Assembly.  Synod  remits  the 
case  with  an  overture  on  the  book  published  by  Mr.  Davis  called  the  Gos- 
pel Plan,  Harmony  Presbytery  set  off.  Pastoral  letter  ordered  on  account 
Mr.  Davis's  errors.  Twenty-third  Meeting.  First  Presbytery  of  South 
Carolina  dissolved.  Overture  concerning  Lotteries.  Extract  from  Mr. 
Hall's  report  on  Missions.  Ordination  of  Mr.  Caldwell  of  the  University 
sanctioned.  Twenty-fourth  Meeting.  Presbytery  of  Orange  ask  advice 
respecting  Mr.  Davis.  Dr.  Hall  reports  on  his  Missionary  tour.  The 
Synod  resign  their  Missionary  operations  to  the  hands  of  the  Assembly. 
Action  on  the  subject  of  ordination  sine  titulo.  Order  to  circulate  copies 
ofthe  Confession  of  Faith.  Twenty-fifth  Meeting.  Report  of  Dr.  Hall 
of  Missionary  labor.  Support  of  the  Missionary  and  contingent  Amds  of 
the  Assembly  enjoined.  Presbytery  of  Fayetteville  set  off.  Action  of 
Synod  concerning  Ordinations  sine  titulo 454 



His  parentage.  Incident  in  his  early  life.  Enters  the  school  in  Charlotte. 
Completes  his  course  of  study  at  Hampden  Sydney  College.  Devotes 
himself  to  the  Ministry.  SetUed  in  Burke  County.  Marries.  Removes 
to  Rocky  river.  The  Settiement  of  Rocky  River.  Origin  of  the  Settiers. 
Some  of  the  names.  They  favor  the  Regulators.  Destruction  of  powder  by 

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the  Black  boys.  Mr.  Archibald  the  Mlnifiter.  A  Revival  of  Religion.  Mr. 
Alexander  Caldv^ell.  Becomes  deranged  and  leaves  them.  Mr.'  Wilson 
becomes  their  Pastor. -The  estimation  in  which  he  was  held  by  the  people. 
His  Ministerial  habits,  opens  a  Classical  school  and  educates  a  large  number 
of  Ministers  of  the  Gospel.  His  preparation  for  death.  His  burial.  His  son 
a  Missionary  to  Africa.     Dies  there.    Mr.  Wilson's  grave  and  epitaph.    .    47G 



Cross  Creek.  The  name.  Campbelton.  The  public  road  opened.  Name 
changed  to  Fayetteville.  First  stated  Preacher.  Second  Preacher.  Ordi- 
nation of  Elders.  First  administration  of  the  Lord's  Supper.  The  Third  « 
Preacher  ordained.  Baptism  administered  publicly.  Mr.  Robinson  re- 
turns. M^TurnSlv  His  labors  and  death.  His  successor.  Church  build- 
ing put  ip.  Succ^ion  of  Ministers.  Second  Pastor  removed  by  death. 
Mr.  Douglass.  A  short  Memoir  of  him.  His  spirit  His  Parentage. 
His  Religious  impressions.  His  temptation  in  New  York.  Preparation 
for  the  Ministry.  Foreign  Mission.  Visits  Mr.  Nettleton.  Habits  of 
piety.  His  labors  as  a  Missionary.  Ondained.  Gathers  a  Church  in  Mur- 
freesborough.  Goes  to  Milton.  Gathers  a  Church  there.  Goes  to  Briery. 
Goes  to  Richmond.  Groes  to  Ireland.  Extract  from  a  letter.  Visits  the 
great  valley  of  the  Mississippi.  Goes  to  Lexington,  Virginia.  Goes  to 
Fayetteville.  His  pastoral  habits.  FayettevUle  Presbytery.  Its  forma- 
tion. Notice  of,  Mr.  McMillan.  Mr.  McNair.  Mr.  Peacock.  Mr. 
Mclntyre.    Mr.  McDougald 489 



Extract  from  Tarleton's  History  of  the  Southern  Campaigns.  Charlotte  un 
comfortable  head-quarters  to  Cornwallis.  Extract  from  Tarleton  upon  the 
difficulty  of  obtaining  provisions.  The  afiair  at  Mclntyre's.  Epitaph  of 
one  of  the  men  engaged  in  this  affair.  Extract  from  Steadman's  History 
of  the  American  war.  The  place  of  encampment  of  the  British  army. 
Evacuation  of  Charlotte.    The  Polk  family.    Thomas  Spratt 504 



Sentiments  of  the  females  in  Carolina  about  education.  The  oldest  Academy. 

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Attempts  to  make  a  College.  A  charter  obtained  and  revoked  by  the 
King.  A  second  time  obtained  and  revoked.  Queen's  Museum  goes  into 
operation,  chartered  as  Liberty  Hall  Academy  by  the  Colenial  Legislature. 
Extract  from  Charter.  Trustees.  First  President.  Laws  drawn  up  by  a 
committee.  Overture  to  Dr.  McWhorter.  Certificate.  Second  President 
Third  President  The  Academy  broken  up.  Mount  Zion  College.  List 
of  Academies  by  Presbyterians.  Probable  proportion  of  those  able  to  read. 
The  institutions  established  by  Presbyterians.  Vhe  Caldwell  Institute ; 
its  origin  and  principles  of  operation.  Opinion  of  Dr.  Caldwell.  Tkti 
Donaldson  Academy.  Davidson  College;  its  principles.  Attention  to 
female  education.  Martin  Academy  in  Tennessee.  Extract  from  the 
report  of  the  Committee  of  Fayetteville  Presbytery 



A  visit  to  the  University  on  Commencement  day.  Death  of  a  young  lady, 
mie  University  a  State  Institution.  The  interest  of  the  Presbyterians  in 
it  The  Legislature  determine  to  found  a  University.  The  Trustees. 
Its  location.  Laying  the  corner-stone.  ,  Extract  from  the  speech  of  Dr. 
M'Corkle,  The  University  is  opened.  The  first  Professor.  Mr.  Harris 
recommends  Mr.  Caldwell.  His  parentage.  His  early  training.  Commen- 
ces  his  Classical  course.  His  education  abandoned.  At  the  suggestion  of 
Dr.  Witherspoon  his  course  is  renewed.  Enters  College.  His  views  re- 
specting his  conduct  in  College.  Takes  his  cbgree.  Commences  school- 
teaching.  Is  made  tutor  in  Nassau  Hall.  His  connection  with  the  churph 
under  Mr.  Austin.  Correspondence  with  his  classmate.  Appointed  pro- 
fessor of  Mathematics  at  Chapel  Hill.  Sets  out  for  Carolina.  Anecdote 
of  Dr.  Green.  Enters  on  his  office.  The  advantages  of  his  situation. 
The  difficulties  of  it  The  efforts  of  infidel  notions.  Extraol  from  a  letter. 
Exhibition  of  Presbyterian  principles.  False  notions  of  education.  Or- 
dination of  Dr.  Caldwell.  His  talents  judged  by  his  works.  Advocates 
the  Presbyterial  High  School.    His  religious  experience 521 

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STATES    OP   AMERICA,    MAY    20tH,    1775. 

The  little  village  of  Charlotte,  the  seat  of  justice  for  Meck- 
lenburg county,  North  Carolina,  was  the  theatre  of  one  of  the 
most  memorable  events  in  tfae  political  annals  of  the  United  States. 
Situated  in  the  fertile  champaign,  between  the  Yadkin  and 
Catkwba  rivers,  far  above  tide-water,  some  two  hundred  miles 
from  the  ocean,  and  in  advance  of  the  mountains  that  run  almost 
parallel  to  the  Atlantic  coast,  on  the  route  of  that  emigration  which, 
before  the  Revolution,  passed  on  southwardly,  from  Pennsylvania, 
through  Virginia,  to  the  unoccupied  regions  east  of  the  Mount- 
ains, on  what  is  now  the  upper  stage  route  from  Georgia,  through 
South  Carolina  and  North  Carolina,  to  meet  the  railroad  at 
Raleigh, — it  waSj  and  is,  the  centre  of  an  enterprising  population. 
It  received  its  name  from  Princess  Charlotte  of  Mecklenburg, 
whose  native  province  also  gave  name  to  the  county,  the  House 
of  Hanover  having  been  invited  to  the  throne  of  England. 

Here  was  located  the  first  academy,  or  high  school,  in  the 
upper  part  of  the  State  ;  and  here  was  made  the  first  efibrt  for  a 
college  in  North  Carolina,  in  the  institution  called  Queen's  Mu- 

The  traveller,  in  passing  through  this  fertile,  retired,  and  popu- 
lous country,  would  now  see  nothing  calculated  to  suggest  the 

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fact,  that  he  was  on  the  ground  of  the  boldest  Declaration  ever 
made  in  America ;  and  that  all  around  him  were  localities  rich  in 
associations  of  valor  and  sufiEering  in  the  cause  of  National  Inde- 
pendence, the  sober  recital  of  which  borders  on  romance.  Every- 
thing looks  peaceful,  secluded,  and  prosperous,  as  though  the 
track  of  hostile  armies  had  never  defaced  the  soil.  Were  he  told, 
this  is  the  spot  where  lovers  of  personal  and  national  liberty  will 
come,  in  pilgrimage  or  imagination,  to  ponder  events  of  the  deep- 
est interest  to  all  mankind,  he  must  feel,  in  the  beauty  and  fertility 
of  the  surrounding  region,  that  here  was  a  chosen  habitation  for 
good  men  to  live,  and  act,  and  leave  tp  their  posterity  the  inesti- 
mable privileges  of  poUtical  and  religious^eedom,  with  abundance 
of  all  that  may  be  desired  to  make  life  one  continued  thanksgiving. 

Seventy  years  ago,  on  the  19th  day  of  May,  1775,  might  have 
been  seen  assembled,  in  this  frontier  settlement,  an  immense  con- 
course of  people  under  great  excitement ;  some  few,  well  dressed, 
moving  about  with  the  dignity  of  Colonial  Magistrates ;  a  small 
number  of  officers  of  the  militia  ;  the  great  mass  of  the  assembly 
clad  in  the  homespun  of  their  wives  and  sisters, — ^not  a  few  shod 
with  the  moccasins  of  their  own  manufacture, — all  completely 
wrapt  in  the  exciting  subjects  of  a  revolutionary  nature,  then 
agitating  the  whole  land.  Continental  Congress  was  then  in  ses- 
sion in  Philadelphia,  consulting  for  the  welfare  of  the  Colonies ; 
provincial  Legislatures  had  been  dissolved,  and  the  whole  popula- 
tion of  the  United  Provinces  were  in  commotion,  discussing  the 
rights  and  privileges  of  persons,  and  States,  and  Kings.  Every 
man  had  become  a  politician,  and  from  being  a  hunter  was  pre- 
pared to  become  a  soldier. 

There  was  no  printing  press  in  the  upper  country  of  Carolina, 
and  many  a  weary  mile  must  be  traversed  to  find  one.  Newspa- 
pers were  few,  and,  no  regular  post  traversing  the  country,  were 
seldom  seen.  The  people,  anxious  for  news,  were  accustomed  to 
assemble  to  hear  printed  handbills  from  abroad,  or  written  ones 
drawn  up  by  persons  appointed  for  the  purpose,  particularly  the 
Rev.  Thomas  Reese,  of  Mecklenburg,  North  CaroUna,  whose 
bones  lie  in  the  grave  yard  of  the  Stone  Church,  Pendleton, 
South  Carolina.  There  had  been  frequent  assemblies  in  Char- 
lotte, to  hear  the  news  and  join  in  the  discussions  of  the  exciting 
subjects  of  the  day  ;  and  finally,  to  give  more  efficiency  to  tHeir 
discussions,  it  was  agreed  upon,  generally,  that  Thomas  Polk, 
Colonel  of  the  Militia,  long  a  surveyor  in  the  province,  frequently 
a  member  of  the  Colonial  Assembly,  well  known  and  well  ac- 

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quainted  in  the  surrounding  counties,  a  man  of  great  excellence 
and  merited  popularity,  should  be  empowered  to  call  a  convention 
of  the  representatives  of  the  peop^  whenever  it  should  appear 
advisable.  It  was  also  agreed  that  these  representatives  should 
be  chosen  from  the  MiUtia  districts,  by  die  people  themselves ; 
and  that  when  assembled  for  council  and  debate,  their  decisions 
should  be  binding  on  the  inhabitants  of  Mecklenburg. 

Havii^  heard  of  the  attempt  of  Governor  Martin  to  prevent  the 
assemUing  <rf  a  Provincial  Congress,  or  Convention,  in  Newbem, 
in  April ;  and  of  his  arbitrary  proceedings  in  dissolving  the  last 
provincial  Legislature  after  a  session  of  four  days,  before  any  im- 
portant business  had  been  transacted ;  and  being  afflicted  with  the 
news  from  distant  colonies,  and  from  across  the  ocean,  the  people 
were  clamorous  for  action  and  for  redress.  The  Provincial  Con- 
gress of  North  Carolina  had  assembled  in  direct  opposition  to  the 
proclamation  of  the  Governor,  and  had  approved  of  the  acts  and 
doings  of  their  representatives  in  the  Continental  Congress,  ex- 
pressing their  confidence  in  their  wisdom  and  abiUties,  by  re-ap- 
pointing them  to  the  arduous  duties  of  Representatives  in  the 
Legislature  of  the  United  Colonies ;  and  the  people  generally 
were  more  and  more  restless  under  the  exercise  of  royal  author- 
ity, and  daily  more  irritated  by  the  exactions  of  men  who  glutted 
their  avarice  under  the  color  of  law. 

In  this  state  of  the  pubhc  mind,  Colonel  Polk  issued  his  notice 
for  the  conunittee  men  to  assemble  in  Charlotte,  on  the  19th  of 
May,  1775.  On  the  appointed  day  between  twenty  and  thirty 
representatives  of  the  people  met  in  the  Court  House,  in  the  cen- 
tre of  the  town,  at  the  crossing  of  the  great  streets,  and  surround- 
ed by  an  immense  concourse,  few  of  whom  could  enter  the  house, 
proceeded  to  organize  for  business,  by  choosing  Abraham  Alex- 
ander, a  former  member  of  the  Legislature,  a  magistcate,  and 
ruling  elder  in  the  Sugar  Creek  Congregation,  in  whose  bounds 
they  were  assembled,  as  their  chairman  ;  and  John  McKnitt  Alex- 
ander, and  Dr.  Ephraim  Brevard,  men  of  business  habits  and 
great  popularity,  their  clerks.  Papers  were  read  before  the  Con- 
vention and  the  people  ;  the  handbill,  brought  by  express,  containing 
the  news  of  the  battle  of  Lexington,  Massachusetts,  on  that  day 
one  month,  the  19th  of  April,  came  to  hand  that  day,  and  was 
read  to  the  assembly.  The  Rev.  Hezekiaji  James  Balch,  Pastor 
of  Poplar  Tent,  Dr.  Ephraim  Brevard,  and  William  Kennon, 
Esq.,  addressed  the  Convention  and  the  people  at  large.  Under 
the  excitement  produced  by  the  wanton  bloodshed  at  Lexington, 

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and  the  addresses  of  these  gentleoaen,  the  assembly  cried  out  as 
with  one  voice,  "  Let  us  be  independent !  Let  us  declare  our 
independence,  and  defend  it  with  our  lives  and  fortunes  !"  The 
speakers  said,  his  Majesty's  proclamation  had  declared  them  out 
of  the  protection  of  the  British  Crown,  and  they  ought,  therefore, 
to  declare  themselves  out  of  his  protection,  and  independent  of  all 
his  control. 

A  committee,  consisting  of  Dr.  Ephraim  Brevard,  Mr.  Kennon, 
and  Rev.  Mr.  Balch,  were  appointed  to  prepare  resolutions  svitable 
to  the  occasion.  Some  drawn  up  by  Dr.  Brevard,  and  read  to  his 
friends  at  a  political  meeting  in  Queen's  Museum  some  days  before, 
were  read  to  the  Convention,  and  then  committed  to  these  gentle- 
men for  revision. 

While  the  committee  were  out  discussing  these  resolutions,  the 
Convention  continued  in  session  and  were  addressed  by  several 
gentlemen.  General  Joseph  Graham,  then  but  a  youth,  and  pre- 
sent at  the  deliberations,  relates  an  interesting  incident.  A  mem- 
ber of  the  committee,  who  had  said  but  little  before,  addressed 
the  chairman  as  follows :  "  If  you  resolve  on  Independence,  how 
shall  we  all  be  absolved  from  the  obligations  of  the  oath  we  took 
to  be  true  to  King  George  the  Third,  about  four  years  ago,  after 
the  Regulation  battlcy  when  we  were  sworn,  whole  militia  compa- 
nies together  ?  I  should  be  glad  to  know  how  gentlemen  can 
clear  their  consciences  after  taking  that  oath?"  The  Speaker 
referred  to  the  blood  shed  by  Governor  Tryon,  on  the  16th  of  May, 
1771,  on  Alamance  Creek,  when  he  dispersed  the  Regulators,  men 
driven  to  open  resistance  of  His  Majesty's  officers,  by  their 
tyranny  and  exactions  ; — ^and  to  the  numerous  executions  that  fol- 
lowed in  Hillsborough  and  the  neighboring  country ; — and  to  the 
oath  of  allegiance  forced  on  the  people  by  the  Governor,  to  save 
their  lives  and  property,  after  that  bloodshed.  The  question  pro- 
duced great  confusion,  and  many  attempted  to  reply ;  the  chair- 
man could  with  difficulty  preserve  order.  This  question  did  not 
imply  fear,  or  want  of  patriotism  ;  it  simply  revealed  the  spirit  and 
tone  of  the  man's  conscience,  that  he  was  one  of  those  men  bless- 
ed of  the  Lord,  "  who  sweareth  to  his  own  hurt,  and  changeth 
not."  The  excitement  that  followed  evinced  the  fact  that  the 
Speaker  had  struck  a  chord  that  vibrated  through  the  assembly. 
An  answer  must  be  given,  or  the  event  of  that  day's  discussion 
.would  not  be  for  independence.  The  haste  to  answer  the  ques- 
tion revealed  the  fact  that  the  community  felt  the  awftd  and  bind- 
ing sanction  of  a  solemn  oath ;    and  unless  some  answer  was 

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given,  and  given  speedily,  tl^e  minds  of  the  auditory  would  be 
turned  back  from  the  proposed  declaration,  for  very  many  were 
held  by  the  oath  exacted  by  Tryon.  Some  cried  out  that — "  al- 
legiance and  protection  were  reciprocal ;  when  protection  was 
withdrawn,  allegiance  ceased ;  that  the  oath  was  binding  only 
while  the  King  protected  us  in  our  rights  and  liberties  as  they 
existed  at  the  time  it  was  taken."  Others,  of  more  passion  than 
conscience,  cried  out  that  such  questions  and  difficulties  were  all 
"  mmsens^t^^*  One  man  at  last  carried  the  assembly  with  him  by 
a  short  illustration,  pointing  to  a  green  tree  near  the  Court  House, 
— "  H I  am  sworn  to  do  a  thing  as  long  as  the  leaves  continue  on 
that  tree,  I  am  bound  by  that  oath  as  long  as  the  leaves  continue. 
But  when  the  leaves  fall,  I  am  released  from  that  obligation." 
The  people  determined  that  when  protection  ceased,  allegiance 
ceased  also.  The  Convention  proceeded  to  enact  by-laws  and 
regulations  by  which  it  should  be  governed  as  a  standing  commit- 
tee, and  about  midnight  adjourned  till  noon  the  next  day. 

The  excitement  continued  to  increase  through  the  night  and  the 
succeeding  morning.  At  noon.  May  20th,  the  Convention  re-assem- 
bled with  an  undiminished  concourse  of  citizens,  amongst  whom 
might  be  seen  many  wives  and  mothers,  anxiously  awaiting  the 
event.  The  resolutions  previously  drawn  up  by  Dr.  Brevard,  and 
now  amended  by  the  committee,  together  with  the  by-laws  and 
regulations,  were  taken  up ;  John  McKnitt  Alexander  read  the 
by-laws,  and  Dr.  Brevard  the  resolutions.  All  was  stillness.  The 
chairman  of  the  Convention  put  the  question : — "  Are  you  all 
agreed  ?"    The  response  was  an  universal  "  aye." 

After  the  business  of  the  Convention  was  all  arranged,  it  was 
moved  and  seconded  that  the  proceedings  should  be  read  at  the 
Court  House  door  in  hearing  of  the  multitude.  Proclamation  was 
made,  and  from  the  Court  House  steps  Colonel  Thomas  Polk 
read,  to  a  listening  and  approving  auditory,  the  following  resolu- 
tions, viz. : — 


''Resolved,  1st.  That  whosoever  directly  or  indirectly  abetted, 
or  in  any  way,  form,  or  manner,  countenanced  the  unchartered  and 
dangerous  invasion  of  our  rights,  as  claimed  by  Great  Britain,  is 
an  enemy  to  this  country,  to  America,  and  to  the  inherent  and 
unalienable  rights  of  man. 

"  Resolved,  2d.  That  we,  the  citizens  of  Mecklenburg  county, 
do  hereby  dissolve  the  poUtical  bonds  which  have  connected  us 

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with*  the  mother  country,  and  hereby  absolve  ourselves  from  all 
allegiance  to  the  British  crown,  and  abjure  all  political  connection, 
contract,  or  association  with  that  nation,  who  have  wantonly 
trampled  on  our  rights  and  liberties,  and  inhumanly  shed  the  blood 
of  American  Patriots  at  Lexington. 

"  Resolved,  3d.  That  we  do  hereby  declare  ourselves  a  free  and 
independent  people ;  are,  and  of  right  ought  to  be,  a  sovereign 
and  self-governing  association,  under  the  control  of  no  power, 
other  than  that  of  our  God,  and  the  General  Government  of  the 
Congress  : — ^to  the  maintenance  of  which  independence,  we  sol- 
emnly pledge  to  each  other,  our  mutual  co-operation,  our  lives, 
our  fortunes,  and  our  most  sacred  honor. 

"  Resolved,  4th.  That  as  we  acknowledge  the  existence  and  con- 
trol of  no  law,  nor  legal  office,  civil  or  military,  within  this  county ; 
we  do  hereby  ordain  and  adopt,  as  a  rule  of  life,  all,  each,  and 
every  of  our  former  laws ;  wherein,  nevertheless,  the  crown  of 
Great  Britain  never  can  be  considered  as  holding  rights,  privileges, 
immunities,  or  authority  therein. 

"  Resolved,  6th.  That  it  is  ftirther  decreed,  that  all,  each,  and 
every  military  officer  in  this  county  is  hereby  retained  in  his  former 
command  and  authority,  he  acting  conformably  to  these  regulations. 
And  that  every  member  present  of  this  delegation  shall  henceforth 
be  a  civil  officer,  viz. :  a  Justice  of  the  Peace,  in  the  character  of 
a  conunittee  man,  to  issue  process,  hear  and  determine  all  matters 
of  controversy,  according  to  said  adopted  laws ;  and  to  preserve 
peace,  union,  and  harmony  in  said  county ;  and  to  use  every  exer- 
tion to  spread  the  love  of  country  and  fire  of  freedom  throughout 
America,  until  a  general  organized  government  be  estabhshed  in 
this  province." 

A  voice  from  the  crowd  called  out  for  "three  cheers,"  and  the 
whole  company  shouted  three  timesj  and  threw  their  hats  in  the 
air.  The  Resolutions  were  read  again  and  again  during  the  day 
to  different  companies  desirous  of  retaining  in  their  memories 
sentiments  so  congenial  to  their  feelings.  There  are  still  living 
some  whose  parents  were  in  that  assembly,  and  heard  and  read 
the  resolutions ;  and  from  whose  lips  they  heard  the  circumstances 
and  sentiments  of  this  remarkable  declaration. 


The  Convention  had  frequent  meetings,  and  on  the  30th  of  May, 
1775,  issued  the  foUowing  paper,  viz.: — 

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"  Charlotte,  Mecklenburg  County, 
Muy   30th,  1775. 


"  This  day  the  committee  of  the  county  met  and  passed  the 
following  Resolves : — ^Whereas,  by  an  Address  presented  to  his 
Majesty  by  both  houses  of  parliament,  in  February  last,  the 
American  Colonies  are  declared  to  be  in  a  state  of  actual  rebellion, 
we  conceive  that  all  laws  and  commissions  conlinned  by,  or  de- 
rived from  the  authority  of  the  king  or  parliament,  are  annulled 
and  vacated,  and  the  former  civil  constitution  of  these  Colonies 
for  the  present  wholly  suspended.  To  provide,  in  some  degree, 
for  the  exigencies  of  this  county,  in  the  present  alarming  period, 
we  deem  it  necessary  and  proper  to  pass  the  following  resolves, 
viz. : — 

"  1st.  That  all  commissions,  civil  and  military,  heretofore 
granted  by  the  crown,  to  be  exercised  in  these  Colonies,  are  null 
and  void,  and  the  constitution  of  each  particular  Colony  wholly 

"  2d.  That  the  Provincial  Congress  of  each  province,  under  the 
direction  of  the  great  Continental  Congress,  is  invested  with  all 
legislative  and  executive  powers,  within  their  respective  provinces, 
and  that  no  other  legislative  power  does,  or  can  exist,  at  this  time, 
in  any  of  these  Colonies. 

"  3d,  As  all  former  laws  are  now  suspended  in  this  province, 
and  the  Congress  have  not  provided  others,  we  judge  it  necessary 
for  the  better  preservation  of  good  order,  to  form  certain  rules 
and  regulations  for  the^  internal  government  of  this  county,  until 
laws  shall  be  provided  for  us  by  the  Congress. 

"  4th.  That  the  inhabitants  of  this  county  do  meet  on  a  certain 
day  appointed  by  this  committee,  and  having  formed  themselves 
into  nine  companies,  viz.,  eight  in  the  county,  and  one  in  the  town 
of  Chaurlotte,  do  choose  a  Colonel  and  other  military  officers,  who 
shall  hold  and  exercise  their  several  powers  by  virtue  of  this 
choice,  and  independent  of  the  crown  of  Great  Britain  and  the 
former  constitution  of  this  province." 

[TTien  follow  eleven  articles  for  the  preservation  of  the  peace^ 
and  the  choice  of  officers  to  perform  the  duties  of  a  regular  gov- 

"  16th.  That  whatever  person  shall  hereafter  receive  a  com- 
mission from  the  crown,  or  attempt  to  exercise  any  such  commis- 
sion heretofore  received,  shall  be  deemed  an  enemy  to  his  country; 
and  upon  information  to  the  captain  of  the  company  in  which  he 
resides,  the  company  shall  cause  him  to  be  apprehended,  and. 

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upon  proof  of  the  fact,  committed  to  safe  custody,  till  the  next 
sitting  of  the  committee,  who  shall  deal  with  him  as  prudence 
shall  direct.**  , 

A  copy  of  the  acts  and  doings  of  this  convention  was  sent  by 
express  to  the  members  of  Congress  from  North  Carolina,  then 
in  session  in  Philadelphia.  Capt.  James  Jack,  of  Charlotte,  was 
^chosen  as  the  bearer,  and  set  out  immediately  on  his  mission. 
Passing  through  Salisbury,  on  the  regular  court  day,  he  was  per- 
suaded by  Mr.  Kennon,  a  lawyer  in  attendance  at  court,  also  a 
member  of  the  committee  that  reported  the  first  declaration,  to 
permit  a  reading  of  the  papers  publicly.  The  citizens  of  Rowan, 
generally,  approved  of  the  course  taken  by  their  fellow-citizens  of 
Mecklenburg.  Two  individuals,  John  Dunn  and  Benjamin  Booth 
Boote,  opposed  the  sentiments  of  the  resolution,  pronounced  them 
treasonable,  and  proposed  the  detention  of  Captain  Jack.  Bidding 
them  defiance,  and  favored  by  the  great  majority  of  the  people, 
he  passed  on  unmolested,  and  delivered  the  declarations  to  the 
delegates  from  North  Carolina,  then  in  Philadelphia — Messrs. 
Caswell,  Hooper,  and  Hewes.  Approving  of  the  spirit  of  their 
fellow  citizens,  and  the  tone  of  the  resolutions,  these  gentlemen 
nevertheless  thought  them  premature,  as  the  General  Congress 
had  not  then  abandoned  all  hopes  of  a  reconciliation  with  the 
mother  country,  on  honorable  terms ;  and  did  not  present  them  to 
Congress.  •  By  this  perhaps  prudent  smothering  of  the  expressions 
of  sentiment  by  an  intelligent  people,  the  citizens  of  Mecklenburg 
were  disappointed,  but  not  discouraged  ;  they  lost  the  foreground 
their  patriotism  merited,  but  lost  not  their  spirit.  They  declared 
themselves  independent  May,  1775,  and  have  never  ceased  to 
be  so. 

A  copy  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Convention  was  addressed  to 
the  Moderator  of  the  first  Provincial  Congress  of  North  Carolina, 
which  met  in  Hillsborough,  August  20th,  1779^;  and  was  laid 
before  the  committee  of  business,  but  not  particularly  acted  upon, 
as  the  majority  of  the  body  were  still  hoping  for  reconciliation  on 
honorable  terms. 

A  copy  of  the  proceedings  appeared  in  the  Cape  Fear  Mercury, 
published  in  Wilmington,  and  meeting  the  eye  of  Governor  Josiah 
Martin,  is  thus  noticed  by  him  in  the  Proclamation  issued  from  on 
board  his  Majesty's  ship  Cruiser,  August  8th,  1775,  and  sent  to 
the  Provincial  Congress : — "  And  whereas,  I  have  also  seen  a  most 
infamous  publication  in  the  Cape  Fear  Mercury,  importing  to  be 

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*  Resolves^  of  a  set  of  people  styling  themselves  *a  Committee 
of  the  County  of  Mecklenburg,^  most  traitorously  declaring  the 
entire  dissolution  of  the  laws,  government,  and  constituticm  of  the 
country,  and  setting  up  a  system  of  rule  and  regulation  repugnant 
to  the  laws,  and  subversive  of  his  Majesty's  government,"  dec. 
The  Governor  knew  the  people  better  than  his  predecessor, 
Tryon,  and  had  he  known  them  better  still,  he  would  have  spoken 
of  them  more  respectfully. 

A  copy  of  the  second  declaration  (that  of  May  30th,  1775) 
appeared  in  the  public  papers  in  New  York  and  Massachusetts  ; 
files  of  which  are  still  preserved ;  and  from  them  was  copied  by 
Mr.  Force  into  his  State  Papers. 

The  history  of  the  preservation  of  the  first  declaration  (that  of 
May  20th,  1775),  in  the  absence  of  printed  documents,  will  be 
given,  in  full,  in  the  sketch  of  Hopewell  Congregation,  and  the 
Secretary  of  the  Convention. 

The  energy  of  the  committee  was  equal  to  the  decision  of  their 
declarations.  The  laws  were  vigorously  enforced ;  and  the  vene- 
rable chairman,  and  his  coadjutor  Col.  Polk,  with  the  committee 
at  large,  demonstrated  that,  in  seeking  freedom  from  tyranny,  they 
designed  no  overthrow  of  law,  or  perversion  of  justice.  Opposers 
of  independence  were  reckoned  oflfenders;  and  open  offenders 
found  no  refuge  in  Mecklenburg.  As  soon  as  the  news  of  the 
insult  oflfered  their  express,  Capt.  Jack,  in  SaUsbury,  reached 
Charlotte,  the  conmiittee  ordered  a  party  of  some  ten  or  twelve 
armed  men,  on  horseback,  to  proceed  to  Salisbury,  the  seat  of 
justice  in  Rowan,  and  bring  these  men  prisoners  to  Charlotte. 
The  party  lost  no  time  in  fulfilling  their  mission,  and  met  with  no 
resistance  in  Rowan.  The  offenders,  Dunn  and  Boote,  were, 
after  examination  by-  the  conunittee,  sent  to  South  Carolina  as 
suspicious  persons,  to  be  kept  in  confinement.  Gen.  Graham 
says — "  My  brother,  George  Graham,  and  the  late  Col.  John  Car- 
ruth,  were  of  tbc  party  that  went  to  SaUsbury ;  and  it  is  distinctly 
remembered  that  when  in  Charlotte,  they  came  home  at  night  in 
order  to  provide  for  their  trip  to  Camden ;  and  they  and  two  others 
of  the  party  took  Boote  to  that  place.  This  was  the  first  military 
expedition  from  Mecklenburg  in  the  revolutionary  war,  and  believed 
to  be  the  first  anywhere  to  the  South." — But  it  was  far  from  being 
the  last,  retired  and  frontier  as  the  county  was.  It  characterized^ 
in  its  spirit,  energy  and  success,  the  various  expeditions  in  and 
fit)m  Mecklenburg  during  the  jseven  years'  war — ^more  particularly 
in  the  distressing  campaigns  of  Comwallis,  in  which  Graham 

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himself  acted  so  conspicuous  a  part.  Dunn  and  Boote  were  both 
transferred  to  Charleston,  for  safekeeping,  as  persons  particularly 
inimical  to  the  country.  Their  wives  made  a  strong  appeal  in 
their  favor  to  the  Provincial  Congress,  v^rhich  met  in  Hillsborough, 
August  20th,  1775 :  on  the  29th  of  that  month  it  was  decided  by 
a  vote  of  that  body  that  they  remain  in  confinement. 

Associations  were  formed,  very  generally,  throughout  the  diflfer- 
ent  counties  in  the  state  during  the  sununefof  1775.  Articles 
drawn  up  for  the  purpose  were  signed  individually  as  a  test  of 
patriotism.  The'  first  association  of  which  there  is  a  copy,  was 
drawn  up  in  Cumberland  county,  July  10th,  1775 ;  the  second  in 
Tryon,  now  Lincoln,  in  August  of  the  same  year. 

The  first  Provincial  Congress  of  North  Carolina  were  not  pre- 
pared for  independence  of  the  mother  country ;  and  on  the  4th  of 
September,  1775,  after  discussion  and  the  action  of  a  conmiittee, 
it  was  resolved — "The  present  association  ought  to  be  further 
relied  on  for  bringing  about  a  reconciliation  with  the  parent  state." 
But  on  the  9th  of  the  same  month,  the  appointment  of  a  Provincial 
Council,  of  thirteen  persons,  with  executive  powers,  was  resolved 
upon ;  also  County  Committees  of  Safety,  with  executive  powers, 
in  connection  with  the  Provincial  Council,  to  consist  of  not  less 
than  twenty-one  persons,  to  be  chosen  annually  by  the  electors  on 
the  day  they  made  choice  of  Congressmen.  It  was  also  deter- 
mined that,  after  the  lOth  day  of  December,  no  suit  for  debt  should 
be  entertained  except  by  permission  of  this  conmiittee.  These 
committees  of  safety  appear  to  have  been  the  same  as  that  already 
in  existence  in  Mecklenburg  ;  and  Abraham  Alexander  continued 
to  act  as  the  chairman,  as  appears  from  the  following  certificate, 
which  may  be  also  a  specimen  of  the  spirit  of  the  times,  and  the 
vigilance  with  which  the  committee  acted  : 

"  North  Carolina,  Mecklenburg  County, 
''Nov,  28th, J 775. 

"  These  may  certify  to  all  whom  they  may  concern,  that  the 
bearer  hereof,  William  Henderson,  is  allowed  here  to  be  a  true 
friend  of  liberty,  and  has  signed  the  association. 

"  Certified  by  Abraham  Alexander,  chairman  of  the  committee 
of  safety." 

Though  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  made  and  repeated  in 
Charlotte,  in  May,  1775,  had  no  immediate  effect  upon  the  Con- 
tinental Congress,  it  is  not  unfair  to  conjecture  that  it  had  an  in- 

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fluence  on  the  Provincial  Congress  of  North  Carolinat  that  met  in 
Hillsborough  in  August  of  that  year,  in  the  appointment  of  the 
Provincial  Committee  and  the  County  Committees  of  Safety,  as 
four  of  the  members  of  the  convention  were  members  of  the 
Congress,  viz. : — Thomas  Polk,  Waightstill  Avery,  John  Pfifer, 
and  John  McKnitt  Alexander.  Neither  is  it  unfair  to  conclude 
that  it  had  soiue  influence  on  the  Provincial  Congress  that  assem- 
bled in  Halifax,  April  4th,  1776 :  as,  on  the  8th  of  that  month  a 
committee  was  appointed,  consisting  of  Messrs.  Harnett,  Burke, 
A.  Jones,  T.  Jones,  Nash,  Henekin,  and  Person,  to  take  into  con- 
sideration the  usurpations  and  violence  committed  by  the  king  and 
parliament  of  Great  Britain ;  and,  on  the  12th,  Mr.  Harnett  sub- 
mitted an  able  report,  which  was  concluded  with  the  following 
i^solution,  viz. : 

"  Resolved,  That  the  delegates  from  this  colony,  in  Continental 
Congress,  be  empowered  to  concur  with  the  delegates  of  the  other 
colonies  in  declaring  independence,  and  in  forming  foreign  alli- 
ances ;  reserving  to  this  colony  the  sole  and  exclusive  right  of 
forming  a  constitution  and  laws  for  this  colony,  and  of  appointing 
delegates  from  time  to  time  (under  the  direction  of  a  general  repre- 
sentation thereof),  to  meet  delegates  of  the  other  colonies  for  such 
purposes  as  shall  be  hereafter  pointed  out." 

This  resolution  was,  on  the  same  day  it  was  proposed,  unani- 
mously adopted ;  and  is  the  first  public  declaration  for  in- 
dependence  BY   THE   constituted  authorities   OF  A  STATE.      It 

was  presented  to  the  Continental  Congress,  May  27th,  1776, 
nearly  six  weeks  before  the  national  Declaration. 

The  question  now  arises,  who  were  these  people  of  Meek-  ' 
lenburg,  and  whence  did  they  come  ?  What  were  the  habits 
and  manners  by  which  they  were  characterized  ?  What  were  their 
religious  principles  ?  and  what  their  daily  practice  ?  The  county 
was  comparatively  new  ;  and  it  was  not  yet  forty  years  since  the 
first  of  those  composing  the  convention  had  settled  in  the  wilder- 
ness. Agriculturists,  at  a  distance  from  market,  and  in  a  fertile 
country  afibrding  in  its  pea-patches,  and  cane-brakes,  and  prairies, 
plentiful  sustenance  for  their  herds,  they  had  abundance  of  pro- 
visions, and  little  of  the  sinews  of  war,  money.  Skilful  marksmen, 
hunters,  and  horsemen,  capable  of  enduring  great  fatigue,  in  mak- 
ing the  Declaration  of  Independence,  they  ofiered  a  heart  and  a 
hand,  to  give  and  act  according  to  their  abilities,  and  the  emergen- 
cies in  which  they  might  be  placed.  The  riches  of  the  gold  mines 
were  then  unknown :  the  wealth  of  the  country  was  in  her  sons, 

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and  she  wasjrich.  Protestants,  trained  in  religious  things  in  the 
strict  doctrines  of  the  Reformation,  their  settlements  were  made 
in  congregations ;  and  their  places  of  worship  so  arranged  as  to 
accommodate  all  the  famiUes.  Their  descendants  now  assemble 
where  their  fathers  worshipped  before  the  Revolution.  Their 
forms  and  creed  were  the  forms  and  creed  of  their  ancestors,  who 
were  eminently  a  religious  people ;  and  their  Confession  of  Faith 
has  descended  as  a  legacy  firom  the  emigrants,  to  go  down  to  the 
latest  posterity. 

Whence  did  these  people  come  ?  and  what  was  their  an- 
cestry ?  Of  the  members  of  the  Convention  that  proclaimed  In- 
dependence, May,  1775,  one  was  a  minister  of  the  Gospel,  and 
nine  were  Elders  in  the  Church  ;  and  all  in  some  way  connected 
with  the,  seven  .churches  and  congregations  that  embraced  the 
whole  county  of  Mecklenburg.  In  tracing  their  history,  the 
true  and  legitimate  workings  of  religious  principles  are  as  happily 
displayed  as  in  the  annals  of  any  State  or  section  in  the  United 
States.  When  the  history  of  these  people  and  their  descendants 
shall  be  the  history  of  two  centuries,  it  may,  and  probably  will 
appear,  that  in  the  advance  of  true  religious  and  genuine  liberty 
and  sound  literature,  the  South  and  West  are  not  a  whit  behind 
the  most  favored  sections  of  our  Confederacy.  <  It  cannot  well  be 
otherwise,  for  the  principles,  the  creed  of  Puritanism,  under 
whose  influence  human  society  has  so  happily  been  developed 
in  the  New  England  States,  are  the  principles  of  Presbytery,  the 
principles  of  civil  and  religious  liberty,  that  struck  deep  in  the 
soil  of  Carolina,  and  sent  out  their  vigorous  shoots  in  the  great 
valley  of  the  Mississippi. 

But  the  question  arises  vrith  increased  force,  who  were  these 
people,  and  whence  did  they  come  ?  In  what  school  of  poli- 
tics and  religion  had  they  been  disciplined?  At  what  foun- 
tains had  they  been  drinking  such  inspirations,  that  here  in  the 
wilderness,  common  people,  in  their  thoughts  of  fireedom  and 
equality,  far  outstripped  the  most  ardent  leaders  in  the  Conti- 
nental Congress  ?  Whence  came  these  men,  that  spoke  out 
their  thoughts,  and  thought  as  they  spoke ;  and  both  thought  and 
spoke  unextinguishable  principles  of  freedom  of  conscience  and 
civil  liberty  ?  That  they  were  poor  and  obscure  but  adds  to  their 
interest,  when  it  is  known  that  their  deeds  in  the  Revolution 
were  equal  to  their  principles.  Many  a  "life"  was  given  in 
Mecklenburg  in  consequence  of  that  declaration,  and  much  of 
"fortune"  was  sacrificed;  but  their  "honor"  came  out  safe,  even 

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their  great  enemy  Tarleton  being  witness.  They  di(^  not  get  their 
ideas  of  liberty  and  law  from  Vattel,  or  Puffendorf,  or  the  tomes 
of  English  law.  From  what  book  then  did  they  get  their  know- 
ledge, their  principles  of  life  ?  Ahead  of  their  own  State  in  their 
political  notions,  as  a  body,  they  never  wavered  through  the 
whole  Revolutionary  struggle ;  and  their  descendants  possess 
now  just  what  these  people  asserted  then,  both  in  religion  and 
politics,  in  conscience  and  in  the  state. 

To  North  Carolina  belongs  the  unperishable  honor  of  being 
the  first  in  declaring  that  Independence,  which  is  the  pride  and 
glory  of  every  American.    Honor  to  whom  honor  is  due  ! 

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THE    REVOLUTION,    MAY    16TH,    1771. 

In  the  year  1759  a  town  was  established  by  the  legislature  of 
the  province  of  North  Carolina,  on  the  Eno,  a  branch  of  the 
Neuse,  near  its  head  waters,  in  the  county  of  Orange,  which 
might  have  received  its  name,  Hillsboroughy  from  the  beautiful 
eminences  by  which  it  is  surrounded,  as  well  as  from  the  Earl 
of  Hillsborough,  Secretary  of  State  for  American  affairs,  from 
whom  it  is  called.  Its  first  name  was  Childsborough,  in  honor 
of  the  Attorney-General ;  but  the  change  speedily  took  place  on 
account  of  the  odium  attached  to  the  attorney  for  his  exorbitant 

This  little  village,  the  county  seat  of  Orange,  has  claims  upon 
our  attention,  for  events  enacted  within  its  precincts  and  its 
neighborhood,  in  times  gone  by.  It  was  the  seat  of  the  first 
provincial  congress  in  North  Carolina,  1775 ; — the  head-quarters 
of  Gates  after  his  sad  defeat  at  Camden ; — and  of  his  adversary, 
Lord  Comwallis,  on  his  invasion  of  Carolina  in  his  pursuit  of 
Greene  (the  residence  of  his  Lordship,  then  one  of  the  most 
sightly  buildings  in  the  village,  is  now  kept  as  a  tavern  of  no 
splendid  appearance) ; — ^but  more  particularly  noted  as  the  place 
of  the  first  outbreaking  of  those  discontents,  which  had  shown 
themselves  in  complaints  and  remonstrances,  but  here  assumed 
form  and  consistence,  first  heard  of  in  Orange  and  Granville,  and 
ultimately  spreading  over  all  that  section  of  the  State  west  of  a 
line  drawn  from  the  point  of  entrance  of  the  Roanoke,  from 
Virginia,  to  the  point  of  egress  of  the  Yadkin  to  South  Carolina ; 
— discontents,  and  complaints,  and  outbreakings,  that  eventuated 
in  the  first  blood  shed  in  Carolina,  in  the  contest  of  freedom  of 
opinion  and  property  with  the  tyranny  and  misrule  of  the  British 
government :  and  the  Jirst  contest  that  had  any  appearance  of 
a  regular  predetermined  battle,  in  the  provinces  in  North 

This  spirit  of  discontent  was  at  first  confined  to  that  part  of 
the  pfovince  granted  and  set  off  to  Lord  Granville,  which  was 
bounded  by  the  Virginia  line  on  the  north,  by  the  line  of  latitude 

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of  350  Sj^^  on  the  souths  and  extending  from  the  Atlantic  Ocean 
indefinitely  west ;  but  more  particularly,  that  part  of  his  Lord- 
ship's domain  lying  west  of  the  line  from  the  Roanoke  to  the 
Catawba,  at  the  points  specified  above.  It  might  have  been 
quieted,  had  the  governor  been  as  ready  to  require  the  agents  of 
Granville  and  his  own  oflScers  to  do  justice,  as  he  was  to  issue 
his  proclamations,  filled  with  promises,  and  vain  orders,  to  a 
people  irritated  by  oppression,  but  not  desirous  of  rebellion. 

On  the  24th  of  April,  1771,  Governor  Tryon  marched  from 
Newbem  with  a  small  force,  on  his  way,  acconling  to  the  recom- 
mendation of  the  council,  to  check  a  rebellion  in  the  upper 
comitry,  which  had  received  the  name  of  the  Regulators,  or  the 
Regulation ;  the  militia  of  the  several  coimties,  in  answer  to  the 
governor's  demand  upon  the  constituted  authorities,  joined  him  on 
his  march;  and  on  the  4th  of  May  he  encamped  at  Hunter's 
lodge  in  Wake  county.  Here  being  joined  by  a  detachment  of 
militia  under  Col.  John  Hintouj  he  found  himself  at  the  head  of 
an  armed  force  sufficient  to  alarm,  if  not  subdue,  the  undisci- 
plined country  in  which  the  dissatisfaction  prevailed.  He  left 
the  palace  in  Newbem  accompanied  by  about  three  hundred  men, 
a  small  train  of  artillery,  and  a  number  of  baggage  wagons ;  on 
the  way  he  had  been  joined  by  the  detachment  of  militia  from 
New  Hanover  county,  imder  Col.  John  Ashe  ;  of  the  county  of 
Craven,  under  Col.  Joseph  Leech ;  of  the  coimty  of  Dobbs  (now 
called  Lenoir),  under  Col.  Richard  Caswell ;  of  the  county  of 
Onslow,  under  Col.  Craig ;  of  the  qounty  of  Cartaret,  under 
Col.  William  Thompson ;  of  the  county  of  Johnson,  under  Col. 
Needham  Bryan ;  of  the  county  of  Beaufort,  a  company  of  ar- 
tillery, under  Capt.  Moore,  and  a  company  of  Rangers  under 
Capt.  Neale  ;  and  a  company  of  light  horsemen  from  Duplin, 
under  Capt.  Bullock. 

From  this  place  he  sent  out  some  detachments  to  assist  the 
sheriffs  in  collecting  their  taxes  and  various  fees  due  to  the  go- 
vernment and  its  officers,  with  the  hope  of  overawing  the  com- 
munity by  his  military  parade ;  and  on  the  9th  instant  marched  to 
the  Eno,  and  encamped  within  a  few  miles  of  Hillsborough,  the 
centre  of  the  infected  district,  and  fhe  residence  of  the  most 
hated  and  oppressive  officer  of  the  crown.  Col.  Edmund  Fan- 
ning, who  joined  his  camp  at  this  place  with  a  detachment  of  the 
militia  of  Orange,  whom  by  various  means  he  had  prevailed  upon 
to  iinite  with  the  governor  in  putting  down  their  distressed  and 
rebellious  neighbors. 

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This  was  the  second  visit  paid  by  the  governor  to  the  county 
of  Orange  on  account  of  the  agitation  of  Uie  public  mind,  and  the 
disturbances  in  the  conununity,  and  the  difficulty  attending  the 
collection  of  taxes  and  the  fees  of  the  public  officers.  In  the 
early  part  of  July,  1768,  he  came  as  governor,  unattended  with 
any  armed  force,  and  used  the  authority  of  the  chief  magistrate^ 
and  the  address  of  a  practised  politician,  to  restore  order,  under 
promises  of  redress.  The  apparent  quiet  gave  place  to  redoubled 
confusion  after  his  departure,  as  the  promises  of  protection  from 
illegal  exactions  all  proved  vain.  He  now  came  with  an  armed 
detachment  of  the  colonial  militia,  to  quell  by  power  what  he 
would  not  control  by  justice. 

The  whole  inhabited  region  of  Carolina,  west  of  the  line  men« 
tioned  above,  inhabited,  as  Martin  says, — "  by  several  thousand 
families,  removed  from  the  mother  country,  settled  in  the  frontier 
counties  of  the  province,  exposed  to  the  dangers  of  savage  Indi- 
ans, and  subject  to  all  the  hardships  and  difficulties  of  cultivating 
a  desolate  wilderness,  under  the  expectation  of  enjoying  to  their 
frdlest  extent  the  exercise  of  their  religious  privileges  as  a  peo- 
ple,"— ^and  with  their  religious  were  joined  inseparably  the  civil 
and  domestic  rights  of  an  enterprising  race  accustomed  to  endure 
hardship  and  resist  oppression  ; — all  this  region  of  country  was 
agitated,  and  in  some  parts  in  open  rebellion ;  without  a  single 
military  leader  of  experience ;  with  few  men  of  much  wealth  or 
political  eminence,  or  polished  education ;  with  a  population  of 
scattered  neighborhoods,  and  not  a  single  fortified  place,  or  any 
preparations  of  the  munitions  of  war  beyond  the  rifle  and  powder 
and  ball  of  the  hunter. 

Mr.  Wirt,  in  his  Life  of  Patrick  Henry,  says,  "  the  spirit  of 
revolution  in  Virginia  began  in  the  highest  circles  in  the  commu- 
nity, and  worked  its  way  down  to  the  lower,  the  bone  and  sinew 
of  the  country."  Wherever  it  may  have  begun  in  the  eastern 
part  of  Carolina,  it  is  certain  that  in  the  western  division,  the 
people,  feeling  that  their  interests  were  neglected  by  the  governor, 
attd  misunderstood  or  overlooked  by  the  seaboard  counties,  and 
not  protected,  or  even  consulted,  by  the  parliament  or  court  of 
England,  or  any  of  their  executive  officers,  were  moved  as  one 
great,  excited,  undisciplined  mass  of  shrewd,  hardy,  enterprising 
men,  that  acknowledged  the  dominion  of  law,  and  held  "  opposi- 
tion to  tyrants  "  to  be  "  obedience  to  God." 

The  men  on  the  seaboard  of  Carolina,  with  Colonels  Ashe  and 
Waddel  it  they  head,  had  nobly  opposed  the  Stamp  Act,  and  pre- 

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vented  its  execution  in  North  Carolina;  and  in  their  patriotic 
movements  the  people  of  Orange  sustained  them  ;  and  called  them 
"  The  Sons  of  Liberty. ^^  Col.  Ashe,  in  Wilmington,  had  ^ven 
tared  to  lead  the  excited  populace  against  the  wishes  and  even 
the  hospitality  of  the  goremor,  and  in  1766  his  party  had  thrown 
the  governor's  roasted  ox,  provided  for  a  barbecue  feast,  into  the 
river.  Now  they  were  marching  with  this  very  governor,  to  sub- 
due the  disciples  of  Liberty  in  the  west ;  perhaps,  through  a  mis- 
understanding of  the  true  nature  of  the  case,  they  were  willing 
to  convince  the  governor  that  they  were  all  supporters  of  the 
laws  and  of  the  authority  of  the  British  crown,  by  uniting  with 
him  and  subduing  those  who  were  reported  to  the  council  and 
provincial  legislature  as  an  ignorant  and  restless  multitude,  to  be 
reclaimed,  by  severity,  to  the  government  of  the  laws.  The 
eastern  men  looked  for  evils  from  across  the  waters ;  and  were 
prepared  to  resist  oppression  on  their  shores  before  it  should  step 
upon  the  soil  of  their  State.  The  western  men  were  seeking  re- 
dress from  evils  that  pressed  them  at  home,  under  the  misrule  of 
the  officers  of  the  province,  evils  unknown  by  experience  in  the  , 
eastern  counties,  and  misunderstood  when  reported  there.  Had 
Ashe,  and  Waddel,  and  Caswell,  understood  their  case,  they  would 
have  acted  like  Thomas  Person,  of  Granville,  and  favored  the 
distressed,  even  though  they  might  have  felt  under  obhgations  to 
maintain  the  peace  of  the  province,  and  the  due  subordination  to 
the  laws.  While  the  rest  of  this  province,  and  the  other  pro- 
vinces, were  resisting  by  resolutions  and  remonstrances,  and  mak-. 
ing  preparations  for  distant  and  coming  evils ;  these  western  men, 
in  defence  of  their  rights,  boldly  made  resistance  to  the  consti- 
tuted authorities,  unto  blood.  While  the  eastern  men  stopped  the 
stamped  paper  on  the  shore,  these  contended  with  an  enemy  in 
their  own  bosom,  and  sought  deliverance  at  home  in  the  wil- 

The  disturbances"  Governor  Tryon  came  to  quell  were  no  sud-  / 
den  outbreaks  of  a  discontented  and  excitable  people.  As  early 
as  the  year  1759,  the  attention  of  the  legislature  of  the  province 
was  called  to  the  illegal  fees  exacted  by  the  officers  of  government, 
producing  great  and  alarming  discontents ;  and  a  law  proposed  for 
redress  failed  in  meeting  the  approbation  of  the  legislature,  though 
the  discontent  of  persons  Uving  on  Lord  Granville's  land  had  been 
manifested  by  the  seizure  of  his  lordship's  agent,  in  Edenton, 
Francis  Corbin,  and  his  purchase  of  liberty  by  his  bond,  fpr  future 
better  behavior,  in  £8,000,  with  eight  securities.    Thisf  exhibition 


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of  popular  frenzy  was  not  noticed  by  the  governor,  because  one 
of  his  favorite  counsellors,  M'Culloch,  v^ras  engaged  in  it.  In 
1760,  the  people  of  Orange,  finding  themselves  "defrauded  by 
the  clerks  of  the  several  courts,  by  the  recorders  of  deeds,  by  entry 
takers,  by  surveyors,  and  by  the  lawyers,  every  man  demanding 
twice  or  three  times  his  legal  fees,"  violently  prevented  the  sheriff 
from  holding  an  election  .according  to  proclamation  of  the  governor, 
in  eiqpectation  of  some  new  oppression  by  the  office-holders,  in  the 
form  of  taxes  and  fees.  In  June,  1765,  a  paper  entitled,  "  A  seri" 
ous  address  to  the  people  of  Granville  county,  containing  a  brief 
narrative  of  our  situation,  imd  the  wrongs  we  suffer,  with  some 
necessary  hints  with  respect  to  a  reformation,^^  was  circulated  in 
that  county,  with  great  effect,  being  written  vrith  much  cleamesft 
jand  force.  The  wrongs  complained  of  in  Orange,  and  Granville, 
and  Anson,  and  the  other  counties,  were  essentially,  and  for  the 
most  part,  individually  the  same. 

The  people  complained  that  illegal  and  exorbitant  fees  were  ex- 
torted  by  officers  of  government ;    that  oppressive  taxes  were 

^  exacted  by  the  sheriffs,  where  they  had  a  right  to  exact  some ;  and 
that  the  manner  of  their  collection  at  all  times  was  oppressive, 
especially  when  the  right  to  exact  any  was  denied.  As  early  as 
the  years  1752  or  1753,  Childs  and  Corbin,  the  agents  for  Lord 
Granville,  and  successors  of  Mosely  and  Holton,  began  to  oppress 
the  people  who  had  been  induced,  by  fair  promises,  to  settle  on 
his  lordship's  reservation,  by  declaring  the  patents  issued  by  their 
predecessors  null  and  void,  because  the  words,  ^^  Right  Ho- 
norable Earl^^  had  been  left  out  from  the  signature,  which  had 
been  simply,  ^^'Granville,  by  his  Attorneys.^'  They  next  demand- 
ed a  larger  fee  for  the  patents  they  issued,  than  had  been  given  to 
their  predecessors ; — ^next,  a  fee  for  a  device  which  they  had  in- 
vented to  be  affixed  to  the  papers  ; — ^also,  by  granting  over  and 
over  again,  knowingly,  the  same  lands  to  different  persons,  and  in 

•,  no  case  returning  the  illegal  fees ; — and  in  various  ways  rendering 
titles  to  land  uncertain  and  insecure  in  a  large  part  of  Orange.  In 
all  these  extortions  the  people  complained  that  the  high  officers  of 
the  province  were  so  interested,  there  was  little  prospect  of  justice 
but  by  some  strong  appeals  and  exhibitions  of  powerful  dislike, 
that  could  n<rt4>e  frovnaed  down. 

The  governor's  proclamation,  iasued  from  time  to  time,  requiring 
that  copies  of  »hc  legal  fees  should  be  exhibited  tg  the  people,  and 
no  others  demanded,  were  disregarded  by  his  officers  ;  and  it  was 
more  than  hiated  that  the  judges  were,  indirectly  at  least,  in  many 

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cases,  partakers  of  the  crime,  by  sharing  the  fees  of  oflSce  with 
the  inferior  officers.  This  gave  weight  and  impunity  to  the  op- 
pressive exactions.  The  people  were  poor ;  living  on  productive 
land  as  most  of  them  did,  they  were  far  from  market,  and  had 
scarcely  surmounted  the  labors  and  exposftires  of  a  new  seHlement. 
One  of  them,  who  was  engaged  in  the  opposition,  declared  that 
when  he  had  gone  with  his  father  to  Fayetteville  to  market,  with 
a  load  of  wheat,  he  could  get  a  bushel  of  salt  for  a  bushel  of 
wheat ;  or  if  money  was  demanded,  they  could  get  five  shillings  a 
bushel  for  wheat,  of  which  one  only  was  in  money,  and  the  rest  in 
trade.  And  if  they  could  go  home  with  forty  shillings,  or  five  dol- 
lars, from  a  load  of  forty  bushels,  they  tliought  they  had  done  well. 
In  these  circumstances  double  fees  and  double  taxes  were  exceed- 
ingly oppressive, — and  to  men  of  their  principles  these  exactions 
were  sufficient  cause  of  open  and  persevering  resistance. 

In  1766,  the  Stamp  Act  was  repealed,  and  the  governor  issued 
two  proclamations  on  the  25th  of  June,  one  making  known  that 
desirable  fact,  the  other  requiring  of  the  officers  of  government 
strict  adherence  lo  the  graduated  table  of  fees ;  e3q)ecting  of  coa- 
sequence  that  both  the  east  and  the  west  would  be  gratified,  and 
make  no  further  resistance  to  the  collection  of  the  lawful  taxes, 
and  range  themselves  on  the  side  of  the  government.    The  relief  • 
and  tranquilUty  were  far  greater  in  the  eastern  counties  than  in  the 
western.    During  the  session  of  the  county  court  of  Orange,  a 
number  of  persons  entered  the  court-house  in  Hillsborough,  and 
presented  to  the  magistrates  a  written  complaint,  drawn  up  by 
Harmon  Husbands,  which  they  requested  the  clerk  to  read,  setting 
forth  the  views  of  the  people  respecting  their  wrongs, — "  that  there 
were  many  evils  complained  of  in  the  county  of  Orange  that  ought 
to  be  redressed," — and  proposing  that  there  should  be  a  meeting 
in  each  company  of  militia,  for  the  purpose  of  appointing  delegates 
for  a  general  meeting  to  be  held  at  some  suitable  place  "  where 
there  was  no  liquor, ^'^ — "judiciously  to  inquire  whether  the  freemen    . 
of  this  county  labor  under  any  abuse  of  power," — "  that  the  opi* 
nions  of  the  deputies  be  committed  to  writing,  freely  conversed 
upon, — and  measures  taken  for  amendment."    The  proposition  was 
considered  reasonable,  and  a  meeting  was  e^pointed  to  be  held  at 
Haddock's  Mill,  two  or  three  miles  west  of  Hillsborough,  on  the 
10th  of  October,  to  inquire  into  the  acts  of  government, — "  for 
while  men  were  men,  if  even  the  Sons  of  Libm^  were  put  in 
office  they  would  become  corrupt  and  oppi^ssive^  unless  they  were 
called  upon  to  give  an  account  of  their  stewardship." 

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52  SKETCHES    OF    lft)iRTH    CAROLINA. 

The  company  meetings  were  held,  and  the  delegates  were  ap- 
pointed ;  in  some  cases,  mth  written  commissions,  viz  :— "  At  a 
meeting  in  the  neighborfiood  of  Deep  River,  2(Hh  of  August,  1766, 
it  was  unanimously  agreed  to  appoint  W.  C.  and  W.  M.  Xjo  attend 
a  genetal  meeting  on  the  10th  of  October,  at  Maddock's  Mill, 
where  they  are  judiciously  to  examine  whether  the  freemen  in 
this  coimty  labor  under  any  abuses  of  power ;  and  in  particular  to 
examine  into  the  public  tax,  and  inform  themselves  of  every  parti- 
cular thereof,  by  what  laws,  and  for  what  use  it  is  laid,  in  order  to 
remove  some  jealousies  out  of  our  minds."  "  And  the  representa- 
tives, vestrymen,  and  other  officers,  are  requested  to  give  the  mem- 
bers what  information  and  satisfaction  they  can,  so  far  as  they 
value  the  good  will  of  every  honest  freeholder,  and  the  executing 
public  offices  pleasant  and  dehghtsome." 

On  ^e  appointed  day,  the  10th  of  October,  1766,  the  delegates 
assembled ;  after  some  time,  James  Watson,  a  friend  of  Col.  Fan- 
ningi  the  most  odious  officer  in  the  county,  came,  and  as  a  reason 
for  his  not  appearing  to  give  account  as  their  representative,  read 
a  mess^e  from  Fanning,  that,  "  It  had  been  his  intention  of  at- 
tending them  till  a  few  days  ago,  when  he  observed  in  the  notice 
from  Deep  River,  the  word  judiciously,  which  signified  the  author- 
f  ity  of  a  court ;  and  that  he  considered  the  meeting  an  insurrection." 
The  meeting  had  full  and  free  discussion  on  a  variety  of  topics  ; 
and  finally  resolved  that  such  meetings  as  the  present  were  neces- 
sary, annually,  or  oftener,  to  hear  from  their  representatives  and 
officers,  in  order  to  have  the  benefits  of  their  constitution  and  the 
choice  of  their  rulers ;  and  that  as  their  representatives,  sherifis, 
-     vestry  and  other  officers  had  not  met  them  here,  with  but  one 
exception,  they  should  have  another  opportunity  of  conferring  with 
their  constituents.     It  is  impossible  to  conceive  what  fairer  mode 
of  ascertaining  the  truth  could  be  devised  by  men  situated  as  they 
were,  without  a  printing  press  and  without  newspapers.     Such 
proceedings  might,  in  the  colonial  days,  be  rebelUon  to  be  put 
^owTi ;  in  these  days  of  liberty,  a  man  would  lose  his  hold  on  the 
^     pomiriimiiy  were  he  to  refuse  compliance  with  such  commands 
1^    %oin  his  constituents,  or  the  community  at  large. 
^4       In  April,  1767,  another  meeting  was  held  at  tlie  same  place, 
MaJciock's  Mills,  and  the  following  preamble  and  resolutions  were 
diicus^oii  and  adopted,  by  which  these  men  passed  the  Rubicon ; 
and  frcjiJi  being  called  a  mob,  or  insurgents,  were  known  by  tli« 
name  of  Regulators,  or  The  Regulation,  and  were  considered 
as  having  some  continued  existence  : 

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"  We,  the  subscribers,  do  voluntarily  agree  to  form  ourselves 
into  an  association,  to  assemble  ourselves  for  conference  for  regu- 
lating public  grievances  and  abuses  of  power,  in  the  following 
particulars,  with  others  of  the  like  nature  that  may  occur,  viz. : 

"  1st.  That  we  will  pay  no  more  taxes,  until  we  are  satisfied  they 
are  agreeable  to  law,  and  applied  to  the  purposes  therein  mention- 
ed, unless  we  cannot  help  it,  or  are  forced. 

"  2d.  That  we  will  pay  no  oflScer  any  more  fees  than  the  law  al* 
lows,  and  unless  we  are  obliged  to  it ;  and  thea  to  show  our  dis- 
like, and  bear  an  open  testimony  against  it. 

"  3d.  That  we  will  attend  our  meetings  of  conference  as  often  as 
we  conveniently  can,  and  is  necessary  in  order  to  consult  our  rie- 
presentatives  on  the  amendment  of  such  laws  as  may  be  found 
grievous  or  unnecessary  ;  and  to  choose  more  suitable  men  than 
we  have  done  heretofore  for  burgesses  and  vestrymen ;  and  to 
petition  the  houses  of  assembly,  governor,  council,  king,  and  par- 
liament, &c.,  for  redress  in  such  grievances  as  in  the  course  of  the 
undertaking  may  occur ;  and  to  inform  one  another,  learii,  know, 
and  enjoy  all  the  privileges  and  liberties  that  are  aUbwed,  and  weit 
settled  on  us  by  our  worthy  ancestor*,  the  founders  of  our  present 
constitution,  in  order  to  preserve  it  on  its  ancient  foundation,  that 
it  may  stand  firm  and  unshaken. 

"  4th.  That  we  will  contribute  to  collections  for  defraying  neces- 
sary expenses  attending  the  work,  according  to  our  abilities. 

"  5th.  That  in  case  of  difierence  in  judgment,  we  will  submit  to 
the  judgment  of  the  majority  of  our  body. 

"  To  all  which  we  solemnly  swear,  or  beiijg  a  Qiiaker,  or  other- 
wise scrupulous  in  conscience  of  the  common  oath,  do  solemnly 
affirm,  that  we  will  stand  true  and  faithful  to  this  cause,  till  we 
bring  things  to  a  true  regulation,  according  to  the  true  intent  and 
meaning  hereof,  in  the  judgment  of  a  majority  of  us." 

These  resolutions  were  drawn  up  by  Harmon  Husbands. 

A  subscription  was  set  on  foot,  and  fifty  pounds  were  colji^c^ed  - 
for  the  purpose  of  defraying  the  expeniie^  pf  ,auch.  suits  .as  Hiigh^ 
arise  in  seeking  redress  of  their  grievariees; 

During  this  year,  1767,  the  governoi;'C03nmenced  -.h^ia  palac^ft  at 
Newbem,  for  which,  with  great  difficuitj,  he  had  obtained  d&  ap^ 
propriation  of  £5,000  by  the  last  legislature ;  and  proceeded  in  ft 
tasteful  and  expensive  style  of  building,  to  expend  the  whole  sum 
upon  the  foundation  and  a  small  part  of  the  superstructure.  At  the 
meeting  of  the  two  houses  in  December  of  His  year,  the  governor 
laid  before  them  the  condition  of  the  building.    .Tlie  legislature 

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witb  rel^ptance  gave,  as^the  only  alternative,  £10,000  more  to 
complete  tbe  palace.  When  finished  it  was  pronounced  the  most 
sopeib  building  in  the  United  Provinces.  The  governor  was  grati- 
fied, and  the  people  incensed.  The  taxes  had  been  burdensome — 
the  palace  rendered  them  intolerable. 

Chi  the  21st  of  May,  1768,  the  Regulators  had  another  meeting, 
and  determined  to  petition  the  governor  direct,  and  prepared  their 
address ;  which,  with  a  copy  of  their  proceedings  at  this  and  the 
previous  meetings,  was  sent  to  His  Excellency,  by  James  Hunter 
and  Rednap  Howell.  In  the  month  of  June,  these  gentlemen 
waited  upon  the  governor  at  Brunswick  ;  and  in  reply  to  their  peti- 
tion, received  a  written  docmnent  from  which  the  following  extracts 
are  made: 

"  The  grievances  complained  of  by  no  means  warrant  the  ex- 
traordinary steps  you  have  taken  :  in  consideration  of  a  determina- 
tion to  abide  by  my  decision  in  council,  it  is  my  direction,  by  the 
unanimous  advice  of  that  board,  that  you  do,  fit)m  henceforward, 
desfist  from  any  further  meetings,  either  by  verbal  appointments  or 
advertisement.  That  all  titles  of  Regulators  or  Associators  cease 
among  you.  As  you  want  1^  be  satisfied  what  is  the  amount  of 
the  tax  for  the  public  service  for  1767,  I  am  to  inform  you,  it  is 
seven  shillings  a  taxable,  besides  the  county  and  parish  taxes,  the 
particulars  of  which  I  will  give  to  Mr.  Hunter.  I  have  only  to 
add,  I  shall  be  up  at  Hillsborough  the  beginning  of  next  month." 

In  all  these  public  and  docimientary  proceedings  of  the  Regula- 
tors, we  «ee  nothing  to  blame,  and  much  to  admire.  On  these 
principles,  and  to  this  extant  of  opposition,  the  whole  western 
counties  were  agreed*  The  most  sober  and  sedate  in  the  com- 
munity were  united  in  resisting  the  tyranny  of  unjust  and  exorbi- 
tant taxes  ;  and  had  been  aroused  to  a  degree  of  violence  and  op- 
position difficult  to  manage  and  hard  to  quell.  And  the  more 
restless  and  turbulent  and  unprincipled  parts  of  society,  equally 
.  aggriftvecJi  .^n4  more  ungovernable,  cast  themselves  in  as  a 
part^  df  tKe  .re&sling  itAs^  of  population,  with  little  to  gain,  but 
ywi^r  "libfefiSe'fof  t&eir  unprincipled  passions,  and  little  to 
teftO^jcpWd^.-tScy/esca^*  confinement  and  personal  punishment. 
'JftSescf  pfersciis  were  giffltyof  lynching  the  sheriffs,  that  is,  seizing 
those  they  found  in  the  exercise  of  their  office,  tying  them  to  a 
black-jack,  or  other  small  trees,  beating  them  severely  with  rods, 
laughing  and  shouting  to  see  their  contortions  ;  they  would  rescue 
property  which  had  been  seized  for  taxes,  often  with  great  vio- 
lence ;  and  on  one  occasion,  in  April,  1768,  proceeded  to  fire  a  few 
shots  upon  the  house  of  Edmund  Fanning  in  Hillsborough.   These 

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FIRST   BLOOD   SHED    IN   THB   REVOLUTION.  '      66 

unjustifiable  acts  were  charged  uptn  the  party ;  and  the  Regula- 
tors were  made  accountable  for  all  the  iU  that  wicked  me|l  chose  to 
perpetrate  under  the  name  of  strugj^ing  for  liberty ;  while  it  is 
'well  known  that  the  leaders  of  this  oppressed  party  never  expressed 
a  desire  to  be  free  from  law  or  equitable  taxation.  The  gover- 
nor's palace,  double  and  treble  fees  and  taxes  without  reason,  drove 
the  sober  to  resistance,  and  the  passionate  and  unprincipled  to 
outrage.  But  there  were  cases  of  injustice  most  foul  and  crying 
that  might  palliate,  where  they  could  not  justify,  the  violenae  t^it 
followed ;  such  as  taking  advantage  of  the  quietness  of  the  Regu- 
lators to  seize  a  man^s  horse  with  the  bridle  and  saddle,  and  selling 
them  for  four  or  five  dollars  to  an  officer,  to  pay  taxes  resisted  as 

The  sheriff  had  taken  advantage  of  a  peculiar  conjuncture  of 
events  to  seize  two  of  the  leading  men.  A  meeting  had  been 
agreed  upon  to  be  held  on  the  20th  of  May,  1768,  when  the 
sheriff  and  vestrymen  would  meet  a  deputation  from  the  Regula- 
tors, and  give  them  satisfaction.  Previous  to  that  day  a  messen- 
ger came  from  the  governor  vnth  a  proclamation  against  thd  Regu- 
lation as  an  insurrection  ;  the  sheriff  igimediately,  with  a  party  of 
thirty  horsemen,  rode  some  fifty  miles,  and  seizing  Harmon  Hns* 
bands  and  William  Hunter,  confined  them  in  Hillsborough  jail. 
The  whole  country  arose,  and  making  an  old  Scotchman  of  some 
seventy  years  of  age,  Ninian  Bell  Hamilton,  their  leader,  marched 
towards  Hillsborough  to  the  rescue.  When  they  reached  the 
Eno,  they  found  the  prisoners  set  free,  with  this  condition  laid  upon 
them  among  others — "  nor  show  any  jealousies  of  die  officers 
taking  extraordinary  fees."  When  the  Regulators  reached  the 
Eno,  Fanning  went  dtmn  to  meet  them  with  a  bottle  of  rum  in 
one  hand  and  of  wine  in  the  other,  and  called  for  a  horse  to  take 
him  over — "  ye're  nane  too  gude  to  wade,"  replied  the  old  Scotch- 
man. Fanning  waded  the  rivar,  but  no  one  would  partake  of  his 
refreshments,  or  listen  to  his  statements.  The  governor's  messen- 
ger, who  had  just  then  returned,  rode  up  to  them,  read  the  governor's 
message,  and  assured  them  that,  on  application  to  the  governor,  he 
would  redress  their  grievances  and  protect  them  from  extortioxrcidd 
oppression  of  any  officer,  provided  they  would  disperse  a^d  go 
home.  The  whole  company  cried  out,  ''agreed  !  agreed  !"  and 
immediately  dispersed.  This  event  preceded  the  visit  made  by 
Hunter  and  Howell  to  the  governor. 

Early  in  July,  1768,  the  governor  arrived  in  Hillsborough,  and 
issuing  a  proclamation,  as  he  had  promised  Hunter  and  Howell, 

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excited  the  expectations  of  tjje^ountry  that  some  redress  would  be 
granted.  But  sending  the  sheriflF  to  collect  the  taxes,  and  with 
him  a  letter  addressed  to  the  people  of  a  similar  import  with  his 
proclamations  and  previoijs  letters,  these  fond  expectations  were  al 
broken,  and  the  excited  people  drove  oflF  the  sheriflF  with  threats 
of  his  Ufe  if  he  persisted  in  his  eflTorts,  and  sent  a  reply  to  the  gov- 
ernor. On  a  false  alarm,  a  large  body  of  the  Regulators  assem- 
bled in  arms,  on  the  night  of  the  1 1th  of  August,  near  Hillsbo- 
rough. The  nearest  companies  of  militia  were  called  upon  ;  and 
a  large  body  assembled  to  defend  the  governor  from  injury  or 
insult.  The  better  part  of  the  community  were  averse  to  the  irregu- 
larities of  those  lawless  spirits  who,  attaching  themselves  to  the 
cause  of  Uberty,  greatly  impeded  its  progress  ;  and  desired  to  go- 
vern themselves  and  persuade  their  neighbors,  by  reason,  to  gain 
the  justice  they  demanded.  Frequent  communications  passed  be- 
tween the  governor  and  the  leaders  of  the  Regulators  before  the 
session  of  the  superior  court,  Sept.  22d,  at  which  Husband  and 
Butler  were  to  be  tried ;  and  the  demands  of  His  Excellency  always 
imphed  absolute  submission ;  while  the  Regulators  insisted  on 
protection.  On  the  day  of  trial,  between  three  and  four  thousand 
people  assembled  near  the  town,  but  no  violence  was  committed ; 
the  court  proceeded ;  Husbands  was  acquitted  ;  Hunter  and  two ' 
others  were  found  guilty  of  riot,  fined  heavily  and  committed  to 
jail,  from  which  two  soon  fouikl  the  naeans  of  escape,  and  all  soon 
received  the  pardon  of  the  governor.  A  number  of  indictments 
were  found  against  Fanning ;  he  was  pronounced  guilty  on  all, 
and  fined  one  penny  each.  ' 

After  this  display  of  justice,  the  governor  issued  a  proclamation 
of  a  general  pardon  to  all  who  had  been  engaged  in  the  late  riotous 
movements,  except  thirteen  individuals  designated  by  name. 
These  were  probably  esteemed  by  the  governor  as  principal  men 
among  the  Regulators  in  Orange  county,  and  their  names  are  pre- 
served, James  Hunter,  Ninian  Hamilton,  Peter  Craven,  Isaac 
Jackson,  Harmon  Husbands,  Mattfiew  Hamilton,  William  Payne, 
Ninian  Bell  Hamilton,  Malachy  Tyke,  William  MoflTat,  Christo- 
pher Nation,  Solomon  GoflF,  and  John  O'Neil.  Supposing  the 
country  suflSciently  pacified,  the  governor  returned  to  his  palace, 
soon  to  find  that  the  people  were  neither  deceived  nor  dispirited. 

The  course  of  events  in  the  upper  country  flowed  on  in  a  dis- 
turbed chaimel,  during  thQ  remaining  part  of  the  year  1768,  the 
whole  of  1769  and  1770.  The  Regulators  held  their  meetings, 
often  in  an  excited,  but  never  in  a  dissipated  manner,  and  con- 

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tinued  to  throw  more  and  more  diflSpulties  in  the  way  of  the  sheriflFs 
and  other  officers,  whose  exactions  imareased  by  impunity.  All 
classes  felt  the  evil,  and  a  greater  number  than  formerly  de- 
termined on  resistance.  In  March,  1770,  Maurice  Moore  reported 
to  the  governor  from  Salisbury,  where  he  had  gone  tt  hold  the 
superior  court, — "  that  the  sheriffs  of  the  several  counties  of  that 
district,  complained  heavily  of  the  opposition  made  to  them  in  the 
exercise  of  their  duties,  by  the  Regulators  ;  that  it  was  imjossible 
to  collect  a  tax  or  levy  an  execution  ;  plain  proofs,  among  others, 
that  their  designs  have  even  extended  farther  than  to  promote'  a 
public  inquiry  into  the  conduct  of  public  officers  :"  and  he  prayed 
that  it  might  not  be  found  necessary  to  redress  the  evil  "  by  means 
'equal  to  the  obstinacy  of  the  people." 

On  the  records  of  the  superior  court  in  Hillsborough,  under 
date  of  Sept.  24th,  1770,  is  the  following  entry,  which  requires  no 
Qonmient.  "  Several  persons  styling  themselves  '  Regulators, 
assembled  together  in  the  court-yard  under  the  conduct  of  Husbands, 
James  Hunter,  Rednap  Howell,  William  Butler,  Samuel  Divinny, 
and  many  others,  insulted  some  of  the  gentlemen  of  the  bar,  and 
in  a  riotous  manner  went  into  the  court-house,  and  forcibly  carried 
out  some  of  the  attorneys,  and  in  a  cruel  manner,  beat  $hem. 
They  then  insisted  that  the  judge  (Richard  Henderson  being  the 
only  one  on  the  bench)  should  proceed  to  trial  of  their  leaders,  who 
had  been  indicted  at  a  former  court,  and  that  the  jury  should  be 
taken  out  of  their  party*  Therefore,  the  judge  finding  it  impossi- 
ble to  proceed  with  honor  to  himself  and  justice  to  his  country, 
adjourned  the  court  until  to-morrow  at  10  o'clock  ;  and  took  ad- 
vantage of  the  night  and  made  his  escape,  and  the  court  adjourned 
to  meet  in  course." 

The  next  entry  is  as  follows,  viz.  : 

"  March  term,  1771.  The  persons  styling  themselves  Regula- 
tors, imder  the  conduct  of  Harmon  Husbands,  James  Hunter,  Red- 
nap  Howell,  William  Butler,  and  Samuel  Divinny,  still  continuing 
their  riotous  meetings,  and  severely  threatening  the  judges,  lawyers, 
and  other  officers  of  the  court,  prevented  any  of  the  judges  or 
lawyers  attending.  Therefore,  the  court  adjourned  till  the  nexj 
September  term."  So  it  appears  there  was  no  superior  court  in 
Orange  for  a  year ;  and  in  Rowan  the  course  of  justice  was  greatly 

To  these  acts  of  rebellion,  unfortunaJtely,  were  added  acts  of 
personal  violence  that  called  the  governor  from  his  palace,  with  his 
armed  force  to  revenge.     Immediately  after  the  adjournment  of  the 

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court,  a  lawyer,  Mr.  John  Williams,  on  his  way  to  the  court- 
house, was  met  by  a  number  of  individuals,  who  seized  and  beat 
him  severely  in  the  streets.  Edmund  Fanning,  the  person  most 
obnoxious  to  the  conununily,  was  seized  in  the  court-house, 
dragged  out  by  his  heels,  severely  beaten,  and  kept  in  confinement 
during  the  night.  In  the  morning,  when  it  was  discovered  there 
would  be  no  court,  he  was  beaten  again ;  his  fine  house,  which 
occupied  the  site  of  the  present  Masonic  Hall,  was  torn  down,  and 
his  elegant  furniture  destroyed.  While  the  buildings  on  the  pre- 
mises were  falling  under  the  hands  of  the  Regulators,  a  bell, 
which  had  been  procured  for  the  Episcopal  church,  and  deposited 
with  Fanning  for  safe  keeping,  was  discovered.  The  cry  was 
raised,  "  ifs  a  spice  mortar ;"  and  in  a  twinkling,  Fanning's  spice 
mortar  was  scattered  in  firagments. 

The  excited  multitude  then  proceeded  to  the  court-house ;  ap- 
pointed a  man  by  the  name  of  Yorke  as  clerk ;  set  up  a  mock 
judge ;  called  over  the  cases ;  directed  Fanning  to  plead  law ; 
and  pronounced  judgment  in  mock  gravity  and  ridicule  of  the 
court,  and  law,  and  officers,  by  whom  they  felt  themselves 
aggrieved.  Henderson  informed  the  governor,  and  iirged  his 
special  attendance,  and  proposed  the  caUing  of  the  Assembly. 
Soon  after,  the  house,  bam,  and  out-buildings  of  the  judge,  were 
burned  to  the  ground. 

The  governor  postponed  the  calling  of  the  legislature  till  the 
usual  time  ;  and  received  them  in  the  palace,  which  had  just  been 
completed,  amidst  the  confusion  of  the  upper  country,  so  greatly 
aggravated  by  its  erection.  Vigorous  measures  were  proposed  to 
restore  peace  to  the  upper  country  ;  four  new  counties  were  set  oflf 
— Guilford,  Chatham,  Surry,  and  Wake.  With  the  hopes  of  divid- 
ing the  attention  of  the  people,  a  proclamation  was  issued  forbid- 
ding merchants,  traders,  or  others,  to  supply  any  person  with  pow- 
der  and  shot,  or  lead,  till  further  notice  ;  and  finally  it  was  deter- 
mined to  proceed  to  extremities,  and  on  the  19th  March,  1T71,  the 
governor  issued  Tiis  circular  to  the  colonels  and  commanding  offi- 
cers of  the  regunents,  statmg  the  grievances  the  government  was 
sufffering  ;  he  adds — ^  You  are  to  take  fifty  volunteers  firom  your 
regiment,  to  form  one  company,"  &c.,  oflFering,  at  the  same  time, 
liberal  rations,  .bounty  and  pay.  No  little  difficulty  was  found  in 
coUeeting  the  necessary  forces,  firom  the  great  unwillingness  of  the 
militia  to  march  against  men,  in  whose  doings  there  was  so  much 
to  justify,  and  so  little  to  condemn  and  punish. 

On  the  9th.  of  May,  after  many  delays,  he  was  encamped,  as 


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we  have  said,  on  the  banks  of  the  Eno,  near  Hillsborough. 
General  Hugh  Waddel  had  been  directed  to  march  with  the  forces 
of  Bladen  and  Cumberland,  and  to  rendezvous  in  Salisbury,  and 
collect  the  forces  from  the  western  counties,  and  join  the  governor 
in  Orange,  now  Guilford.  While  he  was  encamped  at  Salisbury, 
waiting  for  the  arrival  of  ammunition  from  Charleston,  the  exploit 
known  in  tradition  as  the  Black  Boys  was  performed  by  a  company 
of  men  in  Cabarrus  county,  who,  lying  in  wait  in  disguise,  widi 
blackened  faces,  intercepted  the  convoy  of  ammunition  between 
Charlotte  and  Salisbury,  routed  the  guard,  blew  up  the  powder, 
and  Escaped  unhurt. 

Having  crossed  the  Yadkin,  Waddel  found  a  large  company  of 
Regulators  assembled  to  prevent  his  advance  ;  his  own  men  were 
many  of  them  averse  to  violence,  and  others  strongly  in  favor  of 
the  insurgents,  and  were  falling  away  from  his  ranks.  Upon 
receiving  threats  of  violence  if  he  continued  to  advance,  in  a 
council  of  officers,  he  determined  to  retreat  across  the  Yadkin. 

"General  Waddel's  Camp,         ) 
''PoUs'  Creek,  lOth  May,  1771.  J 

"  By  a  Council  of  Officers  of  the  Western  Detachment : — 

"  Considering  the  great  superiority  of  the  insurgents  in  number, 
and  the  resolution  of  a  great  part  of  their  own  men  not  to  fight, 
it  was  resolved  that  they  should  retreat  across  the  Yadkin. 
"  William  Lindsay,  Griffith  Rutherford, 

Ad'  Alexander,  Saml.  Spencer, 

Thos.  Neel,  Robert  Harris, 

Fr.  Ross,  Saml.  Snead, 

Robt.  Schaw,  Wm.  Luckie. 

"May  11th,  Captain  Alexander  made  oath  before  Griffith 
Rutherford,  that  he  had  passed  along  the  lines  of  the  Regulators 
in  arms,  drawn  up  on  ground  he  was  acquainted  with.  The  foot 
appeared  to  him  to  extend  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  seven  or  eight  deep, 
and  the  horse  to  extend  one  hundred  and  tweiity  yards,  twelve  or 
fourteen  deep." 

On  Waddel's  retreat  the  Regulators  pressed  on  him,  and  many 
of  his  men  deserting,  he  reached  SaUsbury  with  a  greatly  dimi- 
nished force,  and  immediately  despatched  a  messenger  to  Vsyon 
to  warn  him  of  the  common  danger.  The  governor,  already 
alarmed  at  the  reports  that  came  in,  of  forces  gathering  on  the 
Alamance,  on  the  route  to  SaUsbury,  raised  his  camp  immediately, 

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and  on  the  13th  of  May  crossed  Haw  River ;  and  on  the  evening 
of  the  14th,  encamped  within  six  miles  of  the  Regulators,  on  the 
Alamance.     On  the  15th,  the  Regulators  sent  a  message  to  the 
governor  making  propositions  of  accommodation,  and  asking  an 
answer  in  four  hours.     He  promised  them  one  by  noon  the  next 
day.    Jn  the  evening,  Captain  Ashe  and  Captain  John  Walker 
being  caught  out  of  camp,  by  the  Regulators,  were  tied  to  trees, 
severely  whipped,  and  made  prisoners.     On  this,  as  on  the  preced- 
ing night,  one-third  of  the  forces  was  under  arms  all  night.     On 
the   16th,  Tryon  began  his  march  at  daybreak,  and  moved  on 
silently  within  half  a  mile  of  the  insurgents,  and  there  proceeded 
to  form  his  line,  the  discharge  of  two  cannon  being  the  sigiuil. 
Here  Rev.  David  Caldwell,  who,  at  the  solicitations  of  his  parish- 
ioners and  acquaintances,  some  of  whom  were  with  the  Regulators, 
had  visited  Tryon's  camp  on  the  15th,  in  company  with  Alexander 
Martin,  afterwards  governor  of  the  State,  to  persuade  the  gover- 
nor to  mild  measures,  again  visited   the  camp,  and  it  is  said 
obtained  a  promise  from  the  governor  that  he  would  not  fire  until 
he  had  tried  negotiation.     Tryon  sent  .in  his  reply  to  the  Regu- 
lators, demanding  unconditional  submission,  and  gave  an  hour  for 
consideration  :  they  heard  with  great  impatience  a  first  and  second 
reading.    Both  parties  advanced  to  within  about  three  hundred 
yards  of  each  other ;  Tryon  sent  a  magistrate  to  the  insurgents  with 
a  proclamation  to  disperse  within  an  hour,  and  also  commenced  a 
negotiation  for    an   exchange   of  Captains   Ashe    and  Walker. 
Robert  Thompson,  who  had  with  some  others  come  into  the  camp 
to  negotiate  with  the  governor,  was  detained  as  a  prisoner,  and  at- 
tempting to  leave  camp  without  liberty,  the  governor  seized  a  gun 
and  shot  him  dead  with  his  own  hand.     A  flag  of  truce  sent  out  by 
him  was  immediately  fired  on  by  the  excited  people,  many  of  whom 
were  near  enough  to  witness  the  circumstances  of  Thompson's 
-  death.     The  parties  had  gradually  been  drawing  nearer  and  nearer 
to  each  other,  the  insurgents  somewhat  irregularly,  till  their  lines 
in  places  almost  met.     The  governor  gave  the  word  ^''Jirey''  his 
men  hesitated,  and  the  Regulators,  many  of  them  with  rude  antics, 
dai^  them  to  "  fire."     "  Fire  ! "    cried  the  governor,  rising  in  his 
stirrups ;    "  fire !    on  them  or   on  me !"   and  the  action  began. 
The  cannon  were  discharged,  and  the  mihtary  commenced  firing 
by  platoons ;  the  Regulators  in  an  irregular  manner  from  behind 
trees.     Some  stout  young  men  of  the  Regulators  rushed  forward 
and  seized  the  cannon  of  the  governor,  but  not  knowing  how  to 
use  them,  speedily^  gave  them  up  and  retreated.    A  flag  of  truce 

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was  sent  out  by  the  governor  to  stop  the  battle ;  an  old  Scotch- 
man cried  out  to  the  Regulators,  "  it's  a  flag,  don't  fire ;"  but 
almost  immediately  three  or  four  rifles  were  discharged,  and  the 
flag  fell.  The  firing  was  renewed  with  fresh  vigor  by  tlie  military, 
and  the  Regulators  in  the  general  fled,  leaving  a  few  posted  behind 
trees,  who  continued  theu:  fatal  aim  till  their  ammunition  was 
exhausted,  or  they  were  in  danger  of  being  surrounded. 

Some  of  the  Regulators  had  wished  and  expected  to  fight ;  but 
the  greater  part  that  had  assembled  expected  that  the  governor, 
seeing  theu:  numbers,  would  parley  with  them,  and  ultimately 
grant  their  demands.  Rev.  Mr.  Caldwell,  just  from  Tryon's  camp, 
was  riding  along  the  lines  urging  the  men  to  go  home  without  vio- 
lence, when  the  command  to  fire  was  given,  and  with  difficulty 
escaped  from  the  conflict. 

They  had  no  commander  to  regulate  their  motions,  they  had 
none  with  iiem  used  to  camps  and  wars  to  give  them  advice ; 
there  had  of  late  been  no  expeditions  against  the  savages,  and  the 
military  life,  further  than  to  shoot  a  rifle  and  live  on  short  rations, 
was  all  new.  "  O,"  said  m.  old  man,  who  was  in  the  battle,  to  Mr. 
Caruthers,  "  0,  if  John  and  Daniel  Gillespie  had  only  known  as 
much  about  military  discipline  then  as  they  knew  a  few  years  after 
Aat,  the  bloody  Tryon  would  never  have  slept  in  his  palace  again !" 
Many  that  were  defeated  in  that  bloodshed,  in  a  few  years  showed 
Comwallis  they  had  learned  to  fight  better  than  in  the  day  of 
Tryon's  victory  on  the  Alamance.  It  is  the  unvarying  tradition 
among  the  people  of  the  country,  that  the  Regulators  had  but 
little  ammunition,  and  did  not  flee  till  it  was  all  expended. 

Nine  of  the  Regulators,  and  twenty-seven  of  the  militia  were 
left  dead  on  the  field ;  a  gi«ai:  number  were  wounded  on  both 
sides  in  this  skirmish,  or  battle — in  this  first  blood  shed  for  the 
enjoyment  of  liberty.  We  cannot  but  admire  the  principles  that 
led  to  the  result,  how  much  soever  we  may  deplore  the  excesses 
that  preceded,  and  the  bloodshed  itself. 

The  excesses  of  the  Regulators  had  been  great,  as  has  been 
recorded,  but  the  barbarities  of  the  governor  upon  his  prisoners, 
after  his  victory,  make  these  lamented  deeds  dwindle  into  hamiless 
sport.  On  the  evening  of  the  battle,  he  proceeded  to  hang,  without 
trial  or  form,  James  Few  (whom  he  had  taken  prisoner),  a  young 
man,  a  carpenter,  that  owned  a  little  spot  of  land  near  fiiHsborough, 
where  Mr.  Kirkham's  house  now  stands,  of  quiet  and  industrious 
habits,  goaded  on  to  rebellion  by  the  exactions  of  Fanning ;  and  at 
last,  driven  to  madness  by  the  dishonor  done  by.  that  man  to  hi'' 

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intended  bride,  he  joined  the  Regulators,  and  proclaimed  himself 
"  sent  by  heaven  to  release  the  world  of  oppressiony  and  to  begin 
in  Carolina.^^  And  not  content  with  this,  the  governor's  ven- 
geance followed  his  aged  parents,  and  having  executed  their  son, 
Tryon  proceeded  to  destroy  the  little  provision  made  for  their 
helplessness  and  age. 

Captain  Messer  was  condenmed  to  be  hung  the  next  day.  His 
wife,  hearing  of  his  captivity  and  intended  fate,  came  with  her  oldest 
child,  a  lad  of  about  ten  years,  to  visit  and  intercede  for  her  husband. 
Her  kindness  comforted  but  could  not  redeem  her  husband,  the 
father  of  her  children ;  the  governor  was  inflexible.  While  the  pre- 
parations were  making  for  the  execution,  she  lay  upon  the  ground 
weeping,  her  face  covered  with  her  hands,  and  the  weeping  boy 
by  her  side.  When  the  fatal  moment,  as  he  supposed,  had  arrived, 
the  boy,  stepping  up  to  Tryon,  says  :  "  Su:,  hang  me  and  let  my 
father  hve  !"  "  Who  told  you  to  say  that  ?*'  said  the  govemOT. 
"  Nobody  !"  replied  the  lad.  **  And  why,"  said  the  governor,  "  do 
you  ask  that  ?"  "  Because,"  said  the  boy,  "  if  you  hang  my 
father  my  mother  will  die,  and  the  children  vrill  perish."  "  Well !" 
said  the  governor,  deeply  moved  by  the  earnestness  and  affecting 
simplicity  of  the  lad,  "  your  father  shall  not  be  hung  to-day."  On 
suggestion  of  Fanning,  Messer  was  offered  his  liberty  on  condi- 
tion that  he  would  bring  in  Harmon  Husbands,  his  wife  and  child 
being  kept  as  hostages,  .\iter  an  absence  of  some  days  he  re- 
turned, saying  he  had  overtaken  him  in  Virginia,  but  could  not 
bring  him  back ;  he  was  put  in  chains  and  taken  along  as  prisoner. 

After  resting  a  few  days  on  Sandy  River,  the  governor  passed 
on  as  far  as  the  Yadkin,  and  having  issued  a  proclamation,  that  all 
those  who  had  been  engaged  in  these  disturbances,  excepting  the 
prisoners  in  camp,  the  company  called  the  Black  Boys,  and  sixteen 
others,  that  should  come  into  camp,  lay  down  their  arms,  and  take 
the  oath  of  allegiance  before  the  10th  of  July,  should  receive  a 
free  pardon  :  and  having  sent  General  Waddel  with  a  company  of 
twenty-five  light  horse,  one  field-piece,  and  a  respectable  corps  of 
militia  to  visit  the  counties  to  the  west  and  south,  and  return 
home,  himself  took  a  curcuit  round  through  Stokes,  Rockingham, 
Guilford  to  Hillsborough.  In  all  his  circuit,  after  the  bloodshed, 
he  exhibited  his  prisoners  in  chaiai,  particularly  in  the  villages  he 
passed.  He  exacted  the  oath  of  allegiance  from  all  the  inhabitants 
that  conld  be  found;  levied  contributions  of  provisions  vrith  a 
lavish  hand  upon  the  suspected  and  the  absent ;  he  seized  one 
Johnson,  who  was  reported  to  have  spoken  disrespectfully  of  Lady 

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Wake,  from  whom  one  of  the  owmties  lately  forcibly  set  off  had 
been  called,  a  beautiful  and  accomplished  lady ;  and  for  hi»  want 
of  gallantry  to  this  sister  of  the  governor's  wife,  condemned  him 
to  five  hmidred  lashes  on  his  bare  back,  two  hundred  and  fifty  of 
which  were  inflicted  ;  and  offered  a  reward  of  a  thousand  acres  of 
land,  and  one  hundred  pounds  in  money,  for  Harmon  Husbands, 
James  Butler,  Rednap  Howell,  and  others  of  the  Regulators ;  and 
filled  his  measure  of  tyrannical  glory  by  burning  houses,  destroy- 
ing crops,  and  holding  courts-martiaJ  for  civil  crimes.  On 
reaching  Hillsborough,  he  held  a  special  court  for  the  trial  of  his 
prisoners,  twelve  of  whom  were  condemned  to  death  on  his  urgent 
statements,  and  six  were  actually  executed.  The  real  leaders  had 
all  escaped,  but  a  sacrifice  must  be  made ;  the  court  hesitated  and 
delayed ;  he  sent  hist  aide-de-camp  to  chide  and  threaten  their 
delay ;  the  soldier  and  governor  were  lost  in  the  tyrant  and  the 

On  the  19th  of  June,  six  prisoners  were  pubGcly  executed  near 
Hillsborough,  of  whom  the  unfortunate  Messer  was  one,  reprieved 
a  few  days  by  the  spirit  of  his  child,  only  to  be  carried  about  in 
chains,  and  hung  ignominiously  at  last.  The  governor,  in  person, 
gave  orders  for  the  parade  at  the  execution,  and,  as  Maurice  Moore 
said,  "left  a  ridiculous  idea  of  his  character  behind,  bearing  a 
strong  resemblance. to  that  of  an  imdertaker  at  a  fimeral." 

Robert  Mateer,  one  of  the  victims,  was  a  quiet,  inoffensive, 
upright  man,  who  had  never  joined  the  Regulators.  On  the 
morning  of  the  bloodshed  he  visited  Tryon's  camp  with  Robert 
Thompson,  and  was  deismed  with  him  a  prisoner ;  being  recog- 
nized as  the  person  who  had,  some  time  before,  grievously  offended 
the  governor  in  the  matter  of  a  letter  entrusted  to  his  care,  he  was 
condemned,  and  made  one  of  the  six  that  were  executed ;  beloved 
while  living,  and  lamented  when  dead. 

Captain  Merrill,  from  the  Jersey  Settlement,  oar,  as  others  say, 
from  Mecklenburg  county,  was  on  his  way  to  join  the  Regu- 
lators— ^probably  had  been  engaged  in  intercepting  Waddel — ^with 
three  hundred  men  under  his  conunand.  Healing  of  the  defeat 
and  dispersion  of  the  Regulators  on  the  Alamance,  when  within  a 
day's  march,  his  men  dispersed,  and  he  returned  home,  but  was 
afterwards  taken  prisoner,  and  wna  made  one  of  the  six  that  were 
executed.  A  pious  man,  he  professed  his  faith  in  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,  and  declared  himself  ready  to  die,  and  died  iike  a  soldier 
and  a  Christian,  sisiging  very  devoutly,  with  his  dying  breath,  a 

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Psalm  of  David,  like  the  Covenanters  in  the  Grass  Market  in 

James  Pugh,  an  ingenious  gunsmith,  had,  during  the  firing  at 
Alamance,  killed  with  his  rifle  some  fifteen  of  those  who  served 
the  cannon,  and  delaying  his  escape  too  long  was  taken  prisoner, 
and  made  one  for  this  day's  sacrificfe.  When  placed  under  the 
gallows  he  asked  and  obtained  leave  from  the  governor  to  address 
the  people  for  half  an  hour.  He  justified  his  course,  professed  his 
readiness  to  meet  God,  inveighed  against  the  oppression  of  the 
public  officers,  and  particularly  against  Fanning.  This  dastardly 
man,  unable  to  bear  the  reproaches  of  his  victim,  made  the  sug- 
gestion, and  the  barrel,  on  which  the  prisoner  stood,  was  over- 
turned, and  the  yoimg  man  launched  into  eternity,  his  speech 
unfinished  and  his  half  hour  unexpired.       • 

These  men  may  have  T?een  rash,  but  they  were  no*  cowards : 
they  may  have  been  imprudent,  but  they  were  sufiering  under 
wrong  and  outrage,  and  the  withholding  justice,  and  the  proper 
exercise  of  law.  "And  if  oppression  will  make  a  wise  man  mad," 
the  ten  years  of  such  oppression  as  these  sufiered,  would  have 
proved  them  fit  for  subjection  had  they  been  submissive. 

Tryon  returned  to  his  costly  palace  in  Newborn,  only  to  bid  it 
farewell,  and  make  room  for  Josiah  Mlfcirtin,  who  knew  better  how 
to  appreciate  these  people  and  their  complaints.  Edmund  Fan- 
ning, the  cause  of  so  much  trouble,  gathered  a  company  and  met  the 
governor  on  his  first  approach  to  Orange  ;  went  with  him  to  Ala- 
mance, and  as  the  firing  commenced,  found  it  indispensable  to  take 
his  post  many  miles  in  the  rear,  whether  through  fear  of  his  life, 
or  of  shedding  the  Regulators'  blood.  Harmon  Husbands,  also,  on 
the  other  side,  rode  faster  and  farther  on  that  day.  He  had  been 
active  for  years  in  exciting  the  people  to  resistance,  making 
speeches,  circulating  information,  drawing  up  memorials  and 
papers  of  a  political  cast,  and  taking  the  lead  in  measures  that 
brought  on  the  bloodshed  in  Alamance.  He  had  been  once  put  in 
prison  while  a  member  of  the  legislature,  for  his  principles  and 
connection  with  the  disturbances  in  Orange ;  but  when  the  cannon 
began  to  roar  at  Tryon's  conmiand,  on  the  16th  of  May,  on  the 
Alamance,  he  mounted  his  horse  and  rode  rapidly  away  to  the  more 
quiet  State  of  Pennsylvania,  and  was  not  seen  again  in  Carolina 
till  after  the  Revolution — ^professing  that  his  principles  as  a  Quaker 
forbad©  him  to  fight,  though  they  impelled  him  to  resistance.  When 
the  time  of  trial  came,  that  men  must  submit  or  flee,  or  bleed,  he 
escaped,  whflc  others  poured  out  their  blood.    He  and  all  like  him 

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are  passed  over  in  the  inquiries  We  make  about  the  people  who 
bore  the  burthen  of  the  Revolution  and  its  previous  struggles. 

The  question  now  arises,  who  were  these  people  ? — and  whence 
did  they  come?  They  could  discuss  the  rights  and  privi- 
leges of  men ;  they  could  vmte  in  a  manner  that  has  been  pro- 
nounced **  the  style  of  the  Revolution ;"  and  they  were  men  that 
feared  an  oath.  The  oath  of  allegiance  exacted  by  Tryon,  from 
multitudes,  as  the  condition  of  their  lives  and  property,  hung  on 
their  consciences  through  Ufe,  and  no  reasoning  could  convince 
them  they  were  free  from  its  awful  sanctions,  though  the  king 
could  afford  them  no  protection.  One  of  these,  who  was  in  the 
bloodshed  of  Alamance,  and  afterwards  had  borne  arms  for  the 
king,  as  he  considered  himself  bound  to  do,  said  sorrov^lly  at 
the  olose  of  the  Revolution — ^  I  have  fought  for  my  country,  and 
fought  for  my  king ;  and  have  been  whipped  both  times."  Still 
his  oath  bound  his  conscience,  while  he  rejoiced  it  did  not  reach 
his  children. 

The  descendants  of  these  people,  who  were  at  the  time  treated 
as  rebels,  and  stigmatized  in  government  papers  as  ignorant  and 
headstrong  and  unprincipled,  hold  the  first  rank  in  their  own  coun- 
try for  probity  and  intelligence ;  have  held  the  first  offices  in  their 
own  and  the  two  younger  and  neighboring  States ;  and  have  not 
been  debarred  the  highest  offices  in  the  Union. 

In  less  than  four  years  from  this  period,  those  who  were  not 
crushed  by  the  solemnities  of  the  oath  'f  ryon  forced  on  them^ 
united  with  their  brethren  of  Mecklenburg  of  the  same  stock,  and 
kindred  faith,  in  maintaining  the  first  declaration  of  independence 
made  in  North  America — a  declaration  sealed  with  blood  in  North 
Carolina,  but  never,  like  the  Regulation,  put  down.  The  princi- 
ples of  the  Regulators  never  were  put  down ;  and  in  the  contest 
with  the  governor,  there  is  little  doubt  on  which  side  the  victory 
would  have  declared  itself  had  there  been  a  military  man  at  the 
head  of  the  undisciplined  people,  or  had  they  been  fuUy  convinced 
the  governor  would  fire  upon  them.  Repeatedly  had  these  men 
gathered  at  Hillsborough,  and  dispersed  without  violence,  on  pro- 
mise of  redress ;  and  Waddel  had  been  met  and  turned  back  with- 
out bloodshed  a  few  days  before.  The  greater  part  expected 
some  terms  of  reconciliation,  while  some  wished  for  the  contest, 
and  many  were  ready  to  fight. 

The  address  sent  in  to  Tryon  the  day  before  the  bloodshed,  in 
which  they  promised  to  disperse  and  go  home  if  he  would  redress 
their  grievances,  shows  they  were  not  expecting  th#  governor 


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would  pr«|aed  to  violence.  Thft  feelings  of  a  great  part  o£  the 
western  counties  were  united  in  the  object  of  their  efforts ;  and 
many  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  seaboard  were  on  their  side.  The 
militia  of  Duplin  refused  to  march  against  them,  with  the  exception 
of  a  company  of  light  horse  under  Capt.  Bullock,  and  also  refused 
the  oath  of  sJlegiance  the  governor  offered  them  on  his  return.  In 
Halifax  there  were  many  supporters  of  their  principles ;  in  New- 
bem  itself  many,  in  fact,  the  majority  of  the  mihtia  assembled,  de- 
clared in  their  favor.  Not  a  few  men  of  eminence  favored  them 
more  or  less  openly,  advocating  the  principles,  but  greatly  disap- 
proving the  excesses  of  the  violent.  Of  these  were  such  men  as 
Maurice  Moore,  judge  of  the  Superior  Court ;  Thomas  Person,  the 
founder  of  Person  Hall,  at  Chapel  Hill ;  and  Alexander  Martin, 
afterwards  governor  of  the  State. 

Martin,  the  historian,  who  appears  to  know  so  little  about  the 
principles  and  habits  of  the  persons  engaged,  says  that  there  were 
*^  several  thousand  families"  scattered  through  the  upper  counties : 
and  so  there  were — and  these  gathered  into  congregations  of  reli- 
gious worshippers  all  along  from  the  Virginia  to  the  South  Carolina 
line.  It  is  the  origin  of  these  that  is  now  inquired  after ;  and  the 
nature  of  their  religion,  so  favorable  to  mental  exercise  and  improve- 
ment, to  civil  freedom  and  the  rights  of  man,  that  is  to  be  deline- 
ated,— a  religion  the  same  now  as  in  the  days  of  the  American 
Revolution, — and  the  great  EngUsh  Revolution  of  1688, — and  the 
same  in  spirit  and  substantial  forms  as  when  the  great  Apostle 
plead  his  cause,  in  chains,  at  Rome. 

There  has  been  as  yet  no  monument  erected  to  the  memory  of 
those  who  fell  on  the  Alamance,  in  this  first  bloodshed  in  the  cause 
of  oppressed  freemen  seeking  their  rights :  they  sleep  in  unhonored 
graves,  as  also  do  those  who*were  pubhcly  executed  in  the  same 
glorious  cause  near  Hillsborough,  June  19th,  1T71.  BUt  you  can 
find  the  battle  ground  and  graves  of  the  slain,  on  the  old  road  from 
Hillsb(»rough  to  Sahsbury  by  Martinville,  or  Guilford  old  court- 
house. It  is  a  locality  to  be  remembered,  for  the  event  must 
always  fill  an  honorable  page  in  any  full  and  fair  history  of  North 
Carolina,  or  of  the  United  States,  as  the  first  resistance  to  blood, 
in  which  resistance  was  determined  upon,  even  should  resistance 
.end  in  wounds  and  death. 

The  Regulators  may  have  been  rude,  they  certainly  were  un- 
polished ;  but  they  were  not  ignorant,  neither  did  they  lack  intelli- 
gence, nor  exhibit  as  a  people  any  lack  of  religious  or  moral  princi- 
ple.   On  tbe  tontrary;  their  estimation  of  an  oath  far  transcended 

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the  expectation  of  the  goyemor,  who  anticipated  Bmifh  from  a 
people  taught  by  McAden,  Caldwell,  Pattillo,  and  Craigiiead,  all 
eminent  in  their  vocation  as  gospel  ministers. 

Differing  from  the  goyemor  in  their  religious  principles  as  much 
as  in  their  political  creed,  they  were  condemned  by  the  king's  officers 
to  fines  and  plunder  and  confiscation  and  death,  and  by  the  ministers 
of  the  State  reUgion  to  endless  perdition.  There  is  extant  a  sermon 
preached  before  the  goyemor  at  Hillsborough,  on  Sunday,  the  25th 
of  September,  1768,  by  George  Micklejohn,  from  Romans,  chapter 
xiii.,  1st  and  2d  yerses — ^in  which  the  preacher  ayows  that  the 
goyemor  ought  to  haye  executed  at  least  twenty  on  that  his  first 
risit ;  and  that  the  rebels  could  not  escape  the  damnation  of  hell 
on  account  of  their  resistance  to  the  existing  goyemment.  But 
these  outraged  men  sought  deliyerance  from  the  oppression  of 
man,  and  hoped  in  the  mercy  of  Almighty  God.  And  they  found 
frxMn  heayen  what  was  denied  by  earth. 

The  succeeding  pages  will  giye  a  collection  of  facts  that  shall 
prMttot  the  history  of  principles  that  cannot  die,  and  are  always 
effective.^  The  scene  of  action  and  the  actors  but  reflect  additional 
tints  of  beauty  on  what,  in  themselves,  are  immortal, — ^the  princi- 
plea  of  tme  govemoient  and  undefiled  reUgion. 

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"  She  has  seven  sons  in  the  rebel  army,"  was  Ac  reason .  given 
by  the  British  officer  for  plundering  the  farm  and  burning  the  house 
of  Widow  Brevard,  in  Centre  Congregation,  while  Comwallis  was 
in  pursuit  of  Morgan  and  Greene,  after  the  victory  of  the  Cowpens. 
What  a  mother !  seven  sons  in  the  army  at  one  time  !  all  fighting 
for  the  independence  of  their  country !  And  for  this  glorious  fact, 
the  house  of  the  widow  plundered  and  burned,  and  her  farm  pil- 

One  son,  Captain  Alexander  Brevard,  a  tall,  dignified  gentleman, 
indepcedent  in  his  feeUngs  and  his  manners,  rendered  signal  ser- 
vices in  the  Continental  army.  He  took  part  in  nine  important 
battles — Brandywine,  Germantovni,  Princeton,  Stony  Point,  Eu- 
taw,  Guilford,  Camden,  Ninety-Six,  and  Stono.  Of  all  these,  he 
used  to  say,  the  battle  of  the  Eutaw  was  the  sorest  conflict ;  in 
that  he  lost  twenty-one  of  his  men.  When  the  time  of  hard  service 
was  over,  he  returned  to  private  life,  and  never  sought  political  pro- 
motion ;  enjoying  that  liberty  for  which  he  had  fought,  and  serving  his 
generation  as  a  good  citizen,  aad  the  church  as  an  elder,  respected 
and  beloved.  He  laid  his  bones  at  last  in  Lincoln  county,  the 
place  of  his  residence  for  many  years,  in  a  spot  selected  by  himself 
and  General  Graham.  They  served  as  soldiers  in  the  Revolution, 
and  lived  as  most  intimate  firiends :  having  married  sisters,  the 
daughters  of  Major  John  Davidson,  one  of  the  members  of  the 
Mecklenburg  Convention,  they  were  brothers  indeed ;  and  dying 
in  the  hope  of  a  blessed  resurrection,  they  sleep,  with  their  wives 
and  many  of  then:  children,  in  then:  chosen  place  of  sepulture. 
You  may  find  the  graves  of  these  honorable  dead  in  a  secluded 
place,  walled  in  with  rock,  about  a  hundred  paces  from  the  great  road 
leading  from  Beattie's  Ford  by  Brevard's  Furnace  to  Lincolnton, 
a  spot  where  piety  and  afiection  and  patriotism  may  meet  and 
mingle  their  tears ;  and  youth  may  gather  lessons  of  wisdom. 

The  youngest  son  of  this  widow,  afterwards  Judge  Brevard  of 
Camden,  South  Carolina,  was  firft  lieutenant  of  a  company  of 
horse,  at  the  age  of  seventeen,  and  held,  through  life,  a  correspond- 
ing station  in  the  opinions  and  affections  of  his  fellow  men. 

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Ephraim  Brevard,  another  son  of  this  widow,  having  pursued  a 
course  of  cfassical  studies  in  his  native  congregation,  was  graduated 
at  Princeton  College;  and  havingpursued  a  course  of  medical  studies, 
was  settled  in  Charlotte.  His  talents,  patriotism  and  education,  united 
with  his  prudence  and  practical  sense,  marked  him  as  a  leader  in 
the  councils,  that  preceded  the  convention,  held  in  Queen's  Mu- 
seum ;  and  on  the  day  of  meeting  designated  him  as  secretary  and 
draughtsman  of  that  singular  and  unrivalled  declaration,  which 
alone  is  a  passport  to  the  memory  of  posterity  through  all  time. 

Dr.  Brevard  took  an  active  part  in  the  establishment  and  man- 
agement of  the  literary  institution  in  Charlotte,  which  was,  to  dl 
useful  purposes,  a  college,  though  refused  that  name  by  the  king 
and  council.  His  name  appears  upon  the  degree  given  John  Gra- 
ham in  1778,  which  is  carefully  preserved  at  Vesuvius  Furnace, 
the  only  degree  of  the  institution  now  known  to  be  in  existence.  For 
a  time  the  institution  was  under  his  instruction. 

When  the  British  forces  invaded  the  southern  States,  Dr.  Bre- 
vard entered  the  army  as  surgeon,  and  was  taken  prisoner  at  the 
surrender  of  Charleston,  May  12th,  1780.  The  sufferings  of  the 
captives  taken  in  that  surrendered  city,  moved  tlie  hearts  of  the 
brave  inhabitants  of  Western  Carolina,  and  in  the  tenderness  of 
the  female  bosom  found  alleviation.  News  urns  circulated  among 
the  settlements  in  the  upper  country,  that  their  friends  and  relations 
were  dying  of  want  and  diiease,  in  their  captivity.  The  men  could 
not  visit  them ;  it  would  be  leaping  into  the  lion's  den.  The  wives, 
the  mothers,  die  sisters,  the  daughters,  gathering  clothing  and  pro- 
visions and  medicine,  sought  through  long  journeys,  the  places  of 
confinement,  trusting  to  their  sex,  under  the  Providence  of  God, 
for  their  protection.  These  visits  of  mercy  saved  the  lives  of  mul- 
titudes ;  and  in  some  cases  were  purchased  by  the  lives  of  the  no- 
ble females  that  dared  to  undertake  them.  The  mother  of  Presi- 
dent Andrew  Jackson,  returning  to  the  Waxhaw,  from  a  visit  made  to 
the  prisoners,  having  been  the  bearer  of  medicine,  and  clothing,  and 
sympathy,  was  seized  with  a  fever  in  that  wide,  sandy  wilderness  of 
{Mnes  that  intervened,  and  died  in  a  tent,  and  was  buried  by  the  road- 
side, and  Ues  in  an  unknown  grave.  Multitudes  perished  and  found  a 
captive's  grave ;  and  multitudes  more  contracted  disease  whose 
wasting  influence  more  slowly,  yet  as  surely,  laid  them  low  among 
their  native  hills.  Of  these  yf§s  Dr.  Brevard.  On  being  set  at 
liberty,  he  sought  the  residence  of  John  McKnitt  Alexander,  his 
firiend  and  co-secretary,  for  rest  and  recovery.  The  air  of  that 
mild  climate,  and  the  aid  of  medicine,  and  the  watchful  care  of 

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friends,  all  fEuled  to  rest(»pe  him.  Struggling  for  a  time  against  the 
disease,  with  hopes  of  recovery,  he  breathed  his  last,  about  the 
time  the  hostile  forces  trod  his  native  soil.  He  gave  '^  life,  fortune, 
and  most  sacred  honor,''  in  his  country's  service.  The  first  was 
sacrificed ;  the  last  is  imperishable.  You  may  search  Hopewell 
giaveyard  in  vain  for  a  trace  of  his  grave.  His  bones  have  moul- 
dered beneath  the  turf  that  covers  Davidson  and  the  Alexanders, 
but  no  stone  tells  where  they  are  laid.  No  man  living  can  lead 
the  inquirer  to  the  spot. 

There  is  a  paper  in  his  handwriting,  preserved  for  a  long  time 
in  the  family  of  his  friend  John  McKnitt  Alexander,  and  now  in 
the  possession  of  the  Governor  of  North  Carolina,  William  A. 
Graham,  which  is  as  remarkable  as  the  proceeding  of  the  Con- 
vention on  which  it  is  based.  It  bears  date  September  1st,  1775. 
The  first  Provincial  Congress  of  North  Carolina  was  then  in  ses- 
sion in  HiUsborough.  The  delegates  from  Mecklenburg  were  his 
compeers  and  personal  friends, — ^PoU^,  Avery,  Pfifer  and  McKnitt 


"  1st.  You  are  instructed  to  vote  that  the  late  Province  of  North 
Carolina  is,  and  of  right  ought  to  be,  a  free  and  independent  State  ; 
is  vested  with  the  powers  of  Legislatioaa,  capable  of  making  laws 
to  regulate  all  the  internal  police,  subject  only  in  its  internal  con- 
nections and  foreign  commerce,  to  a  negative  of  a  continental 

"  2d.  You  are  instructed  to  vote  for  the  execution  of  a  civil  gov- 
ernment under  the  authority  of  the  people,  for  the  future  security 
of  all  the  rights,  privileges,  and  prerogatives  of  the  State,  and  the 
private,  natural  and  unalienable  rights  of  the  constituting  noembers 
thereof,  either  as  men  or  Christians.  If  this  should  not  be  con- 
firmed in  Congress,  or  Convention, — ^protest. 

"  3d.  You  are  instructed  to  vote  that  an  equal  representation  be 
established,  and  that  the  qualifications  required  to  enable  any  per- 
son or  persons  to  have  a  voice  in  legislation  may  not  be  screwed 
too  high,  but  that  every  freeman,  who  shall  be  called  upon  to  sup- 
port government,  either  in  person  or  property,  naay  be  admitted 
thereto.  If  this  should  not  be  ^nfirmed, — protest  and  remon- 

"  4th.  You  are  instructed  to  vote  that  legislaticm  be  not  a  di- 
vided right,  and  that  no  man,  or  body  of  men,  be  invested  with  a 

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PIPER  ON  OrnL  AMD  BBL101OU8   LIBERT7.  71 

negatiye  on  the  yoice  of  the  people  duly  collect^ ;  and  that  no 
hcmois  or  dignities  be  confinned  for  life,  or  made  hereditary  on 
any  person  or  persdns,  either  legislatiye  or  executive.  K  this 
should  not  be  confirmed, — ^protest  and  remonstrate. 

'^  5th.  You  are  instructed  to  vote  that  all  and  every  person  or 
persons,  seized  or  possessed  of  any  estate,  real  or  personal,  agroe* 
able  to  the  late  establishment,  be  confirmed  in  their  seizure  and 
possession,  to  all  intents  and  purposes  in  law,  who  have  not  for- 
feited their  right  to  the  protection  of  the  State,  by  their  inimical 
practices  towaids  the  same.  K  this  should  not  be  confirmed, — 

^^  6th.  You  are  instructed  to  vote  that  deputies,  to  represent  this 
State  in  a  Continental  Congress,  be  appointed  in  and  by  the  su- 
preme legislative  body  of  the  State  ;  Uie  form  of  the  nomination 
to  be  submitted  to,  if  free.  And  also,  that  all  officers,  the  influ- 
ence of  whose  office  is  equally  to  extend  to  every  part  of  the  State, 
be  appointed  in  the  same  manner  and  form.  Likewise,  give  your 
consent  to  the  establishing  the  old  political  divisions,  if  it  should 
be  voted  in  Convention,  or  to  new  ones  if  similar.  On  such  estab- 
lishment taking  place,  you  are  instructed  to  vote,  in  general,  that 
all  officers,  who  are  to  exercise  this  authority  in  any  of  the  said 
districts,  be  recommended  to  the  trust  only  by  the  freemen  of  said 
division — to  be  subject,  however,  to  tiie  general  laws  and  regula- 
tions of  the  State.  If  this  should  not  be  substantially  confirmed, 
— ^protest. 

"  7th.  You  are  instructed  to  move  and  insist  that  the  people 
you  immediately  represent,  be  acknowledged  to  "be  a  distinct 
county  of  this  State,  as  formerly  of  the  late  province,  with  the 
additional  privilege  of  electing  in  their  own  officers,  both  civil  and 
military,  together  with  election  of  clerks  and  sherifi*8,  by  the 
freemen  of  the  same :  the  choice  to  be  confiirmedby  the  sovereign 
authority  of  the  State,  and  the  officers  so  invested  to  be  under  the 
jurisdiction  of  the  State,  and  Uable  to  its  cognizance  and  inffictions 
in  case  of  malpractice.  If  this  should  not  be  confirmed, — ^protest 
and  remonstrate. 

"  8th.  You  are  instructed  to  vote  that  no  chief  justice,  no  sec- 
retary of  State,  no  auditor-general,  no  surveyor-general,  no  prac- 
tising lawyer,  no  clerk  of  any  court  of  record,  no  sheriff,  and 
no  person  holding  a  military  office  in  this  State,  shall  be  a  reps^ 
sentative  of  the  people  in  Congress  or  Convention.  K  this  should 
not  be  confirm^ — contend  for  it. 

"  9th.  You  are  instructed  to  vote  that  all  claims  against  the  pub- 

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lie,  except  such  as  accrue  upon  attendance  on  Congress  or  Con- 
yention,  be  first  submitted  to  the  inspection  of  a  committee  of  nine 
or  more  men,  inhabitants  of  the  county  where  said  claimant  is  resi- 
dent, and  without  the  approbation  of  said  cmnmittee  it  shall  not 
be  accepted  by  the  pubhc ;  for  which  purpose  you  are  to  move 
and  insist  that  a  law  be  enacted  to  empower  the  freemen  of  each 
county  to  choose  a  committee  of  not  less  than  nine  men,  of  whom 
none  are  to  be  miUtary  officers.  If  this  fjbould  not  be  confirmed, 
— protest  and  remonstrate. 

*'  10th.  You  are  instructed  to  refuse  to  enter  into«ny  combination 
of  secresy,  as  members  of  Congress  and  "Conyention,  and  also  to 
refuse  to  subscribe  to  any  ensnaring  tests  binding  you  to  unlimited 
subjection  to  the  determination  of  Congress  or  Conyention. 

'^  1 1th.  You  are  instructed  to  moye  and  insist  that  the  pubhc 
accoimts,  fairly  stated,  shall  be  regularly  kept  in  proper  books, 
open  to  the  inspection  of  all  whom  it  may  concern.  K  this  should 
not  be  confirmed,— contend  for  it* 
>  *^  12th.  You  are  instructed  to  moye  and  insist  that  the  power 
of  county  courts  be  much  more  extensiye  than  under  the  former 
constitution,  both  with  respect  to  matters  of  property  and  breaches 
of  the  peace.    K  not  confiirmed, — contend  for  it. 

**  13th.  You  are  instructed  to  assent  and  consent  to  the  estabhsh- 
ment  of  the  Christian  reUgion,  as  contained  in  the  Scriptures  of  the 
Old  and  New  Testament,  and  more  briefly  comprised  in  the  thirty- 
nine  Articles  of  the  Church  of  England,  excluding  the  thirty-seyenth 
artkie,  together  with  all  the  articles  excepted  and  not  to  be  im- 
posed on  dissenters  by  the  Act  of  Toleration;  and  clearly  held  forth 
in  the  Confession  of  Faith,  compiled  by  the  Assembly  of  Diyines 
at  Westminster ;  to  be  the  religion  of  the  State,  to  the  utter  exclu- 
sion, for  oyer,  of  all  and  eyery  other  (falsely  so  called)  reUgion, 
whether  pagan  or  papal ; — and  that  full,  and  free,  and  peaceable  en- 
joyment thereof  be  secured  to  all  and  eyery  constituent  member 
of  the  State,  as  then:  unalienable  right  as  freemen,  without  the  im- 
position of  rites  and  ceremonies,  whether  claiming  ciyil  or  eccle- 
siastical power  for  their  source  ; — and  that  a  confession  and  pro- 
fession of  the  religion  so  estabUshed  shall  be  necessary  in  qualify- 
ing any  person  for  pubUc  trust  in  the  State.  K  this  should  not 
be  confirmed, — ^protest  and  remonstrate. 

*'  14th.  You  are  instructed  to  oppose  to  the  utmost,  any  particular 
church  or  set  of  clergymen  being  inyested  with  power  to  decree  rites 
and  ceremonies,  and  to  decide  in  controyersies  of  feuth,  to  be  submit- 
ted to  under  the  influence  of  penal  laws.    You  are  also  to  o}q>ose  tho 

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establishment  of  any  mode  of  worship  to  be  supported  to  the  oppres- 
sion of  the  rights  of  conscience,  together  with  the  destruction  of 
private  property.  You  are  to  understand  that  under  the  modes  of 
worship  are  comprehended  the  different  forms  of  swearing  by  law 
required.  You  are,  moreover,  to  oppose  the  estabUshing  an  eccle- 
siastical supremacy  in  the  sovereign  authority  of  the  State.  You 
are  to  oppose  the  toleration  of  popish  idolatrous  worship.  If  this 
should  not  be  confirmed,-Tprotest  and  remonstrate. 

'^  15th.  You  are  instructed  to  move  and  insist  that  not  less  than 
four-fifths  of  the  body  of  which  you  are  members,  shall,  in  voting, 
be  deemed  a  majority.  If  this  should  not  be  confirmed, — contend 
for  it. 

"  16th.  You  are  instructed  to  give  your  voices  to  and  for  every 
motion,  or  bill,  made  or  brought  into  Congress  of  Convention, 
when  they  appear  to  be  for  public  utility,  and  in  no  ways  repug- 
nant to  the  above  instructions. 

"  17th.  Gentlemen,  the  foregaaig  instructions  you  are  not  only 
to  look  upon  as  instructions,  but  as  charges,  to  which  you  are  de- 
sired to  take  special  heed,  as  the  ground  of  your  conduct  as  our 
Representatives ;  and  we  expect  you  will  exert  yourselves  to  the 
utmost  of  your  ability  to  obtain  the  purposes  given  you  in  charge  ; 
and  wherein  you  fail,  either  in  obtaining  or  opposing,  you  are 
hereby  ordered  to  enter  your  protest  against  the  vote  of  Congress 
or  Convention,  as  is  pointed  out  to  you  in  the  above  instructions." 

This  paper  will  not  suffer  in  comparison  with  any  political  pa- 
per of  the  age.  In  some  respects  it  surpassed  all  with  which  Hr. 
Brevard  and  his  compeers  had  any  acquaintance.  In  the  first 
and  seventh  resolutions  there  is  a  reference  made  to  preceding 
events  in  North  Carolina,  to  which  nothing  corresponds  but  the 
doings  of  the  Mecklenburg  convention.  The  Congress  of  North 
Carolina  in  session  at  the  time  this  paper  was  drawn  up,  was  not 
prepared  for  such  a  step  as  is  referred  to — the  entire  independence 
of  the  State. 

In  the  second  and  third  resolutions,  the  democratic  republican 
principles  are  announced  in  their  full  extent, — complete  protection, 
and  extended  suffirage.  In  the  fourth  and  fifth,  aristocratic  honors 
are  done  away ;  and  the  right  of  property  confirmed.  In  the 
seventh,  the  election  of  all  officers,  civil  and  military,  is  confirmed 
to  the  people  at  large.  In  the  eighth,  the  jealous  watchfulness  of 
an  abused  community  is  seen  in  shutting  out  all  public  officers, 
bam  whom  any  oppression  had  been  suffered  under  His  Majesty, 
the  office  df  law-maker  for  the  community.    In  the  ninth, 

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tenth,  and  eleventh,  the  expenditure  of  the  public  money  is  guarded 
from  all  such  impositions  as  had  been  complained  of  in  times 
past.  The  object  and  amount  of  all  ei^nditures  to  be  fjBurly 
stated,  that  no  impositions  like  those  suffered  in  Orange,  and 
from  which  the  Regulators  sprung,  might  be  repeated.  By  the 
twelfth,  the  execution  of  the  laws  is  brought  more  within  the 
power  of  the  people,  or  at  least  more  carefully  within  their  view. 
«  But  the  thirteenth  and  fourteenth  .resolutions  are  especially 
worthy  of  notice,  as  asserting  religious  liberty.  He  does  not 
take  the  false  ground  that  all  religions  are  to  be  contemplated,  in 
the  constitution  of  a  free  people,  as  alike  open  for  the  adoption  of 
the  community  at  large  ;  and  that  any  religion,  or  no  reUgion, 
may  become  the  public  sentiment  without  detriment  to  liberty : — 
but  having  secured  to  all  persons  imdisturbed  enjoyment  of  life, 
land,  and  estate,  he  takes  the  broad  ground  that  there  is  one 
true  reUgion,  and  that  religion  is  acknowledged  as  true  by  the 
State.  He  believed  the  Bible,  wd  from  it  had  drawn  his  princi- 
ples of  morals,  and  religion,  and  politics : — ^from  it,  the  people  of 
Mecklenburg  had  drawn  theirs, — and  multitudes  in  Carolina  had 
drawn  theirs.  To  abjure  reUgion  would  be  to  abjure  freed(»n 
and  the  hope  of  immortality.  The  phrases  confession  and  pro- 
fession in  the  thirteenth  resolution,  are  not  taken  in  a  restricted 
sense  or  made  denominational,  but  used  in  their  enlarged  mean- 
ing, embracing  all  Protestants,  asserting  the  Bible  to  be  tt|ie,  and 
as  a  revelation  containing  the  complete  system  of  the  only  true 

To  put  beyond  all  doubt,  however,  what  he  understood  by  the 
Christian  religion,  he  marks  out  the  two  well  known  and  ac- 
credited systems  of  Articles  with  which  he  and  his  constituents 
had  been  familiar,  and  under  which  he  arraigned  all  Protestants, 
both  asserting  the  main  principles  of  the  Reformation,  and  one 
conjoining  a  system  of  efBcient  government  on  which  he  had  mo- 
delled his  political  creed, — ^a  creed  the  inhabitants  of  a  large 
part  of  North  Carolina  were  prepared  to  defend.  He  would  have 
the  community  disown  Infidelity  and  all  Paganism,  and  avow  the 
religion  of  the  Bible. 

Having  asserted  the  paramount  authority  of  the  Christfan  Re- 
ligion as  the  sole  acknowledged  religion  of  the  community, — 
he  then  puts  all  denominations  on  a  level,  in  political  matters. 
North  Carolina  had  suffered  as  little  as  any  community  bad,  or 
perhaps  could,  from  a  religious  establishment,  that  is,  certain 
forms  and  doctrines  supported  at  public  expense,  and  defended 

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by  law ; — bat  the  evils  resulting  had  been  so  many  and  so  great, 
that  these  resolutions  require  that  no  denomination,  not  even  that 
of  a  majority  of  the  citizens,  should  have  any  peculiar  privileges 
guaranteed  by  law.  The  people  of  Mecklenburg  were  almost 
universally  of  the  same  faith  as  himself ;  but  he  asked  no  favor 
by  the  power  of  law.  But  one  other  State  in  the  Union  had, 
at  that  time,  acknowledged  this  grand  principle,  .and  with  this 
State  the  author  of  this  paper  had  no  communication.  The  idet 
was  to  him,  and  his  constituents,  a  peculiar  idea, — ^like  the  idea 
of  independence  under  the  supremacy  of  law,  it  was  consistent 
and  complete. 

Of  all  the  forms  in  which  reUgion,  professedly  drawn  from  the 
Bible,  is  presented  in  any  part  of  the  world,  one  only  is  excepted 
in  the  resolution, — that  is  the  Popish.  The  ancestors  of  these 
people  in  Mecklenburg  had  brought  with  them,  from  the  mother 
country,  no  kind  remembrance  of  the  spirit  of  the  Popish  clergy 
and  their  adherents.  Turn  to  what  period  of  the  history  of  their 
Others  they  might,  and  the  Romish  priests  appeared  the  enemies 
of  that  religious  liberty  and  civil  freedom  for  which  they  panted. 
Every  page  of  the  history  was  stained  with  blood.  They  fully 
believed  the  spirit  of  popery  unchanged  ;  and  to  tolerate  it,  was 
to  cherish  in  their  bosom  an  enemy  to  the  very  privileges  and 
enjoyments  for  which  they  had  labored,  and  for  which  they  were 
prepated  to  lay  down  their  Uves.  The  principles  of  religious 
liberty,  asserted  by  their  ancestors  the  other  side  of  the  ocean, 
took  deep  root  in  the  wilderness  of  Carolina,  and  grew  as  indi- 
genous plants.  The  people  felt  they  were  bom  to  be  fr«e 
— were  fi^ee ;  and  having  made  declaration  of  their  freedom,  would 
maintain  it  against  all  enemies  unto  death. 

Now  that  the  subject  of  religious  liberty  has  been  discussed 
about  three-quarters  of  a  century,  in  the  freest  country  on  earth, 
the  only  exception  that  can  be  taken  against  these  resolutions  on 
religious  liberty,  is  on  this  single  point — ^the  exclusion  of  popish 
rites  and  ceremonies.  In  other  colonies  the  contention  had  been 
against  foreign  interference  with  the  established  religion  of  the 
province ;  here,  as  in  Rhode  Island,  the  ground  is  taken  against 
all  State  establishments  whatever.  It  is  instructive  to  observe 
how  this  principle,  avowed  by  Roger  Williams  in  exile  and  suf- 
fering, and  proclaimed  by  the  emigrants  in  North  Carolma,  has  at 
length  become  the  received  opinion  of  the  whole  United  States. 
And  while,  on  principle,  the  free  exercise  of  religious  rites  is 
guaranteed  to  all  that  claim  to  be  Christians,  of  whatever  sect  or 

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denomination,  there  is  a  growing  fear,  manifesting  itself  in 
every  section  of  comitry,  lest  the  extension  of  popish  rites  and 
ceremonies  shall  be  found  at  last  injurious  to  civil  liberty. 

The  resolutions  of  the  Mecklenburg  Convention  establish  a  go- 
vernment, and  at  the  same  time  they  set  aside  the  authority  of  the 
king  of  Great  Britain.  In  this  paper  the  great  principles  on  which 
to  frame  a  constitution  of  the  most  entire  freedom,  fullest  protection, 
tod  most  complete  dominion  of  law,  are  laid  down.  The  one  is  a 
beautiful  expression  of  enthusiastic  devotion  to  liberty  and  law  ; 
and  the  other  is  a  calm  expression  of  the  idea  of  that  liberty  for 
which  these  patriots  panted.  Neither  were  mere  theories  or  paper 
declarations  ;  both  were  realities.  The  people  felt  themselves  in- 
dependent,— and  that  they  had  a  natural  right  to  the  freedom  they 
enjoyed  in  their  log  cabins  in  the  wilderness,  and  on  the  plains  of 
the  Catawba,  far  removed  from  the  wealth  and  refinement  of  the 
seaboard.  Their  flocks  and  their  plains,  with  the  skilful  hands  of 
their  wives  and  daughters,  and  the  brawny  arms  of  their  sons,  and 
the  mines  beneath  their  feet,  supplied  the  wants,  and  even  the  luxu- 
ries of  men  who  could  sleep  upon  straw,  be  contented  in  home- 
spun coats,  and  find  domestic  peace  in  a  log  cabin.  The  liberty 
for  which  their  fathers  had  sighed,  these  men  had  found.  They 
knew  the  value  of  the  pearl,  and  rejoiced  in  that  liberty  in  which 
God,  in  his  grace  and  wonderful  providence,  had  made  them  free. 

This  paper  is  the  expression  of  the  feeUngs  of  thousands  in 
Carolina  in  1T75,  and  the  feelings  of  multitudes  at  this  day.  The 
merit  of  Ephraun  Brevard  is,  not  that  he  alone  originated  these 
principles,  or  was  singular  in  adhering  to  them,  but  that  he  em- 
bodied them  in  so  condensed  a  form,  and  expressed  them  so  well. 
He  thought  clearly, — ^felt  deeply, — ^wrote  well, — ^resisted  bravely, — 
and  died  a  martyr  to  that  liberty  none  loved  better,  and  few  under- 
stood so  well. 

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About  the  year  1735,  a  race  of  people  diverse  in  habits,  man- 
ners, forms  of  religious  worship  and  doctrinal  creed  from  those 
who  had  previously  taken  their  abode  in  Virginia  and  the  Carolinas, 
and  destined  to  exert  a  grand  and  controlling  influence  on  the 
enterprise,  wealth,  and  prosperity  of  those  States,  began  to  erect 
their  habitations  along  the  western  frontiers,  and  form  a  line  of  de- 
fence against  the  savages  of  the  mountains  and  the  great  west,  by 
their  strong  neighborhoods  of  hardy,  enterprising  men,  in  that  re- 
gion of  country  extending  from  the  Potomac  river  to  the  Savannah, 
which  now  forms  the  heart  of  these  States,  and  is  most  abundant 
in  resources  of  men  and  things. 

Previously  to  that  date,  the  emigrants  to  Virginia,  whose  descend- 
ants had  spread  out  over  the  lower  counties,  and  were  progressing 
towards  the  mountains,  were  chiefly  from  England,  with  a  few 
Scotch  and  Irish  families  intermingled,  with  one  colony  of  Ger- 
mans in  Madison  county,  and  one  of  Huguenots  a  few  miles  above 
Richmond,  each  having  its  own  peculiar  forms  of  rehgious  wor- 
ship, and  ministers  proclaiming  the  gospel  in  their  native  tongue. 

In  North  Carolina  the  first  permanent  settlements  had  been 
formed  by  fugitives  from  Virginia,  who  sought  reftige  in  the  mild 
climate  and  extended  forests  of  this  unoccupied  region, — some 
from  the  rigid,  intolerant  law^  of  that  colony,  which  bore  so  heavily 
on  all  that  could  not  conform  to  the  ceremonies  of  the  estabUshed 
church, — and  some  from  a  desire  to  escape  from  the  jurisdiction  of 
all  law,  deUghted  ^'ith  the  license  enjoyed  in  the  plains  and  swamps 
of  a  country  which,  previous  to  the  18th  century,  scarce  knew  the 
exercise  of  civil  authority.  When  the  Puritans  were  driven  from 
Virginia,  some  eminently  pious  people  settled  along  the  seaboard, 
safe  from  foreign  invasion,  and  free  from  the  domestic  oppression 
of  intolerant  laws  and  bigoted  magistrates.  Next  to  these  were  the 
emigrants  from  the  West  Indies  and  from  England,  who  preferred 
|he  advantages  oflered  by  this  uninhabited  country  to  those  of  a 
more  populous  state.  About  the  year  1707,  a  colony  of  Huguenots 
was  located  on  the  Trent  river ;  and  one  of  Palatines  at  Newbem, 

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in  1709  ;  each  imdntaiiffiig  the  peculiar  habits,  custtans,  and 
religious  services  of  the  fatherland.  The  Quakers,  at  an  early 
date,  cast  in  their  lot  with  the  colony  of  Virginia ;  and  many 
were  compelled  to  fly  from  the  execution  of  the  severe  laws 
passed  against  their  sect,  and  found  refuge  in  CaroUua.  They 
were  of  EngUsh  descent,  and  at  that  time,  too  few,  in  either 
State,  to  exert  a  preponderating  influence  on  the  community  at 

y  The  Presbyterian  race,  from  the  north  of  Iieland,  is  not  found 
in  Virginia  and  North  Carolina,  till  after  the  year  1730,  except  in 
scattered  families,  or  some  small  neighborhoods  on  the  Chesapeake. 
Soon  fiftnr  thjs  \period  it  is  found  at  the  base  of  the  Blue  Ridge 
in  Albemarle,  Nelson,  and  Amherst,  in  Virginia ;  and  then  in  the 
great  viUley.  -  About  the  year  1736  a  colony  of  Presbyterians,  from 
the  province  of  Ulster,  Ireland,  commenced  their  residence  on  the 
head  springs  of  the  Opecquon  in  Frederick  county,  near  the  pre- 
sent town  of  Winchester ;  and  their  descendants  are  found  in  the  con- 
gregation that  bears  the  name  of  the  creek  in  that  county,  and  also  in 
Kentucky,  Tennessee,  and  Indiana.  About  the  same  time,  or  perhaps 
a  Uttle  earlier,  John  Caldwell,  from  the  north  of  Ireland,  commenced 
a  settlement  on  Cub-creek,  in  Charlotte  county,  Virginia,  then  a  pro- 
vince ;  and  persuaded  a  colony  of  his  countrymen  to  unite  with  him. 
Their  descendants  are  found  in  the  Cub-creek  congregation,  and 
those  congregations  that  have  grown  out  of  it :  and  also  in  Kentucky 
and  South  Carolina — ^the  eminent  political  character,  John  Cald- 

.  well  Calhoun,  being  one  of  them.  About  the  year  1736,  Henry 
McCulloch  persuaded  a  colony  from  Ulster,  Ireland,  to  occupy  his 
expected  grant  in  Duplin  county.  North  Carolina.  Their  descendants 
are  widely  scattered  over  the  lower  part  of  the  State,  and  the  south- 
western States,  with  an  influence  that  cannot  be  easily  estimated. 

About  the  same  period,  the  Presbjrterian  settlements  were 
commenced  in  Augusta  and  Rockbridge  counties,  Virginia ;  and 
speedily  increasing,  they  formed  numerous  large  congregations, 
which  are  still  flourishing,  having  given  rise  to  many  other  con* 
gregations  in  the  counties  further  west,  and  also  in  the  western 
States.  From  all  these  have  arisen  hosts  of  men  that  have  acted 
conspicuous  parts  east  and  west  of  the  Alleghanies,  during  the 
century  that  has  passed  since  the  emigrants  built  their  cabins  on 
the  frontiers  of  Virginia  and  Carolina. 

^'  The  loss  of  the  early  records  of  Orange  presbytery  has  left  u» 
without  the  means  of  ascertaining  the  precise  year  the  Presbyterian 
colonies  in  Grranville,  Orange,  Rowan,  Mecklenburg,  and,  in  fact, 

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in  all  that  beautiful  section  extending  frdm  the  Dan  to  the  Catawba, 
began  to  occupy  the  wild  and  fertile  prairies.  But  it  10  well  known, 
that,  previously  to  the  year  1750,  settlements  of  some  strength 
were  scattered  along  from  the  Virginia  line  to  Georgia.  On  ac- 
count of  the  inviting  nature  of  the  climate  and  soil,  and  the  com- 
parative quietness  of  the  Catawba  Indians,  and  the  severity  of  the 
Virginia  laws  in  comparison  with  those  of  Carolina,  on  the  subject 
of  religion,  many  colonies  were  induced  to  pass  through  the  vacant 
lands  in  Virginia,  in  the  neighborhood  of  their  countrymen,  and 
seek  a  home  in  the  CaroUnas.  As  early  as  1740,  there  were  scat- 
tered families  on  the  Hico,  and  Eno,  and  Haw — and  cabins  were 
built  along  the  Catawba. 

The  time  of  setting  oflF  the  frontier  counties  is  knovni,  but  is  no 
guide  to  the  precise  time  of  the  first  settlements.  Granville 
coun^  was  set  off  from  Edgecomb  in  1743,  and  extended  west  to 
the  charter  limits ;  Bladen  was  taken  from  New  Hanover  in  1733, 
its  western  boundary  being  the  charter  limits ;  and  in  1749  Anson 
was  set  off  from  Bladen  with  the  same  western  boundary.  The  two 
counties,  Anson  and  Granvflle,  embraced  all  the  western  part  of  the 
State  in  1749.  Orange  was  set  off  from  Bladen  in  1751^  and  Rowan 
from  Anson  in  1753,  and  Mecklenburg  from  Anson  in  1768.  These 
dates  show  the  progress  of  emigration  and  increase  of  population, 
but  do  not  fix  the  time  when  the  cabins  of  the  whites  began  to  sup- 
plant the  wigwams  of  the  Indians.  The  dates  of  the  land  patents 
do  not  mark  the  time  of  emigration,  as  in  some  cases  the  landa 
were  occupied  a  long  period  before  grants  were  made,  and  the  lands 
surveyed ;  and  in  others,  patents  were  granted  before  emigration. 
Some  of  the  early  settlements  of  Presbyterians  were  made  before 
the  lands  were  surveyed,  particularly  in  the  upper  country. 

Emigration  was  encouraged  and  directed  very  much  in  its 
earUest  periods,  by  the  vast  prairies,  with  pea-vine  grass  and  cane- 
brakes,  which  stretched  across  the  States  of  Virginia  and  Carolina. 
There  are  large  forests  now  in  these  two  States,  where,  a  hundred 
years  ago,  not  a  tree,  and  scarce  a  shrub  could  be  seen.  These 
prairies  abounded  with  game,  and  suppUed  abundant  pasturage, 
both  winter  and  summer,  for  the  various  kinds  of  stock  that  ac- 
compaiiied  the  emigrants,  and  formed  for  years  no  small  part  of  their 
wealth.  In  1744,  Lord  Granville's  share  of  North  Carolina  was 
set  off  by  metes  and  boimds,  having  Virginia  on  the  north  ;  a  line 
drawn  f^om  the  sea-shore  westward  on  the  parallel  of  38^  34^ 
north  latitude,  on  the  south  ;  the  Atlantic  Ocean  on  the  east ;  and 
the  unexplored  ocean  on  the  west.     The  great  inducements 

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offered  by  his  lordship  and  l}is  agents,  the  beauty  «id  healShiness 
of  the  country,  the  fertihty  of  the  soil,  and  tSie  low  rate  at  which 
tracts  of  land  Were  set  to  sale,  attracted  attention,^and  broa^ 
purchasers  for  residence  and  for  speculation.  Every  additional 
colony  increased  the  value  of  the  remaining  possessions  of  his 

The  remaining  part  of  the  upper  country  was  held  by  grants 
made  from  the  crown,  from  time  to  time,  and  by  the  grantees  sold 
out  in  smaller  sections.  There  is  nothii^,  however,  in  the  peculiar 
circumstances  of  making  the  land  purchases,  or  in  the  country 
itself,  or  the  time  in  which  the  settlements  were  made,  that  can 
account  for  the  spirit,  principles,  and  habits  of  the  paople.  These 
they  brought  with  them,  and  left  as  a  legacy  Xq  their  children ; 
they  had  wrought  wonders  in  the  fatherland^  turning  the  scale  of 
revolution  in  1688,  putting  the  crown  on  the  head  of  William, 
Prince  of  Orange,  and  forking  out  purity  of  morals,  Inspiring  a 
deep  sense  of  religious  liberty  and  personal  independence,  under 
all  the  withering  influences  of  prelacy,  aristocracy,  and  royalty. 

While  ihe  tide  of  emigration  was  mtting  fast  and  strong  into 
the  fertile  regions  between  the  Yadkin  and  Catawba,  from  the 
north  of  Ireland,  through  Pennsylvarfa  and  Virginia,  another  tide 
was  flowing  from  the  Highlands  of  Scotland,  and  landing  colonies  of 
Presbyterian  people  along  the  Cape  Feat  River.  Authentic  records 
declare  that  die  Scotch  had  found  the  sandy  plains  of  Carohna, 
maBy  years  previous  to  the  exile  and  emigration  that  succeeded 
the  crushing  of  the  hopes  of  the  house  of  Stuart,  in  the  fatal  byi- 
tie  of  Culloden,  in  1746.  But  in  the  year  following  that  event, 
large  companies  of  Higfal^nders  seated  themselv^  in  Cumberland 
county ;  and  in  a  few  years  the  Gaelic  language  was  h^ard  feoni* 
liarly  in  Moore,  Anson,  Richmond,  Robeson,  Bladen,  and  Samp- 
son. Aiftong  these  people  ^d  their  children,  the  warm*4iearted 
preacher  and  patriot,  James  Campbell,  labored  more  than  a  quar- 
ter of  a  century ;  and  with  them,  that  romantic  character.  Flora 
McDonald,  passed  a  portion  of  her  days.  As  many/C0ngre*» 
gations  were  formed  among  these  Highlanders,  who  were  all 
Prttebyterians,  as  that  devoted,  but  tolitary  man  of  God,  Mr, 
Campbell,  could  visit  in  the  performance  of  the  duties  of  his  wci^ 

In  the  upper  part  of  the  State,  between  the  Virginia  and  Caro- 
lina line,  along  the  track  tmversed  by  the  army  .of  ComwaUis  in 
the  war  of  the  Revolution,  there  were  above  twenty  organized 
churches^  with  large  congregations,  and  a  great  many  preaching- 
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places.  In  Caswell  county,  McAden,  the  first  minister  that  -^ 
became  permanently  settled  in  North  Carolina,  hid  his  dwelling 
and  his  congregaticms  ;  in  Granville,  and  in  Oraage,  along  the  Eno, 
the  -irioquent  Pattillo  taught  impressively  the  wonder-working* 
truths  of  the  gospel  of  Christ ;  in  Guilford,  was  the  school  and 
seminary  of  Caldwell,  the  nursery  of  so  i^any  eminent  men ;  in 
Rowan,  the  elegant  scholar,  McCorkle,  preached  and  taught ;  in 
Iredefl,  Hall  led  his  flock  both  to  the  sanctuary  and  the  tents  of 
war ;  in  Mecklenburg,  Craighead  cherished  the  spirit  of  indepen- 
dence which  broke  out  in  the  declaration  in  Charlotte,  May,  1775 ; 
and  Bilch,  McCaule,  and  Alexander,  fanned  the  flame  of  patriot- 
ism in  their  respective  chargas ;  and  Richardson,  the  foster  uncle 
of  Davie,  ministered  in  holy  things.  All  of  these,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  Craighead,  who  was  removed  by  death,  were  at  one  time 
leaching  the  principles  of  the  gospel  independence,  and  inculcat- 
ing those  truths  that  made  their  hearers  choose  liberty,  at  the 
hazard  of  life,  mther  than  oppression  with  abundance ;  all  were 
eminent  men,  whose  influence  would  have  beea  felt  in  any 
generation ;  all  saw  the  war  commence,  and  most  pi  them  saw 
its  end,  and  not  a  man  of  them  left  his  congregation,  not  a  man 
of  them  faltered  in  his  patriotism,  and  two  of  them  aerially  bore 
arms.  Their  congregations  were  famous  during  the  struggle  of 
the  Revolution,  for  skirmishes,  battles,  loss  of  libraries,  persond 
prowess,  individual  courage,  and  heroic  women. 

Gtivemor  Tryon  complained  of  the  resistance  the  crown  officeis 
struggled  with  in  the  upper  country  of  Carolina,  as  the  unprinci- 
pled tmtulence  of  an  ill-informed  and  unreasonable  people  ;  he 
marched  his  army,  and  dispersed  the  Regulators,  on  the  Alamance ; 
and  then  trusted  to  (he  solemn  oath  of  thd  sufferers,  swearing  alle- 
giance to  the  king  for  their  spared  lives,  for  the  peace  of  the  coun- 
try, without  noticing,  and  perhaps  without  perceiving  the  fact, 
that  there  was  %  strong  mond  feeUng  pervading  this  excited  com- 
munity, that  gave  sanctity  to  an  oath  in  the  most  unfavorable  cir- 
cumstances. But  the  principles,  that  gave  power  to  the  oath, 
l^ve  strength  to  the  oppositian.  The  governor  left  the  State  with- 
out imdersttiniUng  either  the  grievances  of  the  people,  or  tht  deep 
workings  of  those  principles  that  would  outlive  all  oppression,  sure 
of  a'  triumph  at  last,  though  arrayed  on  the  side  of  the  few,  and  the 
poor,  against  the  many,  and  the  rich  and  the  powerful. 

To  trace  out  these  principles  and  truths,  destined  by  the  wis- 
dom and  goodness  of  Almighty  God  to  get  the  mastery  of  the  mis- 
rule of  princes  and  men  in  authority,  legitimate  or  ebctive,  and 

6  • 

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.ultimately  to  prevail  throughout  the  world,  triumphing  over  human 
depravity  itself,  we  must  go  back  to  the  ancestry  of  these  people, 
which,  like  tha  origin  of  the  proudest  house  and  longest  line  of 
crowned  heads  «i  Continental  Europe — ^is  firom  the  dust — ^the 
poorest  of  a  shrewd  and  enterprising  people.     The  farthest  limit, 
however,  to  which  the  research  will  be  carried,  is  about  the  com- 
mencement of  the  seventeenth  century ;  and  as  we  trace  the  pro- 
gress of  events,  and  the  developments  of  truth  through  the  seven- 
teenth century,  and  more  than  half  of  the  eighteenth,  we  shall  look 
with  less  surprise  than  did  Governor  Tryon,  on  the  resistance  to 
oppression  he  experienced  in  Orange  ;   or  than  Governor  Josiah 
Martin,  on  the  declaration  of  independence,  made  at  Charlotte ; — 
these  events  will  seem  to  flow  as  streams  from  the  endurii^  foun- 
taips  of  Truth  and  Liberty, 
r^^jill  advancement  in  society  has  been  the  fruit  of  the  religions 
principle  ;   and  of  all  religious  principles  that  have  influenced 
society,  those  have  been  most  efiective  that  have  most  exalted 
God,  and  put  the  lowest  estimate  on  the  moral  purity  of  human 
nature,  and  the  means  of  human  devising  for  the  purification  of 
our  race.    Those  have  done  most  for  mankind  that  have  first 
taught  the  creature  to  despair  of  himself,  and  next  to  trust  in  God  ; 
think  less  of  property  than  life,  and  less  of  life  than  principles  ; 
and  to  value  the  hopes  and  expectations  of  eternity  inmieasurably 
more  than  the  things  of  time.    With  such  principles  men  may  be 
poor  and  unpolished,  but  can  never  be  mean  or  undone ;  they  may 
be  crushed,  but  never  degraded.    When  Tryon  returned  to  his 
palace  in  Newbem,  after  the  bloodshed  on  the  Alamance,  he 
feasted.     The  people  of  Orange  mourned  under  the  oath  of  alle- 
giance exacted  with  terrible  sanctions,  and  at  the  sight  of  the 
,,,^^  gajlows-tree  where  their  neighbors  had  died  ignominiously.    He 
^V^  the  minion  of  arbitrary  power ;  they  were  temporarily  crushed. 
He^as  finally  driven  from  the  provinces  of  America,  and  they 
bequeathed  to  their  children  the  inheritance  of  a  beautiful  land, 
wiUi  all  that  civil  and  religious  freedom  they  ever  desired. 

Looking  back  from  the  time  of  the  bloodshed  on  the  Alamance, 
or  the  Declaration  of  Independence  in  Charlotte,  over  a  period  of 
h^  a  century,  and  then  forward  on  the  things  that  next  succeeded 
in  the  space  of  another  half  century — ^the  events  of  both  wliich 
periods  have  passed  away  to  the  province  of  history, — and  we  have 
an  exhibition  of  principles  and  men  worthy  of  being  written  ^d 
read  by  all  mankind,  and  through  all  time.  The  wonderful  i«06« 
perity  of  the  last  quarter  of  a  century  but  adds  to  the  interest  of 

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the  previous  thrilling  events.  Could  the  leaders  of  the  people 
that  formed  the  population  of  which  we  speaks  for  one  generation 
in  Ireland,  and  for  two  in  America  that  immediM^  succeeded  the 
first  large  emigration — ^and  in  both  lands,  fov  that  time,  the  real 
leaders  were  godly  men — could  these  now  rise  from  the  graves  to 
which  they  went  down,  some  in  peace,  some  in  the  sorrow  of  hope, 
and  could  they  speak  the  language  of  earth,  they  would  sing  a 
Psalm  of  David  louder  than  Merrill  at  the  gallows — ^louder  than 
they  ever  sang  at  a  communion  season,  or  revival,  in  Ireland  or  in 
Carolina — ^the  beautiful  sixty-sixth  :  "  O  bless  our  God,  ye  people, 
and  make  the  voice  of  his  praise  to  be  heard ;  which  holdeth  our 
soul  in  life,  and  suffereth  not  our  feet  to  be  moved.  For  thou,  O 
God,  hast  proved  us ;  and  thou  hast  tried  us  as  silver  is  tried. 
Thou  broughtest  us  into  the  net,  thou  layedst  affliction  upon  our 
loins.  Thou  hast  caused  men  to  ride  over  our  heads  ;  we  went 
through  fire,  and. through  water;  but  thou  broughtest  us  out 
iitto  a  wealthy  place.  I  will  go  into  thy  house  with  burnt  oflFer- 
ings  ;  I  will  pay  thee  my  vows  ;  which  my  lips  have  uttered  and 
my  mouth  hath  spoken  when  I  was  in  trouble."  And  would  not 
their  posterity  in  and  around  the  grand  Alleghanies  shout  with  a 
voice  of  thunder  and  a  heart  of  love, — "  The  Lord  God  onmipo- 
tent  reigneth  !  Alleluia  !  Amen  ! " 

For  about  two  centuries  and  a  half  this  race  of  people  have 
had  one  set  of  looral,  reUgious,  and  political  principles,  working 
out  the  noblest  frame-work  of  society  ;  obedience  to  the  just  exer- 
cise of  law  ;  independence  of  spirit ;  a  sense  of  moral  obligations ; 
strict  attendance  on  the  worship  of  Almighty  God  ;  the  choice  of 
their  own  religious  teachers  ;  with  the  inextinguishable  desire  to 
exercise  the  same  privilege  with  regard  to  their  civil  rulers,  be- 
lieving that  magistrates  govern  by  the  consent  of  the  people,  and 
by  their  choice.  These  principles,  brought  firom  Ireland,  bore  the 
same  legitimate  fruit  in  Carolina  as  in  Ulster  Province,  whose 
boundaries  travellers  say  can  be  recognized  by  the  peace  and 
plenty  that  reign  within.  Men  will  not  be  able  fully  to  understand 
Carolina  till  they  have  opened  the  treasures  of  history,  and  drawn 
forth  some  few  particulars  respecting  the  origin  and  religious 
habits  of  the  Scotch-Irish,  and  become  familiar  with  their  doings 
previous  to  the  Revolution— during  that  painful  struggle — and  the 
succeeding  years  of  prosperity ;  and  Carolina  will  be  respected 
as  she  is  known. 

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To  find  the  origin  of  the  Scotch-Irish  Presbyterian  settlements  in 
Virginia  and  North  Carolina,  we  must  go  back  to  Scotland  and 
Ireland  in  the  times  of  Elizabeth  and' her  successor,  James. 
Elizabeth  found  Ireland  a  source  of  perpetual  trouble.  The 
complaints  from  the  ill-fated  island  were  numerous,  and  met 
little  sympathy  at  the  court  of  England  ;  right  or  wrong,  Ireland 
must  submit  to  English  laws,  and  English  governors,  and  Eng- 
lish ministers  of  religion ;  and  last,  though  not  least  in  the  esti- 
mation of  the  Irish,  the  English  language  was,*  under  sanction  of 
law,  about  to  supplant  the  native  tongue,  and  the  last  work  of 
subjugation  inflicted  on  that  devoted  people. 

The  Reformation  in  England  had  been  accomplished  partly  by 
the  piety  and  knowledge  of  the  people  at  large  under  the  guid- 
ance of  the  ministers  of  religion,  and  partly  by  the  authority  of 
the  despotic  Henry  and  his  no  less  despotic  daughter.  The 
tyraimy  of  the  crown  for  once  harmonized  with  the  desires  of 
that  great  body  of  the  people  so  commonly  overlooked,  and  even 
in  this  case  entirely  unconsulted ;  it  pleased  Henry  to  will  what 
the  people  desired.  In  Ireland  the  Reformation  was  commenced 
by  royal  authority,  and  carried  on  as  a  state  concern ;  the  ma- 
jority of  the  nobility  and  common  people,  as  well  as  the  ministers 
o£  rrii^on,  being  entirely  opposed  to  the  designs  of  the  sove- 
reign, their  wishes  were  as  little  consulted  as  the  desires  of  the 
people  of  England.  The  chief  agent  employedan  this  work  was 
George  Brown,  consecrated  Archbishop  of  Dublin,  March  19th, 

1535.  Immediately  after  his  consecration  he  proceeded  to  Ire- 
land, and  in  conference  vrith  the  principal  nobility  and  clergy, 
required  them  to  acknowledge  the  king's  supremacy.  They 
stoutly,  refused,  withdrew  from  the  metropolis,  and  sent  messen- 
gers to  Rome  to  apprise  the  Pope  of  the  proceedings.     In  May, 

1536,  A  parliament  was  assembled  for  the  purpose  of  taking 
measures  for  acknowledging  the  king's  supremacy  in  religion,  he 

t  being  considered  head  of  the  church  in  England  and  Ireland 

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o&ioiK  or  Ti»^«ctrrcH-iiii8H.  85 

instead  of  the  Pope  of  Rome.  The  princip^J  argument  of  the 
archbishop  was,  "  He  that  will  not  pass  this  act  as  I  do,  is  no 
true  subject  to  his  majesty:"  this  prevailed,  and  the  king  was 
proclaimed  head  of  the  church,  and  all  appeals  to  Rome  forbidden. 
Commotions  and  bloodshed  followed  the  order  for  the  removal  of 
the  images,  which  was  made  in  1538 ;  and  as  the  people  and 
clergy  were  strongly  in  their  favor,  the  order  was  evaded. 

The  first  book  printed  in  Ireland  was  the  Liturgy,  in  1551,  by 
Humphrey  Powell,  In  1556  John  Dale  imported  the  Bible  from 
En^and,  and  in  less  than  two  years  sold  seven  thousand,  being 
excited  to  make  trial  of  the  sale  of  Bibles  by  the  avidity  of  the 
people  to  read  the  present  sent  over  by  the  Archbishop  of  York, 
a  Bible  to  each  of  the  two  cathedrak,  to  be  kept  in  the  centre  of 
the  choirs,  open  for  public  perusal. 

Henry  found  the  Irish  a  source  of  vexation,  and  delivered  to  his 
children  the  inheritance  of  a  restless,  dissatisfied  people.  Eliza- 
beth pursued  the  policy  of  her  father,  with  his  vigor,  and  subdued 
Ireland  to  the  laws,  and  ostensibly  to  the  religious  rites  of  Eng- 
land, and  delivered  it  to  James  I.,  in  1603,  pacified  as  she  hoped, 
and  as  James  fondly  yet  vainly  imagined.  The  few  privileges 
that  were  left  to  the  Catholics  wereftsed  by  the  priests  and  no- 
biUty  to  promote  rebellion,  and  aggravate  James,  who  had  opposed 
the  Catholic  forms  more  from  political  interest  than  religious 
scYuples.  A  conspiituiy  formed  by  the  Earls  of  TpconnelLand 
Tyrone,  of  the  province  of  Ulster,  against  the  government  of 
James,  in  the  second  year  of  his  reign,  in  expectation  of  aid  from 
the  courts  of  France  and  Spuin,  was  discovered  in  time  to  pre- 
vent its  execution.  The  earls  fled,  and  left  their  estates  to  the 
mercy  of  the  king.  Soon  after,  another  rebellion  or  insurrection 
raised  by  O'Dogherty  was  crushed,* its  leader  slain,  and  another 
hrge  portion  of  the  province  reverted  to  the  crown.  In  conse- 
quence of  these  and  other  forfeitures,  nearly  the  whole  of  six 
counties  in  the  province  of  Ulster,  embracing  about  half  a  million 
of  acres,  were  placed  at  the  disposal  of  James.  This  province 
had  been  the  chief  seat  of  disturbances  duriftg  the  time  of  Eliza- 
beth, and  was  fast  becoming  desolate  or  barbarous.  With  the 
hopes  of  securing  the  peace  of  this  hitherto  the  most  turbulent 
ptot  of  his  kingdom,  James  determined  to  introduce  colonies 
from  England  and  Scotland,  that  by  disseminating  the  Reformed 
ftith  he  might  promote  the  loyalty  of  Ireland.  In  the  fulfilment 
of  this  design  he  planted  those  colonies  from  which,  more  than 
century  afterwards,  those  emigrations  sprung,  by  which  wertem 

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Virginia  and  the  Carolinas  were  in  a  great  measure  peopled. 
The  frequent  attempts  made,  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth,  to  plant 
colonies  6f  EngUsh  and'Scotch  in  Ireland,  in  the  hope  that  tiiose 
doctrines  of  the  Reformation,  as  odious  to  the  crown  as  the  peo- 
ple that  professed  them,  might  mould  the  Irish  mind  and  heart  to 
greater  attachment  to  the  English  crown,  had  been  conducted  on 
a  small  scale,  and  attended  with  little  success.  The  project  of 
James  was  grand  and  attractive,  and  in  its  progress  to  complete 
success  formed  a  race  of  men,  law-loving,  law-abiding,  loyal,  en- 
terprising firemen,  whose  thoughts  and  principles  have  had  no 
less  influence  in  moulding  'the  American  mind,  than  their  children 
in  making  the  wilderness  to  blossom  as  the  rose. 

Sir  Arthur  Chichester,  on  whom  the  king  had  conferred  a 
considerable  estate' in  Antrim,  was  appointed  Lord  deputy  of 
the  kingdom,  in  February,  1605 ;  and  by  his  sound  judgment^ 
sense  of  religion,  and  /experience  in  the  affairs  of  men,  con- 
tributed not  a  little  to  the  success  of  the  royal  enterprise.  He 
had  six  counties  in  Ulster  carefully  surveyed,  and  the  lands  divided 
into  sections  of  different  magnitudes,  some  of  two  thousand  acres, 
some  of  fifteen  hundred,  and  some  of  a  thousand.  These  he 
allotted  to  different  kinds  cA  persons  :  first,  British  undertakers, 
who  voluntarily  engaged  ip  the  enterprise ;  second,  Servitors  of 
the  crown,  consisting  of  civil  and  military  officers ;  third.  Natives 
whom  he  hoped  to  render  loyal  subjects.  The  occupants  of  the 
largest  portions  of  land  were  bound,  within  four  years,  to  build  a 
castle  and  bawn,  fiat  is,  a  walled  enclosure,  with  towers  at  the 
angles,  within  which  was  placed  the  icattle, — and  to  plant  on  their 
estates  forty-eight  able-bodied  men,  eighteen  years  old  or  upwards, 
of  Enghsh  or  Scottish  descent.  Those  who  occupied  the  second 
class  were  obUged,  within  two  years,  to  build  a  strong  stone  or 
brick  house,  and  bawn  ;  and  both  were  required  to  plant  a  propor- 
tionable number  of  EngUsh  or  Scottish  rfamiUes  on  their  posses- 
sions, and  to  have  their  houses  furnished  with  a  sufficiency  of 

Under  these  and  various  other  regulations,  the  escheated  lands 
were  disposed  of  to  one  hundred  and  four  English  and  Scottish 
Undertakers,  fifty-six  servitors^  and  two  hundred  and  eighty-six 
natives ;  these  gave  bonds  to  the  State  for  the  fulfilment  of  their 
covenants,  and  were  required  to  render  an  annual  account  of  their 
progress.  Nearly  the  whole  of  the  county  of  Coleraine  was  al- 
lotted to  the  corporation  of  the  city  of  London,  on  condition  of 
thefar  building  and  fortifying  the  cities  of  Londonderry  and  Cole- 

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ratn6,  and  otherwise  expending  twenty  thousand  pounds  on  the 
plantations  ;  and  the  county  is  now  called  Londonderry,  in  allu- 
sion to  that  circumstance.  In  1610,  the  l^ds  began  to  be  gene- 
rally occupied.  The  northeastern  parts  of  the  province  were  oc- 
cupied principally  by  emigrants  from  Scotland,  on  accoimt  of  the 
proximity  of  the.  places,  and  the  hardy  enterprise  of  the  people  ; 
the  southern  and  western  parts  were  settled  by  the  Enghsh. 
Great  difficulties  attended  the  settlement,  arising  principally  from 
the  plundering  incursions  of  the  irreclaimable  natives.  A  con- 
temporary writer  says  :  "  Sir  Toby  Canfield's  people  are  driven 
every  night  to  lay  up  all  his  cattle,  as  it  were,  in  ward ;  and  do  he 
and  his  what  they  can,  the  wolfe  and  wood-kerne,  within  culiver 
shot  of  his  fort,  have  often  times  a  share.  Sir  John  King  and  Sir 
Henry  Harrington,  within  half  a  mile  of  Dublin,  do  the  Uke,  for 
those  forenamed  enemies  do  every  night  survey  the  fields  to  the 
very  walls  of  Dublin."  The  country  had  grown  Wild  during  the 
troubles  of  the  past  reign,  and  wa^  covered  with  woods  and 
marshes  that  affected  the  healthiness  of  the  chmate;  this,  together 
with  the  difficulties  arising  from  the  opposition  of  the  native  Irish, 
and  the  wild  beasts  that  abounded  in  the  desolations,  greatly  re- 
tarded the  emigrations,  and  gave  a  peculiar  cast  to  the  emigrants. 

The  Reverend  Andrew  Stewart,  minister  of  Donaghadee  from 
1645  to  1671,  son  of  Rev.  Andrew  Stewart,  who  was  settled  min- 
ister of  Donegore  m  the  year  1627,  wrote  "  A  short  account  of  the 
Church  of  Christ  as  it  was  amongst  the  Irish  at  first : — among 
and  after  the  English  entered : — and  after  the  entry  of  the  Scots  J* 
He  says,  "  of  the  English  not  many  came  over,  for  it  is  to  be  ob- 
served that,  being  a  great  deal  more  tenderly  bred  at  home  in 
England,  and  entertained  in  better  quarters  than  they  could  find  in 
Ireland,  they  were  unwilling  to  flock  thither,  except  to  good  land, 
such  as  they  had  before  at  home,  or  to  good  cities  where  they 
might  trade ;  both  of  which,  in  those  days,  were  scarce  enough 
here.  Besides  that  the  marshiness  and  fogginess  of  this  island 
wereUBll  found  unwholesome  to  English  bodies."  He  also  adds  : 
"the  king  had  a  natural  love  to  have  Ireland  planted  with  Scots,  as 
being,  besides  their  loyalty,  of  a  middle  temper,  between  the 
English  tender  and  the  Irish  rude  breeding,  and  a  great  deal  more 
likely  to  adventure  to  plant  Ulster." 

He  thus  describes  the  progress  of  the  plantation  : — "  The  Lon- 
doners have  in  the  Lagan  a  great  interest,  and  built  a  city  called 
Londonderry,  planted  with  English.  Coleraine  also  is  builded  by 
them ;  both  of  them  seaports,  though  Derry  be  both  the  moce 

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commodious  and  famous.  Sir  Hugh  Clotworthy  obtains  the  lands 
of^SpiS^both  firuitful  and  good^ajd  invites  thither  several  of 
the^^ngHsh,  very  good  men,  th^^rJlljsj*,  Leslies,  Langfords,  and 
.  others^  Chichesi€r,Ti  W6nh^  man,  has  8n  estate  grren  him  in  the 
county  of  Antrim,  v^rhere  he  improves  his  interest,  builds  the 
prospering  mart  of  Belfast,  and  confirms  his  interest  in  Carrick- 
fergus,  and  builds  a  stately  palace  there.  Conway  has  an  estate 
given  him  in  the  county  of  Antrim,  and  builds  a  tovm  afterwards 
called  Lisnegarvay,  and  this  was  planted  vrith  a  colony  of  the 
English  also.  Moses  Hill  had  woodlands  given  him,  which  being 
thereafter  demolished,  left  a  fair  and  beautiftil  country,  when  a 
late  hehr  of  the  Hills  built  Hillsborough.  All  these  lands  and 
more  were  given  to  the  English  gentlemen,  worthy  persons,  who 
afterwards  increased,  and  made  noble  and  loyal  families  in  places 
where  had  been  nothing  but  robbing,  treason  and  rebellion." 

"  Of  the  Scots  nation  there  was  a  family  of  the  Balfours,  of  the 
Forbesses,  of  the  Grahames,  two  of  the  Stewarts,  and  not  a  few 
of  the  Hamiltons.  The  Macdonnells  founded  the  earldom  of 
Antrim  by  King  James's  gift, — the  Hamiltons  the  earldom  of  Stra- 
bane  and  Clanbrassil,  and  there  were  besides  several  knights  of 
that  name,  SirvFrederick,  Sir  George,  Sir  Francis,  Sir  Charles  his 
son,  and  Sir  Hans,  all  Hamiltons ;  for  they  prospered  above  all 
others  in  this  country,  after  the  first  admittance  of  the  Scots 
into  it." 

Con  O'Neill,  who  possessed  great  extent  of  lands  in  Down  and 
Antrim,  being  engaged  in  a  rebellion,  was  apprehended  and  laid 
in  the  king's  castle  ;  the  Deputy  intending  to  have  him  suffer 
capitally,  expecting  to  gain  a  large  portion  of  his  lands,  which  feU 
to  the  king.  His  wife,  indignant  that  her  husband  should  be  con- 
fined and  appointed  to  an  ignominious  death,  goes  over  to  Scotland 
and  lays  her  claim  before  Hugh  Montgomery  of  Bip^adstone,  pro- 
mising him,  if  he  would  get  her  husband's  pardon  frd^  the  king, 
to  be  content  with  a  third  part  of  their  estate,  and  cheeAlly  to 
yield  two-thirds  to  him  under  the  king's  grant.  Montgomex^  en- 
tered into  the  scheme,  and  having  a  boat  in  readiness,  and  his  wife 
canying  to  him,  in  his  prison,  ropes  in  two  cheeses,  O'Neill  ef- 
fected his  escape  to  Scotland.  Montgomery  ihen  applied  to  Mr. 
James  Hamilton,  who  had  relinquished  his  fellowship  in  Dublin 
College,  and  was  in  high  favor  at  the  English  court,  to  assist  him 
in  obtaining  a  pardon  for  O'Neill  from  the  king,  promising  him 
half  of  his  two  parts  of  the  estates.  The  pardon  was  obtained  ; 
and  grants  were  issued  frt)m  the  king  to  each  of  these  gentlemen 

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for  a  third  part  of  O'Neill's  estates.  Both  were  made  knights  : 
but  as  Montgomery  was  an  inheritor  under  the  king  in  Scotland, 
and  his  vassal,  he  obtained  the  precedency.  Hamilton,  however, 
so  managed  the  matter  as  to  obtain  the  better  share  in  the  pos- 

Mr.  Stewart  says, — "  These  two  knights,  having  received  their 
lands,  were  shortly  after  made  lords — Montgomery  of  Ards,  and 
Hamilton  of  Claneboy.  But  land  without  inhabitants  is  a  burden 
without  rehef.  The  Irish  were  gone,  the  ground  was  desolate, 
rent  must  be  paid  to  the  king,  tenants  were  none  to  pay  them. 
Therefore  the  lords,  having  a  good  bargain  themselves,  make  some 
of  their  friends  sharers,  as  freeholders  under  them.  Thus  came 
several  farmers  under  Mr.  Montgomery,  gentlemen  from  Scot- 
land, and  of  the  names  of  the  Shaws,  Calderwoods,  Boyds, 
and  of  the  Keiths  from  the  north.  And  some  foundations  are 
laid  for  towns  and  incorporations,  as  Newton,  Donaghedee,  Com- 
ber, Old  and  New  Grey  Abbey.  Many  Hamiltons  also  followed 
Sir  James,  especially  his  own  brethren,  all  of  them  worthy  men  ; 
and  other  farmers,  as  the  Maxwells,  Rosses,  Barclays,  Moores, 
Bayleys,  and  others,  whose  posterity  hold  good  to  this  day.  He 
also  founded  towns  and  incorporations,  viz.,  Bangor,  Holywood, 
and  Killileagh,  where  he  built  a  strong  castle,  and  Ballywalter. 
These  foundations  being  laid,  the  Scots  came  hither  apace,  and 
became  tenants  willingly,  and  sub-tenants  to  their  countrymen 
(whose  manner  and  way  they  knew),  so  that  in  a  short  time  the 
country  began  again  to  be  inhabited." 

The  progress  of  the  plantation  was  slow ;  and  by  order  of  the 
Crown,  frequent  inquiries  were  made  into  its  advancement.  The 
last  was  made  in  1618 ;  by  that  it  appeared  that  one  hundred  cas- 
tles, with  bawns,  had  been  built ;  nineteen  castles  without  bawns ; 
forty-two  bawns  without  ca9tle8  or  houses ;  and  one  thousand  eight 
hundred  and  ninety-seven  dwelling  houses  of  stone  and  timber ; 
and  about  eight  thousand  men  of  English  and  Scottish  birth,  able 
to  bear  arms,  were  settled  in  the  country.  The  appointment  of  Sir 
Arthur  Chichester,  as  Deputy,  was  made  in  1605 ;  the  survey  was 
speedily  commenced :  the  lands  began  to  be  generally  occupied, 
in  1610,  by  the  emigrants  from  Scotland  and  England;  and  by 
1618,  against  all  the  opposition  of  the  native  Irish,  and  the  unfa- 
vorable circumstances  of  the  country,  a  population,  with  some  eight 
thousand  fighting  men,  were  gathered  upon  the  escheated  lands. 

The  race  of  Scotchmen  that  emigrated  to  Ireland,  retaining  the 
characteristic  traits  of  their  native  stock,  borrowed  some  things 

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from  their  neighbors,  and  were  fashioned,  in  some  measure,  by  the 
moulding  influences  of  the  cUmate  and  country.  Incontra-distinc- 
tion  from  the  native  Irish,  they  called  themselves  Scotch  ;  and  to 
distinguish  them  from  natives  of  Scotland,  their  descendants  have 
received  the  name  of  Scotch-Irish,  This  name  is  provincial,  and 
more  used  in  America  than  elsewhere,  and  is  appUed  to  the  Pro- 
testant emigrants  from  the  north  of  Ireland^  and  their  descendants. 
The  history  of  this  people  from  this  period,  1618,  till  the  emigra- 
tion to  America,  which  commenced  with  a  discernible  current 
about  a  century  after  the  immigration  from  Scotland,  is  foimd  in 
the  "  History  of  Religious  Principles  and  Events  in  Ulster  Pro- 
vince." Their  religious  principles  swayed  their  political  opinions ; 
and  in  maintaining  their  forms  of  worship,  and  their  creed,  they 
learned  the  rudiments  of  repubhcanism  before  they  emigrated  to 
America.  They  demanded,  and  exercised,  the  privilege  of  choos- 
ing their  ministers  and  spiritual  directors,  in  opposition  to  all 
efforts  to  make  the  choice  and  support  of  the  clergy  a  state,  or 
governmental  concern.  In  defence  of  this  they  suffered  fines  and 
imprisonment  and  banishment,  and  took  up  arms  at  last,  and,  victo- 
rious in  the  contest,  they  established  the  Prince  of  Nassau  upon 
the  throne,  and  gave  the  Protestant  succession  to  England. 

Emigrating  to  America,  they  maintained,  in  all  the  provinces 
where  they  settled,  the  right  of  all  men  to  choose  their  own  reli- 
gious teachers,  and  to  support  them  in  the  way  each  society  of 
Christians  might  choose,  irrespective  of  the  laws  of  England  or 
the  provinces, — and  also  to  use  what  forms  of  worship  they  might 
judge  expedient  and  proper.  From  maintaining  the  rights  of  con-- 
science  in  both  hemispheres,  and  claiming  to  be  governed  by  the 
laws  under  legitimate  sovereigns  in  Europe,  they  came  in  America 
to  demand  the  same  extended  rights  in  politics  as  in  conscience ; 
that  rulers  should  be  chosen  by  the  people  to  be  governed,  and 
should  exercise  their  authority  according  to  the  laws  the  people 
approved.  In  Europe  they  contended  for  a  limited  monarchy 
through  all  the  troubles  of  the  seventeenth  century ;  in  America, 
their  descendants  defining  what  a  limited  monarchy  meant,  found 
it  to  signify  rulers  chosen  by  the  people  for  a  limited  time,  and 
with  limited  powers ;  and  declared  themselves  independent  of  the 
British  crown. 

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The  state  of  Religion  among  the  emigrants  was  peculiar,  though 
not  strange  or  unexpected,  in  the  circumstances.  Many  of  the  large 
landliolders,  and  also  the  proprietors  of  smaller  sections,  were  gentle- 
men in  the  Scotch  acceptation  of  the  word,  men  of  good  birth,  of  good 
maimers,  of  some  education  and  property.  Some  of  them  appear 
to  have  been  truly  religious.  Among  the  tenantry  and  sub-tenantry, 
were  also  many  of  sound  principles  and  correct  lives, — ^and  some 
were  truly  piou^.  But  the  circumstances  of  the  emigration  were 
such  as  to  hold  out  greater  inducements  to  the  restless  than  to 
the  sedate,  to  those  who  were  more  anxious  about  temporal,  than 
to  those  who  were  most  engaged  about  spiritual  concerns ;  and 
consequently  the  province  was  occupied  by  settlers,  who  were 
willing  enough  to  receive  and  respect  ministers,  who  were  sent  to 
them,  but  were  not  characterized  by  any  great  desire  to  obtain 
either  faithful  ministers,  who  would  warn  them  of  their  sins,  or 
careless  ones  who  would  be  content  with  their  tithes.  Of  the 
latter  class  they  had  enough  in  Ireland,  as  the  whole  country  had 
been  divided  into  parishes,  which  were  expected  to  support  a 
minister  of  the  Established  Church  of  England.  The  former  class 
were  a  terror  unto  them,  as  they  always .  are  to  those  not  fully 
intent  upon  their  own  salvation.  Stewart  draws  a  dark  picture  of 
the  people  soon  after  their  emigration  ;  it  is  probably  over  colored, 
as  the  author  was  not  conversant  with  the  settling  of  colonies  ;  the 
only  other  one  of  which  he  had  much  knowledge,  the  Puritans  that 
removed  first  to  Holland,  and  then  to  New  England,  being  a  soli- 
tary example  of  excellence.  "  Most  of  the  people  were  all  void  of 
godliness,  who  seemed  rather  to  flee  from  God  in  their  enterprise, 
than  to  follow  their  own  mercy.  Yet  God  followed  them  when 
they  fled  from  him.  Albeit,  at  first,  it  must  be  remembered,  that, 
as  they  cared  little  for  any  church,  so  God  seemed  to  care  as  little 
for  them.  For  these  strangers  were  no  better  entertained  (i.  e.,  by 
the  clergy  they  found  in  Ireland,  or  that  part  of  it  where  they  were) 

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than  by  the  relics  of  popery,  served  up  in  a  ceremonial  service  of 
God  under  a  sort  of  antichristian  hierarchy,  and  committed  to  the 
care  of  careless  men,  who  were  only  zealous  to  call  for  their  gain 
from  their  quarter.  Thus,  on  all  hands,  atheism  increased,  and 
disregard  of  God,  iniquity  abounded  with  contention,  fighting, 
murder,  adultery,  &c.,  as  among  a  people  who,  as  they  had  nothing 
within  them  to  overawe  them,  so  their  ministers'  example  (i.  e., 
those  they  found  in  Ireland)  was  worse  than  nothing.  And  verily, 
at  this  time  the  whole  body  of  this  people  seemed  ripe  for  the 
manifestation  either  of  God's  judgment,  or  God's  mercy." 

The  situation  of  the  emigrants,  in  matters  pertaining  to  religion, 
was  so  diflferent  firom  the  condition  of  the  congregations  in  Scot- 
land, that  with  the  more  grave  and  religious  in  the  mother  country, 
it  became  a  matter  of  abhorrence  ; — so  much  so,  that  ^^  going  to 
Ireland*^  was  looked  upon  as  a  thing  to  be  deplored,  as  going 
^..away  from  the  privileges  and  enjoyments  of  religion.  It  became 
-N^  proverb  expressive  of  disdain,  "  Ireland  will  be  your  latter  end,^^ 
Mr.  Blair  said  of  their  condition  in  religious  things — "  Although 
amongst  those  whom  divine  providence  did  send  to  Ireland,  there 
were  several  persons  eminent  for  birth,  education  and  parts,  yet 
the  most  part  was  such  as  either  poverty,  scandalous  lives,  or  at 
the  best,  adventurous  seeking  of  better  accommodation  had  forced 
thither ;  so  that  the  security  and  thriving  of  religion  was  little  seen 
to  by  these  adventurers,  and  the  preachers  were  generally  of  the 
same  completion  with  the  people."  This  condition  of  the  emi- 
grants became  at  length  a  matter  of  deep  sympathy  and  Christian 
benevolence — and  faithful  ministers  of  the  gospel  were  encouraged 
to  take  their  abode  in  Ireland,  and  expend  their  strength  in  labors 
which  received  a  rich  blessing  from  on  high.  Between  the  years 
1613  and  1626,  seven  preachers  went  over  to  Ireland,  whose  exer- 
tions for  the  advancement  of  religion  were  blessed  to  such  an  emi- 
nent degree,  that  others  were  excited  to  follow  them ;  and  in  a  few 
years  the  church  in  Ireland  became  as  famous  for  a  spirit  of 
revival,  as  the  emigration  had  been  for  indifference  to  all  religious 

The  first,  in  point  of  time,  was  Edward  Brice,  M.A.,  who,  on 
account  of  his  strenuous  opposition  to  all  efforts  to  introduce  Epis- 
copacy into  Scotland,  was  compelled  to  leave  his  parish,  Drymen 
in  Stirhngshire ;  turning  his  attention  to  Ireland,  he  directed  his 
steps  to  Broad  Island  in  County  Antrim,  where  ah  old  acquaint- 
ance had  settled  in  1609.  He  began  to  exercise  his  minisfry  there 
in  1613.     "  In  all  his  preaching,"  says  Livingston,  "  he  insi 

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most  on  the  life  of  Christ  in  the  heart,  and  the  Hght  of  His  spirit 
and  word  on  the  mind ;  that  being  his  own  continual  exercise." 
The  wrath  of  man,  in  his  troubles  at  home  in  Scotland,  was  over- 
ruled of  God  to  bring  him  to  preach  Christ  to  the  desolate  ;  his 
being  driven  from  his  parish,  was  the  leading  of  others  to  the 
Kingdom  of  God.     He  died  in  1636,  aged  67  years. 

The  second  was  John  Ridge,  a  native  of  England.  He  had 
been  admitted  to  the  order  of  Deacon  by  the  Bishop  of  Oxford  ; 
but  feeling  no  freedom  to  exercise  his  ministry  in  England,  on 
account  of  the  requisitions  made  of  the  clergy,  he  removed  to 
Ireland,  and  on  presentation  of  Lord  Chichester,  was  admitted  to 
the  vicarage  of  Antrim  in  July,  1619.  Blair  styles  him — "the 
judicious  and  gracious  Minister  of  Antrim."  Livingston  says  of 
him  :  "  he  used  not  to  have  many  points  in  his  sermon  ;  but  he 
so  enlarged  those  he  had,  that  it  was  scarcely  possible  for  any 
hearer  to  forget  his  preaching.  He  was  a  great  urger  of  charita- 
ble works,  and  a  very  humble  man."  After  having  witnessed  the 
power  erf  religion  in  an  uncommon  degree  in  Antrim,  as  will  be 
noticed  more  particularly  in  another  place,  when  the  great  revival 
comes  up  for  narration,  he  died  about  the  year  1637. 

The  third  was  Mr.  Hubbard,  a  Puritan  minister  from  England. 
He  was  Episcopally  ordained  ;  but  havii^g  forsaken  the  commun- 
ion of  the  Established  Church,  and  taken  charge  of  a  non-con- 
forming congregation,  at  Southwark,  London,  he  was  greatly 
oppressed  by  the  intolerant  measures  of  the  times,  and  with  his 
people  resolved  on  removing  to  Ireland,  in  hopes  of  greater 
freedom  in  religion.  Lord  Chichester  being  informed  of  their  in- 
tention, invited  them  to  Carrickfergus ;  they  were  peaceably 
settled  there  about  the  year  1621.  Blair  speaks  of  him  as  "  an 
able  and  gracious  man."  He  soon  died ;  but  his  congregation 
shared  largely  in  the  divine  blessing  that  so  unexpectedly  was 
poured  upon  Ulster  county. 

The  fourth  was  James  Glendenning,  whose  labors  were  pecu- 
liarly blessed,  a  native  of  Scotland,  educated  at  St.  Andrews,  and 
early  in  life  removing  to  Scotland,  he  succeeded  Mr.  Hubbard  at 
Carrickfergus.  The  theatre  of  his  greatest  usefulness  was  Old- 
stone,  near  Antrim,  where  commenced,  under  his  preaching,  the 
Revival  that  spread  oyer  the  province,  and  laid  the  foundation  of 
the  Irish  Presbyterian  Church.  Mr.  Glendenning  was  not 
esteemed  as  a  man  of  much  ability  or  learning  ;  but  his  preach- 
ing being  full  of  life  and  earnestness  was  much  admired,  and 
greatly  blessed  of  God.     He  left  Lreland  in  a  few  years. 

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The  fifth  was  Robert  Cunningham.  Having  been  chaplain  to 
the  Earl  of  Buccleugh,  in  Holland,  on  the  return  of  the  troops  to 
Scotland  he  went  to  Ireland,  and  became  curate  of  Holjrwood  and 
Craigavad  in  County  Down.  His  name  does  not  appear  upon  the 
roll  as  curate  till  1622,  though  he  was  in  Ireland  some  years  pre- 
vious to  that  time.  Livingston  says  of  him  :  "  To  my  discerning 
he  was  the  one  man  who  most  resembled  the  meekness  of  Jesus 
Christ,  in  all  his  carriage,  that  ever  I  saw,  and  was  so  far  reve- 
renced, even  by  the  wicked,  that  he  was  often  troubled  with  that 
scripture — *  woe  to  you  when  all  men  speak  well  of  you.' "  He 
died  in  Scotland,  March  29th,  1637,  having  witnessed,  in  an  extra- 
ordinary manner,  the  power  of  the  gospel. 

The  sixth  was  Robert  Blair.  He  had  been  professor  in  the 
College  of  Glasgow,  but  was  induced  tp  leave  the  situation  on 
account  of  the  measures  used  by  Dr.  Cameron  to  introduce  Pre- 
lacy ;  being  invited  by  Lord  Claneboy  (James  Hamilton),  he  went 
to  Ireland  in.  May,  1623,  and  was  settled  in  Bangor,  in  County 
Down.  On  his  first  landing  in  Ireland,  his  prejudices  against  the 
country  were  greatly  increased  by  what  he  saw.  Lord  Clanejjoy 
interested  himself  very  much  in  removing  his  difficulties,  and  Mr. 
Gibson,  the  first  Protestant  Dean  of  Down,  then  sick,  invited 
him  to  preacb  in  Bangor,  and  afterwards  united  with  the  congrega- 
tion in  urging  him  to  make  that  his  abode.  Mr.  Blair,  in  his 
narrative,  says :  Mr.  Gibson  "  condemned  Episcopacy  more 
strongly  than  I  durst  to  ;  he  charged  me  in  the  name  of  Christ,  as 
I  expected  a  blessing  on  my  ministry,  not  to  leave  that  good  way 
wherein  I  had  begun  to  walk  ;  and  then  drawing  my  head  towards 
his  bosom,  with  both  «arms,  he  laid  his  hands  on  my  head,  and 
blessed  me." 

On  his  first  interview  he  frankly  told  Bishop  Echlin  his  objec- 
tions to  Prelacy.  Echlin  promised  to  impose  no  conditions  on  him, 
but  said  he  must  ordain  him,  or  they  could  not  answer  the  laws  of 
the  land.  Blair  objected  to  the  performance  of  the  ordination  by 
him  alone.  The  bishop  finally  agreed  to  associate  Mr.  Cunning- 
ham and  the  neighboring  ministers  with  him  in  the  ordination  :  and 
the  service  was  performed  July  10th,  1623.  "Whatever  you  ac- 
couiii  of  Episcopacy,  yet  I  know  you  account  a  presbytery  to  have 
a  divine  warrant,"  said  the  bishop  to  him.  "  Will  you  not  receive 
ordination  from  Mr.  Cunningham  and  the  adjacent  brethren,  and 
let  me  come  in  among  ihmx  in  no  other  relation  than  a  pres- 

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Livingston  says  of  Blair, — "  he  w^s  a  man  of  a  notable  consti- 
tution both  of  body  and  mind ;  of  a  majestic,  awful,  yet  aiffable  and 
amiable  countenance  and  carriage,  learned,  of  strong  parts,  deep 
inventions,  and  solid  judgment.  He  seldom  ever  wanted  assurance 
of  his  salvation.  He  spent  many  days  and  nights  in  prayer  alone, 
and  with  others,  and  was  vouchsafed  great  intimacy  with  God." 

The  seventh  was  James  Hamilton,  nephew  to  Lord  Claneboy 
(James  Hamilton,  who  obtained  a  part  of  O'NeilFs  estate),  whom 
Mr.  Blair  found  in  the  employ  of  his  uncle,  as  steward,  or  agent. 
Perceiving  his  piety,  and  knowing  his  education,  he  invited  him  to 
enter  the  ministry.  "  I  invited  him,"  says  Mr.  Blair,  "  to  preach 
in  my  pulpit,  in  his  uncle's  hearing,  who  till  then  knew  nothing  of 
this  matter.  We  were  afraid  the  viscount  would  not  part  with  so 
faithful  a  servant.  But  he,  having  once  heard  his  nephew,  did  put 
more  respect  on  him  than  before."  Mr.  Hamilton  was  ordained 
by  Bishop  Echlin  in  the  year  1625. 

These  seven  fafethren  labored  with  the  spirit  of  missionaries  of 
the  cro8%  and  triumphing  over  all  difficulties,  were  favored  with 
an  extraordinary  measure  of  success.  Their  influence  was  first 
seen  in  a  reformation  of  manners  and  a  devout  attention  to  religion ; 
and  led,  under  the  blessing  of  God,  to  a  revival  of  religion,  which 
spread  over  a  large  part  of  the  counties  of  Down  and  Antrim,  and 
is  one  of  the  most  signal  on  record  in  the  Protestant  Church.  This 
revival  first  appeared  under  the  preaching  of  the  weakest  of  the 
brethren,  Mr.  Glendenning.  Mr.  Stewart,  in  his  narrative,  thus 
relates  the  matter :  "  Mr.  Blair,  coming  over  from  Bangor  to  Car- 
rickfergus  on  some  business,  and  occasionally  hearing  Mr.  Glen- 
denning preach,  perceived  some  sparkles  of  good  inclination  in  him, 
yet  found  him  not  solid  but  weak,  and  not  fitted  for  a  public  place, 
and  among  the  English.  On  which  Mr.  Blair  did  call  him,  and 
losing  freedom  with  him,  advised  him  to  go,to  some  place  in  the 
country  among  his  countrymen ;  whereupon  he  went  to  Oldstone 
(near  the  town  of  Antrim),  and  was  there  placed.  He  was  a  man 
who  could  never  have  been  chosen  by  a  wise  assembly  of  minis- 
ters, nor  sent  to  begin  a  reformation  in  ttis  land.  For  he  was 
little  better  than  distracted, — yea  afterwards  did  actually  become 

"At  Oldstone  God  made  use  of  him  to  awaken  the  consciences 
of  a  lewd  people  thereabouts.  For  seeing  the  great  lewdness  and 
ungodly  sinfulness  of  the  people,  he  freached  nothing  to  them  but 
law,  wrath,  and  the  terrors  of  God  for  sin.  And  indeed  for  nothing 
else  was  he  fitted,  for  hardly  could  he  preach  any  other  thing." 

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But  behold  the  success  !  For  the  hearers  finding  themselves  con- 
demned by  the  mouth  of  God  speaking  in  his  work,  fell  into  such 
anxiety  and  terror  of  conscience,  that  they  looked  on  themselves  as 
altogether  lost  and  damned ;  and  this  work  appeared  not  in  one 
single  person  or  two,  but  multitudes  were  brought  to  understand 
their  way,  and  to  cry  out,  *  Men  and  brethren,  what  shall  we  do  to 
be  saved  V  I  have  seen  them  myself^stricken  into  a  swoon  with  a 
word ;  yea,  a  dozen  in  one  day  carried  out  of  doors  as  dead, — so 
marvellous  was  the  power  of  God,  smiting  their  hearts  for  sin, 
•condemning  and  killing.  And  these  were  none  of  the  weaker  sex 
or  spirit,  but  indeed  some  of  the  boldest  spirits,  who  formerly 
feared  not,  with  their  swords,  to  put  a  whole  market  town 
in  a  fray; — ^yea,  in  defence  of  their  stubbornness  cared  not 
to  lie  in  prison  and  in  the  stocks, — and  being  incorrigible, 
were  as  ready  to  do  the  like  next  day.  I  have  heard  one 
of  them,  then  a  mighty  strong  man,  now  a  mighty  Christian,  say, 
that  his  end  in  coming  to  church  was  to  consult  with  his  compa- 
nions how  to  work  iome  mischief.  And  yet  at  one  of  those 
sermons  was  he  so  catched,  that  he  was  fully  subdued.  But  why 
do  I  speak  of  him  ?  we  knew,  and  yet  know  multitudes  of  such 
men,  who  sinned,  and  still  gloried  in  it,  because  they  feared  no 
man,  yet  are  now  patterns  of  sobriety,  fearing  to  sin,  because  they 
fear  God." 

"  And  this  spread  thi^ugh  the  country  to  admiration,  especially 
about  that  river,  commonly  called  the  Six  Mile  Water,  for  there 
this  work  began  at  first.  At  this  time  of  the  people's  gathering  to 
Christ,  it  pleased  the  Lord  to  visit  mercifully  the  honorable  family 
in  Antrim,  so  as  Sir  John  Clotworthy,  and  my  Lady  his  mother, 
and  his  own  precious  Lady,  did  shine  in  an  eminent  manner  in  re- 
ceiving the  gospel  and  ofiering  themselves  to  the  Lord,  whose 
example  instantly  other  gentlemen  followed,  such  as  Captain  Nor- 
ton and  others,  of  whom  the  gospel  made  a  clear  and  cleanly  con- 

This  religious  excitement  spreading  wide,  continued  for  a  con- 
siderable length  of  time ;  the  demand  for  the  pure  word  of  the 
gospel  was  unceasing ;  and  the  labors  of  the  ministers  unremitting. 
The  mercy  of  the  gospel  was  welcomed  by  the  hearts  wounded 
for  sin  and  by  sin ;  and  great  numbers  were  hopefully  awakened 
and  converted  to  God.  Among  other  things  .that  followed  this  re- 
vival was  the  Monthly  Meeting  at  Antrwiy  the  effects  of  which 
were  great  and  happy.  Its  origin  is  thus  described  by  Stewart  and 
Blair  :— 

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"There  was  a  man  in  the  parish  of  Oldstone,  called  Hugh 
Campbell,  who  had  fled  from  Scotland ;  God  caught  hhn  in  Ireland, 
and  made  him  an  eminent  and  exemplary  Christian  until  this  day. 
He  was  a  gentleman  of  the  house  of  Duckethall.  After  this  man 
was  healed  of  the  wound  given  to  his  soul  by  the  Almighty,  he 
became  very  refreshful  to  others  who  had  less  learning  and  judg- 
ment than  himself.  He  therefore  invited  some  of  his  honest 
neighbors,  who  fought  the  same  fight  of  faith,  to  meet  him  at  his 
house  on  the  last  Friday  of  every  month ;  where  and  when,  be- 
ginning with  a  few,  they  spent  their  time  in  prayer,  mutual  edifi- 
cation, and  conference,  on  what  they  found  within  them :  nothing 
Uke  the  superficial  superfluous  meetings  of  some  pold-hearted  pro- 
fessorSy  who  afterwards  made  this  work  a  snare  to  many.  But 
these  new  beginners  were  more  filled  with  heart  exercises  than 
head  notions,  and  with  fervent  prayer  rather  than  conceity  notions 
to  fill  the  head.  As  these  truly  increased,  so  did  this  meeting  for 
private  edification  increase  too;  and  still  at  Hugh  Campbell's 
house,  on  the  last  Friday  of  the  month.  At  last  they  grew  so  nu- 
merous that  the  ministers  who  had  begotten  them  again  to  Christ, 
thought  fit  that  some  of  them  should  be  still  with  them,  to  prevent 
what  hurt  might  follow."  This  took  place  in  the  year  1626. 
Here  Mr.  Stewart's  narrative  ends  abruptly.  Mr.  Blair  says : — 
"  Mr.  John  Ridge,  the  judicious  and  gracious  minister  of  Antrim, 
perceiving  many  people,  both  sides  of  the  Six  Mile  Water,  awak- 
ened out  of  their  security,  made  an  overture  that  a  monthly  meet- 
ing might  be  set  up  at  Antrim,  which  was  within  a  mile  of  Oldstone, 
and  lay  centrical  for  the  awakened  persons  to  resort  to,  and  he 
invited  Mr.  Cunningham,  Mr.  Hamilton,  and  myself,  to  take  part 
in  that  work,  who  were  all  glad  of  the  motion,  and  heartily  em- 
braced it." 

As  the  revival  progressed,  the  news  of  it  reached  Scotland, 
and  called  the  attention  of  the  whole  Christian  community  to  Ire- 
land ;  and  in  consequence,  some  very  able  ministers  went  over  to 
take  part  in  the  work,  and  were  blessed  of  God  in  being  exten- 
sively useful  in  laying  the  foundation  of  the  Irish  Presbyterian 
Church.  In  addition  to  the  seven  who  went  previous  to  the  revival, 
the  following  six,  who  entered  the  field  during  the  great  excitement, 
are  worthy  of  particular  notice. 

The  firstf  Josias  Welch,  son  of  John  Welch,  of  Ayr,  and 
grandson  of  John  Knox,  the  Reformer,  by  his  third  daughter, 
Elizabeth.  Having  finished  his  education  at  Geneva,  he  filled  a 
Professor's  chair  in  Glasgow,  till  the  movements  of  Dr.  Cameron 


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for  prelacy,  which  drove  Mr.  Blair  from  college,  induced  him  also 
to  surrender  his  office.  At  Mr.  Blair's  earnest  instigation  he  went 
to  Ireland  in  1626,  and  like  that  good  man,  found  that  per- 
secution, as  in  the  days  of  the  death  of  Stephen,  sometimes 
drives  men  into  that  part  of  the  Lord's  vineyard  where  they  reap 
the  richest  harvest  for  eternal  life.  He  preached  for  a  time 
at  Oldstone,  where  the  excitement  began ;  and  having  been  or- 
dained by  his  kinsman  Knox,  Bishop  of  Raphoe,  in  Donegal, 
was  soon  after  settled  at  Temple  Patrick,  and,  Livingston  says, 
had  many  seals  to  his  ministry.  He  died  on  Monday,  June  23d, 

The  second  that  came  was  Andrew  Stewart,  who  was  settled 
as  minister  of  Donegore,  adjoining  Temple  Patrick  and  Antrim. 
Blair  styles  him  "  a  learned  gentleman,  and  fervent  in  spirit,  and  a 
very  successful  minister  of  the  word  of  God."  He  died  in  July, 

The  third  was  George  Dunbar.  He  had  been  minister  of  Ayr, 
and  was  twice  ejected  on  account  of  his  nonconformity,  and  for  a 
time  confined  in  Blackness,  and  then  banished.  On  the  arrival  of 
the  news  of  his  second  ejectment,  he  turned  to  his  wife  and  said  : 
"  Wife,  get  the  creels  ready  again  ;"  that  is,  the  osier  baskets  in 
which  he  had  carried  his  children  in  his  first  remove.  He  was 
driven  to  Ireland  to  be  blessed  in  the  Lord's  vineyard.  Being  set- 
tled at  Lama,  county  Antrim,  his  congregation  participated  in  the 
great  revival ;  and  among  the  subjects  was  the  singular  case  of  a 
deaf  and  dumb  person,  Andrew  Brown,  who,  by  his  reformed  life 
and  expressions  of  piety,  prevailed  on  the  ministers,  who  met  at 
Antrim,  in  their  monthly  meetings,  to  admit  him  to  the  Lord's 
table.  A  singular,  and  almost  soUtary,  case  of  a  mute  professing 
spiritual  rehgion,  previous  to  the  recent  successful  eflforts  at  giving 
them  instruction. 

The  fourth  was  Henry  Colwort,  a  native  of  England,  ordain- 
ed by  Knox,  Bishop  of  Raphoe,  on  the  4lh  of  May,  1629,  and 
settled  at  Oldstone,  June,  1630.  Blair  says,  "  this  able  minister 
was  a  blessing  to  that  people ;"  and  JJvingston  speaks  of  him  as 
one  "  who  very  pertinently  cited  much  So  ipture  in  his  sermons, 
and  frequency  urged  fasting  and  prayer." 

The  fifth  was  John  Livingston.  Being  silenced  by  Spotis- 
wood,  Archbishop  of  St.  Andrews,  in  the  year  162?^,  and  being 
prevented  by  the  bishops  from  obtaining  a  settlement,  though  invi- 
tations came  to  him  from  various  quarters,  he  at  length  yielded  to 
the  storm,  and  following  the  hand  of  the  Lord,  went  to  Ireland, 

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August,  1630,  and  was  settled  in  Killinchy,  in  county  Down.  He 
received  ordination  from  Knox,  in  the  same  manner  Blair  had  done, 
some  years  previously.  In  the  month  of  June  preceding  his 
removal  to  Ireland,  he  had,  in  company  with  Mr.  Robert  Blair, 
assisted  at  the  famous  meeting  in  the  Kirk  of  Shotts,  which  re- 
sulted in  the  hopeful  conversion  of  so  large  a  company.  Under 
his  sermon  on  Monday,  which  he  delivered  after  hours  of  medita- 
tion and  private  prayer,  the  whole  audience  seemed  under  the  con- 
victing power  of  the  word,  and  as  many  ^sjive  hundred^  of  those 
that  day  impressed,  afterwards  professed  faith  in  Christ.  Some 
saj  that,  reckoning  up  all  that  from  that  day's  preaching  became 
hopefuDy  religious,  the  number  would  be  swelled  to  seven  hun- 
dred ;  as  the  audience  was  collected  from  a  great  distance,  as 
usual  on  Scotch  communion  days,  many  of  the  hopeful  converts 
were  from  distant  congregations,  and  some  who  dated  their  reli- 
gious impressions  from  that  day^  did  not  profess  religion  for  a 
length  of  time. 

The  great  excitement  produced  at  this  meeting  rendered  Mr. 
Blair  and  Mr.  Livingston  more  obnoxious  than  ever  to  the  Pre- 
lates, who,  under  pretence  of  their  having  transgressed  the  order 
of  the  Church  and  the  government,  prevailed  on  Bishop  EchUn,  in 
Ireland,  in  September,  1631,  to  suspend  both  these  men  from  their 
ministerial  functions.  No  service  done  to  God,  in  the  conversion 
of  men,  could  satisfy  these  Prelates  for  nonconformity  to  their  es- 
tablished rules  of  Church  government. 

Two  others  were  extensively  useful,  though  not  settled  in  con- 
gregations. One  was  John  McClelland,  of  whom  Livingston 
says, — "  he  was  first  school-master  at  Newton- Ards  in  Ireland, 
where  he  bred  several  hopeful  youths  for  the  college.  Being  first 
tried  and  approved  by  the  honest  ministers  in  the  county  of  Down, 
he  often  preached  in  their  churches.  He  was  a  most  straight  and 
zealous  man ;  he  knew  not  what  it  was  to  be  afraid  of  man  in 
the  causft  of  God ;  and  was  early  acquainted  with  God  and  his 

The  other  was  John  Semple.  According  to  the  mode  of  com- 
mencing public  worship,  he,  as  clerk  or  precentor,  was,  as  custom- 
ary, singing  a  psalm  before  the  minister  came  in  that  was  to 
preach.  Thinking  the  minister  tarried  long,«he  felt  an  impulse  to 
speak  something  to  tiie  psalm  he  was  singing ;  and,  as  he  said, — 
"  he  was  carried  out  with  great  liberty."  The  ministers,  looking 
upon  his  case  as  peculiar,  made  private  trials  of  his  capabiUty  to 
teach,  and  gave  him  license  '^  to  exercise  his  gifts  in  private  houses 

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and  families.*'  With  this  liberty  he  went  through  the  country 
with  great  acceptance;  the  people  flocked  to  hear  him,  fiUing 
dwelling-houses  and  bams ;  and  to  very  many  he  was  the  happy 
instrument  of  God  in  their  conversion. 

These  ministers  were  powerful  auxiliaries  in  extending  the  re- 
vival in  Ulster.  The  churches  gathered  by  them  multiplied  and 
extended,  and  became  a  large  body ;  and  from  them  were  the 
emigrants  whose  descendants  are  found  in  Pennsylvania,  western 
Virginia,  North  and  South  Carolina,  in  large  bodies,  and  also  in 
smaller  companies  scattered  over  the  southern  and  western  portions 
of  the  United  States. 

The  monthly  meeting  set  up  at  Oldstone  by  Mr.  Campbell,  being 
altogether  in  the  hands  of  the  inexperienced,  was  likely  to  lead  to 
the  evils  that  result  from  zeal  without  knowledge.  By  the  prudent 
exertions  of  Mr.  Ridge  of  Antrim,  a  monthly  meeting  of  ministers 
was  formed,  which  took  the  place  of  the  other,  prevented  the 
dreaded  evils,  and  became  instrumental  of  great  good  to  the  com- 
munity. The  exercises  of  those  meetings  were  very  similar  to  the 
services  performed  at  the  conununion  seasons  in  Scotland,  and  to 
the  communion  seasons  and  four  day  meetings  held  by  the  Pres- 
byterians in  Virginia  and  the  Carolinas,  and  indeed  in  the  whole 
South  and  West.  People  flocked  to  them  in  crowds,  and  embraced 
the  opportunity  of  conversation  with  their  minister,  and  each 
other,  on  the  great  subjects  of  Religion ;  and  the  minister  took  the 
opportunity  of  communicating  instructions  on  important  subjects, 
and  for  the  exercise  of  necessary  discipline,  in  which  unity  of 
purpose  and  action  was  required. 

Mr.  Brice  of  Broad  Island,  and  Mr.  Dunbar,  who  was  for  a  time 
his  assistant,  aud  afterwards  settled  at  Oldstone,  were  called  to 
the  exercise  of  prudence  and  judgment  in  another  way.  In  Broad 
Island*  and  the  adjaeent  parish  of  Oldstone,  there  were  several 
persons  violently  afiected  during  public  worship  with  hard  breath- 
ings and  convulsions  of  the  body.  These  new  and  stfange  exer- 
cises they  considered  as  evidences  of  the  work  of  the  Spirit. 
Messrs.  Brice  and  Dunbar  examined  thenfcareftilly  on  this  matter, 
and  on  conferring  with  them  about  their  state  of  mind  and  heart, 
could  not  find  that  these  bodily  exercises  either  produced  or  ac- 
companied any  discovery  of  their  sinfrilness  before  God,  nor  any 
clear  views  of  Christ,  or  desires  after  him.  They  therefore  con- 
sidered the  exercises  to  be  ^ther  an  imposition  or  a  delusion. 
The  minist^al  brethren  were  called  together  upon  the  matter ; 
^d  after  a  patient  examination  they  decided  against  the  opinion 

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that  the  exercises  were  either  a  work  of  the  Spirit  or  any  etidence 
of  its  presence.  Mr.  Blair  says — "  When  we  came  and  conferred 
with  them,  we  perceived  it  to  be  a  mere  delusion  and  cheat  of  the 
destroyer,  to  slander  and  disgrace  the  work  of  God."  The  putting 
down  these  irregularities  did  not  hinder  the  progress  of  the  good 
work,  but  rather  gave  confidence  both  to  preachers  stnd  people. 
Instead  of  permitting  the  passions  and  feelings  of  their  hearers  to 
lead  the  pastors,  or  the  heat  of  excitement  to  blind  their  eyes, 
they  submitted  all  things  in  religion  to  the  test  of  Scripture,  and 
by  its  authority  they  chose  to  abide.  This  was  their  rule  in 
church  government,  ordination  and  doctrine  :  and  more  than  two 
centuries  in  Europe,  and  more  than  a  century  in  America,  has 
tested  and  proved  the  prudence  and  propriety  of  their  decisions. 

The  monthly  meeting  at  -\ntrim,  besides  being  a  source  of  rich 
encouragement  and  high  enjoyment  to  the  people,  became  to  the 
ministers  a  source  of  great  consolation.  In  them  they  took  coun- 
sel and  gave  advice,  and  comforted  and  exhorted  each  other ;  and, 
until  presbyteries  were  formed,  it  was  their  grand  council.  It 
must  be  borne  in  mind,  that  the  whole  country  was  under  the 
Established  Church  of  England;  and  in  the  space  occupied 
by  these  laborers  were  some  twenty  ministers  of  the  Established 
Church,  who  took  no  interest  in  the  revival,  but  rather  set  them- 
selves against  it,  and  were  opposed  to  these  ministers  preaching  in 
their  parish  bounds.  Bishop  Echlin,  at  first  favorable  to  these 
ministers,  soon  became  their  bitter  enemy :  while  Knox  of  Raphoe 
continued  their  firiend  to  the  last.  Mr.  Livingston  says  that  the 
brethren  that  formed  this  meeting  lived  in  the  greatest  harmony, 
each  preferring  the  other  in  love. 

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In  the  spring  of  the  year  1631,  the  presbyterians  of  Ulster, 
wearied  out  by  the  intolerance  of  Charles  I^  and  Archbishop 
Laud,  and  the  consequent  exactions  of  the  ministers  of  the  crown, 
particularly  the  Lord  Deputy  Wentworth,  afterwards  Earl  of 
Stafford,  by  which  their  cup  of  bitterness  was  made  to  overflow, 
turned  their  eyes  to  the  new  settlements  in  the  wilds  of  America. 
TL41  PuiilAuu  oL^Eflgls^y  who  were  contending  and  suffering  for 
the  same  rights  of  conscience,  had  planted  colonies  in  Massachu- 
setts, which  cheered  them  with  the  expectation  of  a  refuge  from 
the  ills  they  could  neither  be  freed  from,  nor  endure,  in  their  native 
land.  The  flourishing  colony  had  been  planted  at  Salem,  in  the 
year  1628,  and  had  been  even  more  successful  than  Plymouth. 
These  prosperous  efforts  to  secure  the  enjoyment  of  liberty  of 
conscience,  turned  the  attention  of  the  distressed  congregations  of 
Ireland  to  seek,  in  the  deeper  solitudes  of  distant  America,  what 
had  been  promised,  and  sought  {or  iu  vain,  in  depopulated  Ireland ; 
or  enjoyed  only  while  they  reclaimd  the  desolations  of  the  pre- 
vious rebellion. 

The  ministers  that  had  come  over  from  Scotland,  whose  names 
have  been  enumerated,  had  not  attempted  to  form  a  Presbytery. 
The  whole  country  had  been  laid  off  into  parishes  and  bishoprics 
of  the  Church  of  England ;  and  as  the  emigrants  from  England 
or  Scotland  found  their  residences,  they  were  consequently  tf - 
eluded  in  some  parish,  and  the  ministers  that  came  over  to  i»reach 
to  them  were  admitted  to  occupy  parish  churches,  and  enjoy  their 
own  forms  and  ceremonies.  Archbishop  Usher  was  most  mild 
and  tolerant  in  his  views  of  church  order  and  government ; 
and  so,  for  a  time  at  least,  were  some  of  his  bishops  ;  and  in  the 
different  Dioceses  of  Ulster  might  be  seen  priests  and  deacons  of 
the  Established  Church,  and  here  and  there  intermingled  a  Pres- 
byterian or  Puritan  minister,  with  a  flock  of  their  own  peculiar 
creed  and  fonoos,  under  the  bishop's  siJ^ervision.  The  great 
revival  had  broken  up  some  of  this  quietness  and  order  that  had 

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T^E    EAOLE    WING.  103 

prevailed,  by  osciting  jealousies  between  the  favorers  and  0{]^sers 
of  that  blessed  work :  the  bishops  mostly  witlidrew  their  favor 
and  protection,  and  were  ready  to  carry  into  eflfect  the  rigid  orders 
from  Laud  and  the  Deputy,  and  proceeded  to  silence  those  that 
would  not  conform  strictly  to  the  rites  and  ceremonies  of  the  esta- 
blishment, and  began  with  Blair  and  Livingston  :  but  by  the  good 
offices  of  Archbishop  Usher  these  men  were  restored  to  their 
ministry.  Their  enemies,  however,  made  representations  at  Court 
which  resulted  in  shutting  out  from  the  exercise  of  the  ministry, 
Blair,  Welch,  Livingston,  and  Dunbar. 

These  oppressed  ministers,  with  many  of  their  respective 
charges,  began  to  make  preparation  for  removal  to  America.  Two 
persons  were  appointed  delegates  to  visit  New  England,  the  Rev. 
John  Livingston  and  Mr.  Wilham  Wallace,  and,  if  circumstances 
were  favorable,  to  choose  a  place  for  their  future  residence. 
They  proceeded  to  England  to  find  a  passage  to  America ;  but 
some  unexpected  difficulties  caused  their  return  to  Ireland,  and 
prospects  in  Ireland  appearing  more  favorable,  the  project  was  for 
a  time  abandoned.  In  1634,  these  ministers,  who  had  been  re- 
stored to  their  office,  were  three  of  them  again  suspended,  and 
the  next  year  the  fourth,  Livingston,  shared  the  same  fate  ;  their 
only  crime  charged  was  their  opposition  to  Episcopal  forms. 
During  the  same  year  four  other  ministers  were  forbidden  the 
exercise  of  their  ministry  on  account  of  their  adherence  to  Pres- 
byterial  forms  ;  Brice,  who  was  amongst  the  earliest  that  visited 
Ireland,  and  after  a  laborious  ministry  of  twenty  years,  died  the 
next  year  after  his  suspension,  aged  sixty-seven  years, — Ridge^ 
who  went  to  Antrim  in  1619,  and  had  been  most  laborious  and 
successful,  and  after  his  suspension  returned  to  Scotland,  and  died 
1637, — Cunningham,  who  had  gone  over  in  1622,  and  returning 
to  Scotland,  after  his  suspension,  died  in  1637, — and  Colworty 
minister  at  Oldstone,  where  the  great  Revival  began. 

Once  more  preparations  for  emigration  were  commenced,  and  a 
correspondence  opened  with  the  colonies  in  New  England.  Cotton 
Mather,  m  his  Magnolia,  tells  ua^  Book  1st — "  That  there  were 
divers  gentlemen  in  Scotland,  who,  being  uneasy  under  the  eccle- 
siastical burdens  of  the  times,  wrote  on  to  New  England  the  in- 
quiries : — Whether  they  might  be  there  suffered  freely  to  exercise 
their  Presbyterial  church  government  ?  And  it  was  freely 
answered — that  they  might.  Thereupon  they  sent  over  an  agent, 
who  pitched  upon  a  tmct  of  land  near  the  mouth  of  the  Merrimac 
River,  whither  they  intended  to  transplant  themselves.      But 

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althougb  they  had  so  fiar  proceeded  in  their  Toyagft  as  to  be  half- 
seas  through,  the  manifold  crosses  they  met  withal,  made  them 
give  over  their  intentions  ;  and  the  providence  of  God  so  ordered 
it  that  some  of  these  very  gentlemen  vrere  afterwaids  the  revivers 
of  that  well-known  Solemn  League  and  Covenant,  which  had  so 
great  an  influence  upon  the  nation."  There  is  one  error  in  this 
extract.  The  conclusion  would  naturally  be,  that  the  expedition 
was  from  Scotland ;  and  very  probably  Mather  understood  it  to 
be  from  that  country, — ^whereas,  the  company  sailed  fix)m  the 
North  of  Ireland.  The  error  arose  undoubtedly  fit)m  the  feet,  that 
the  correspondence  was  carried  on  from  Scotland,  and  the  agent 
was  a  Scotchman,  the  ministers  were  from  Scotland,  and  of  no 
small  eminence,  and  the  colonists  themselves  were  either  Scotch- 
men by  birth,  or  the  children  of  Scotchmen  reared  in  Ireland. 

The  deposition  of  their  ministers,  which  took  place  August  12th, 
1636,  hastened  the  preparations  for  emigration,  and  on  the  9th  of 
the  following  September,  the  Eagle  Wing,  a  vessel  pf  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  tons,  set  sail  from  Lockfergus  with  one  hundred  and 
forty  emigrants  prepared  for  the  voyage,  and  a  settlement  in  a 
new  country.  The  colonists  took  with  them  the  necessary  imple- 
ments for  carrying  on  fisheries,  and  also  a  considerable  amount  of 
merchandise  to  assist  them  by  traffic  to  meet  the  expenses  of  the 
voyage  and  necessities  of  the  new  settlement.  Among  the  emi- 
grants were  four  noted  preachers,  Robert  Blair,  John  Living- 
ston, James  Hamilton,  and  John  McClelland  :  all  afterwards 
promoters  of  the  cause  of  truth  in  Scotland  and  Ireland.  Among 
the  families  that  composed  the  company  were  the  names  Stuarty 
Agnew,  Campbell,  Summervil,  and  Brown,  Many^single  persons 
united  in  the  expedition,  and  with  them  sailed  Andrew  Brown,  a 
deaf  mute,  from  the  parish  of  Lame,  who  during  tlie  revival  had 
been  deeply  aflfected,  and  had  given  satisfactory  evidence,  by 
signs  connected  with  a  godly  Ufe,  of  having  been  truly  converted. 
Like  the  voyagers  in  the  May  Flower,  this  devoted  people  met 
with  difficulties.  The  New  England  Memorial  traces  them  in 
the  former  case  to  the  knavery  of  the  shipmaster,  first  in  spring- 
ing the  leak,  then  in  landing  them  far  north  of  the  intended  har- 
bor ;  in  the  present  case  the  parties  concerned  referred  them  to 
the  providence  of  God. 

"  We  had,"  says  the  Rev.  John  Livingston  in  his  account  of 
the  voyage,  "  much  toil  in  our  preparation,  ma^iy  hindrances  in 
our  outsetting,  and  both  sad  and  glad  hearts  in  talong  leave  of  our 
friends.    At  last,  about  the  month  of  September,  1636,  we  loosed 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

THE   EAGLB   WINO,  105 

firom  Lockfergut,  but  were  detained  some  time  with  contrary 
winds  in  Lock  Regan  in  Scotland,  and  gromided  the  ship  to 
search  for  some  leaks  in  the  keel  of  the  boat.  Yet  thereafter,  we 
set  to  sea,  and  for  some  space  had  fair  winds,  till  we  were  be- 
tween three  and  four  hundred  leagues  from  Ireland,  and  no  nearer 
the  banks  of  Newfoundland  than  any  place  in  Europe.  But  if 
ever  the  Lord  spoke  by  his  winds  and  other  dispensations,  it  was 
made  evident  to  us,  that  it  was  not  his  will  that  we  should  go  to 
New  England.  For  we  met  with  a  mighty  heavy  rain  from  the 
northwest,  which  did  break  our  rudder,  which  we  got  mended 
by  the  skill  and  courage  of  Captain  Andrew  Agnew,  a  godly 
passenger  ;  and  tore  our  foresail,  five  or  six  of  our  champlets,  and 
a  great  beam  under  the  gunney's  room  door  broke.  Seas  came  ^ 
in  over  the  round  house,  and  broke  a  plank  or  two  on  the  deck, 
and  wet  all  that  were  between  the  decks.  We  sprung  a  leak, 
that  gave  us  seven  hundred,  in  the  two  pumps,  in  the  half  hour 
glass.  Yet  W6  lay  at  hull  a  long  time  to  beat  out  the  storm, 
till  the  master  and  company  came  one  morning  and  told  us  that  it 
was  impossible  to  hold  out  any  longer,  and  although  we  beat  out 
that  storm,  we  might  be  sure  in  that  season  of  the  year,  we  would 
foregather  with  one  or  two  more  of  that  sort  before  we  could 
reach  New  England. 

"  During  all  this  time,  amidst  such  fears  and  dangers,  the  most 
part  of  the  passengers  were  very  cheerful  and  confident ;  yea, 
some  in  prayer  had  expressed  such  hopes,  that  rather  than  the 
Lord  would  sufier  such  a  company  in  such  sort  to  perish,  if  the 
ship  should  break,  he  would  put  wings  to  our  shoulders,  and 
carry  us  safe  ashore.  I  never  in  my  life  found  the  day  so  short, 
as  at  all  that  time,  although  I  slept  some  nights  not  above  two 
hours,  and  some  not  at  all,  but  stood  most  part  in  the  gallery 
astern  the  great  cabin,  where  Mr.  Blair  and  I  and  our  families 
lay.  For  in  the  morning,  by  the  time  every  one  had  been  some 
time  alone,  and  then  at  prayer  in  their  several  societies,  and  then 
at  pubUc  prayer  in  the  ship,  it  was  time  to  go  to  dinner ;  after 
that  we  would  visit  our  friends  or  any  that  were  sick,  and  then 
public  prayer  would  come,  and  after  that,  supper  and  family  ex- 
ercises. Mr.  Blair  was  much  of  the  time  sickly,  and  lay  in  the 
time  of  storms.  I  was  sometimes  sick,  and  then  brother  McClel- 
land only  performed  duty  in  the  ship.  Several  of  those  between 
deck,  being  thronged,  were  sickly ;  an  aged  person  and  one  child 
died,  and  were  buried  in  the  sea.  One  woman,  the  wife  of 
Michael  Calver,  of  KiUinchy  parish,  brought  forth  a  child  in  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


ship.      I    baptized  it   on   Sabbath    following,  and  called    him 

The  report  of  the  master  and  company  filled  them  with  distress, 
— ^the  storm  was  upon  them  and  before  them ;— oppression  had 
driven  them  from  Ireland,  and  waited  their  return.  After  prayer, 
and  long  and  anxious  consultation,  they  agreed  to  return  ;  trusting 
in  the  good  providence  of  God  for  their  future  welfare.  The  next 
morning  as  soon  as  the  day  dawned,  the  ship  was  turned,  and 
they  made  for  Ireland.  Qn  the  third  of  November,  after  a  pros- 
perous sail,  they  came  to  anchor  in  Lockfergus,  the  place  of  their 
departure,  after  an  absence  of  about  eight  weeks,  cast  down  under 
this  providence  of  God,  and  anticipating  hostility,  ridicule  and 
sufTcring.  Having  sold  their  effects  in  preparation  for  the  voyage, 
and  having  vested  their  property  in  provision  and  stock  of  mer- 
chandize, suitable  for  their  expected  residence,  they  experienced 
great  loss  in  disposing  of  their  cargo,  and  reinvesting  the  proceeds 
in  things  suitable  to  their  emergency.  The  persons,  they  had 
hired  to  go  with  them  to  assist  in  .fishing  and  building  houses, 
demanded  their  wages,  and  were  dismissed  at  great  disadvantage 
to  their  employers. 

Their  reception  by  their  friends,  like  their  departure,  was 
mingled  with  "gladness  and  sorrow;" — ^by  their  enemies  with 
anxiety  and  disdain.  Their  friends  conmiiserated  their  calamity, 
and  rejoiced  in  their  safety.  Their  enemies  disliked  their  return, 
fearing  the  consequences,  and  were  for  a  time  divided  in  their 
opinion  how  they  should  be  treated.  Some  were  for  exercising 
greater  lenity;  others  poured  out  their  ridicule  in  no  measured 
terms,  and  in  ballads,  and  notes  to  printed  sermons,  compared 
these  oppressed  and  disheartened  people  to  asses,  which  the  scime 
vessel  had  a  little  before  brought  from  France, — ^and  their  religious 
ministrations  to  brayings  so  sad,  that  Neptune  had  stopped  their 
voyage,  and  sent  them  back  to  Ireland  to  be  improved. 

The  next  year,  1637,  the  ministers  finding  no  peace  in  Ireland, 
went  over  to  Scotland,  and  met  a  most  cordial  reception  firom 
ministers  and  people.  Mr.  Blair  was  settled  at  Ayr ;  Mr.  Living- 
ston at  Stranrear ;  Mr.  Hamilton  at  Dumfries ;  Mr.  Dunbar  at 
Caldir  in  Lothian;  Mr.  McClelland  in  Kirkcudbright;  Mr. 
Temple  in  Carsphain  ;  Mr.  Row  at  Dunfermline  ;  aAd  Mr.  Robert 
Hamilton  at  Ballantises.  These  nine  were  zealous  promoters  of 
the  National  Covenant,  which  was  renewed  for  the  third  time  in 
Edinburgh,  1st  March,  1638.  Four  of  them  were  members  of 
the  famous  assembly  that  met  in  Glasgcm,  in  November  of  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

THE    EAGLE    WING.  107 

same  year,  and  took  an  active  part  in  the  doings  of  that  body,  by 
which  Prelacy  in  Scotland  was  abolished, — ^the  bishops  deposed, — 
and  Presbytery  re-estabUshed.  Those,  who  were  settled  on  the 
western  coast  of  Scotland,  kept  up  their  intercourse  with  Ulster  ; 
and  many  of  their  former  hearers  removed  to  Scotland  to  enjoy 
their  ministrations.  On  the  stated  communions,  great  numbers 
would  go  over  from  Ireland  to  enjoy  the  privileges  they  could  not 
have  at  home  ;  on  one  occasion  five  hundred  persons  went  over 
from  Dovm  to  Stranrear,  to  receive  the  sacrament  at  the  hands  of 
Mr.  Livingston.  At  another  time,  he  baptized  twenty  children 
brought  over  to  him,  for  that  purpose,  by  their  parents,  who  were 
unwilling  to  receive  the  ordinance  from  the  Prelatical  clergy. 

The  influence  which  this  company  of  emigrants  exercised  on 
Ireland,  and  ultimately  on  America,  is  incalculable.  It  is  scarcely 
possible  to  conceive,  that  any  situation  in  New  England  could 
have  aflTorded  them  such  a  theatre  of  action  as  the  province  of 
Ulster;  perhaps  none  they  might  have  occupied  anjrwhere  in 
America,  even  in  founding  a  new  State,  could  have  afforded  such 
ample  exhibition  of  the  power  of  their  principles  and  godly  lives. 
There  had  been  a  revival,  a  great  revival  in  Ireland,  among  the 
emigrants  from  Scotland  and  their  children ;  but  as  yet,  no 
Presbytery  had  been  formed  ;  and  the  influence  of  the  Presbyte- 
rian Protestants  was  circumscribed,  and  their  principles  not  yet 
deep-rooted  forpermanency.  Had  this  colony  succeeded  in  find- 
ing an*  agreeable  situation  in  America,  in  all  probability  so  many 
of  their  friends  and  countrymen  would  have  followed,  that  the 
North  of  Ireland  would  have  been  deserted  to  the  native  Irish,  or 
the  wild  beasts,  as  in  the  times  just  preceding  the  emigration  from 
Scotland.  This  company  of  men,  as  will  be  seen  in  the  subse- 
quent history,  were  the  efficient  instruments  in  the  hands  of  God, 
of  embodying  the  Presbyterians  of  Ireland,  of  spreading  their 
principles  far  and  wride,  and  marshalling  congregation  after  con- 
gregation, whose  industry  made  Ulster  blossom  as  the  rose.  The 
Presbyterians  became  the  balancing  power  of  Ireland.  "  You 
need  not" —  said  an  intelligent  physician  of  Petersburg,  Va.,  who 
is  familiar  with  Ireland,  and  does  not  claim  to  be  a  Presbyterian, 
— "  You  need  not  ask  when  you  are  to  pass  from  the  Catholic 
counties  to  those  of  the  Protestants.  You  will  see  and  feel  the 
change  in  everything  around  you." 

Had  the  principles  of  Usher  prevailed,  and  these  men  been 
permitted  to  labor  in  peace  in  their  parishes,  it  would  in  all  proba- 
bility have  been  long  before  a  Presbytery  had  been  formed  in  Ire- 
Digitized  by  vjOOQIc 


land ;  and  whan  formed  its  influence  and  number  of  churches 
would  have  bee*  really  less  than  they  were  in  1642,  the  year  the 
first  Presbytery  met.  The  intolerance  of  the  Court  and  tlieir 
obedient  bish«ps  (drove  these  men  out  of  the  churches  of  the 
establishment.  When  the  four  set  sail  in  1636,  for  America,  no 
faithful  Presbyterian  #as  left ;  the  others  were  dead,  or  had  re- 
tired to  Scotland ;  all  bonds  were  broken  that  might  have  held 
them  in  connection  with  the  Episcopal  church.  The  tempest 
brought  them  back  to  do  a  work  in  Scotland ;  and  the  rebellion 
and  consequent  massacre,  by  Ac  native  Irish,  opened  the  way  for 
their  successful  labors  in  Ireland,  and  for  founding  the  Irish  Pres- 
byterian church.  The  wrath  of  man,  and  the  tempests  of  the 
ocean,  together  work  the  wonderful  counsels  of  Almighty  God. 

After  the  lapse  of  some  two-thirds  of  a  century,  Ulster  began  to 
send  out  swarms  to  America ;  shipload  after  shipload  of  men 
trained  to  labor  and  habits  of  independence,  sought  the  American 
shore* ;  year  after  year  the  tide  rolled  on  without  once  ebbing  ; 
and  many  thousands  of  these  descendants  of  the  emigrants  from 
Scotland,  disdaining  to  be  called  Irish,  filled  the  upper  country  of 
Pennsylvania,  Virginia,  and  the  Carolinas.  Ulster,  in  Ireland,  has 
been  an  exhausUess  hive,  a  perennial  spring ;  and  the  form  and 
fashion  of  its  emigrants  were  moulded  by  these  men,  whom  the 
storms  bafiled  and  sent  back  to  do  a  work  for  Ireland  and  America. 
Livingston  and  Blair  lived  for  Posterity. 

In  1608,  Jamestown,  in  Virginia,  was  founded  by  a  sma]^  com- 
pany from  England  ;  in  1620,  the  May  Flower  landed  her  little 
band  of  Puritans  on  Plymouth  rock  ;  in  1636,  the  Eaglewing  re- 
landed  her  company  at  Lochfergus  ;  and  some  few  years  after- 
wards King  Charles  forbade  the  sailing  of  the  vessel  that  should 
have  carried  away  from  England  the  Spirits  of  the  Revolution. 
Napoleon,  with  all  his  inunense  hosts  of  savans  and  soldiers,  did 
not,  could  not  so  change  the  condition  of  the  world,  as  those  four 
bands  that,  collectively,  would  scarce  have  formed  a  regiment  in 
his  immense  army.  Principles,  not  men,  must  govern  the  world 
under  the  Providence  of  God. 

It  was  well  that  the  distressed  people  of  Ireland  turned  their 
thoughts  to  America  for  a  resting  place  ;  it  was  better  that  they 
embarked  for  the  wilderness,  as  it  manifested  an  enterprise  equal 
to  the  emergency ;  but  it  was  better  still  that  God's  wise  provi- 
dence sent  them  back  to  labor  for  Ireland,  and  shut  them  up  to  the 
work  ;  and  last,  it  was  best  of  all,  that  they  laid  the  foundation  of 
that  church  which  may  claim  to  be  the  mother  of  the  American 
Presbyterian  Church,  the  worthy  child  of  a  worthy  mother. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQI^ 




The  first  meeting  of  a  regular  Presbytery  in  Ireland  took  place  at 
Carrickfergus  on  Friday,  June  10th,  1642.  Previously  to  that 
time  the  ministers  in  Ireland,  who  promoted  the  Revival,  acted  on 
Presbyterial  principles,  though  by  law  of  England  imder  the  juris- 
diction of  Bishops  of  the  Church  of  England.  At  the  Reforma- 
tion almost  the  entire  Irish  nation  were  Roman  Cathohcs  or  Pa- 
pists ;  and  the  majority  of  the  nation  are  to  this  day.  Henry  VIII. 
of  England  commenced  establishing  a  Protestant  national  church, 
and  Elizabeth  followed  up  the  design ;  and  James  perfected  the 
plan  as  far  as  he  was  able.  Bishops  were  sent  over,  and  the  clergy 
were  appointed  to  parishes  and  supported  by  the  authority  of 
the  state ;  yet  the  mass  of  the  people  remained  Papists,  and 
maintained  their  own  bishops  and  priests,  and  received  the  ordi- 
nances at  their  hands.  The  Scotch  emigrants  were  divided,  in 
their  settlements,  into  parishes  ;  or  rather,  the  boundaries  of  the 
old  parishes  remained,  and  clergy  were  suppUed  by  the  state  to 
the  inhabitants,  of  whatever  country  or  religious  principles  they 
might  chance  to  be.  The  parishes  occupied  the  same  territory 
embraced  by  the  Papists  in  their  ecclesiastical  divisions  ;  and 
neither  the  Scotch  emigrants  nor  the  native  Irish  Papists  were 
permitted  by  law  to  enjoy  their  own  clergy,  or  their  own  religious 
ceremonies;  and  both  were  sufferers  under  the  severities  of 
Charles  I.  and  Archbishop  Laud.  The  ministers  who  went  over 
to  Ireland  to  preach  to  the  Scotch,  a  short  account  of  whom  has 
been  given,  were  presented  to  parishes  and  admitted  regularly ; 
some  were  ordained  by  the  Bishop,  in  conjunction  with  other  clergy 
as  a  Presbytery,  objecting  more  or  less  strenuously  to  his  prelati- 
cal  character. 

A  convocation  of  the  Irish  clergy  was  summoned  in  1615,  be- 
fore any  nuQiber  of  ministers  from  Scotland  had  visited  the  island. 
As  the  Irish  Church  had  always  been  independent  of  that  of  Eng- 
land, it  was  thought  necessary  to  declare  its  faith^  and  settle  its 
form  of  government.  The  only  statutes  in  force  in  the  kingdom 
respected  solely  the  celebration  of  public  worship,  which  was  made 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


conformable  to  that  of  the  English  churches.  The  English  ritual 
was  followed  ;  but  the  Irish  Church  had  not  adopted  a  Confession 
of  Faith.  Dr.  James  Usher,  Professor  of  Divinity  in  the  College 
of  Dublin,  and  afterwards  Archbishop,  was  appointed  to  draw  up 
a  Confession ;  this  task  he  performed  to  the  approbation  of  the 
Convocation  and  the  Parliament,  and  also  to  the  satisfaction  of  the 
King  and  Council.  The  Confession  was  digested  into  no  less  than 
nineteen  sections,  and  one  hundred  and  four  propositions ;  and  was 
as  decidedly  Calviiiistic  as  that  afterwards  drawn  up  by  the  West- 
minster Divines.  The  Pope  was  pronounced  Antichrist ;  the  doc- 
trine of  Absolution  condemned;  the  morality  of  the  Sabbath 
strongly  asserted,  in  opposition  to  the  King's  well  known  senti- 
ments. The  reason  for  this  was, — that  the  intolerance  practised 
in  England  induced  many  of  the  Puritans  to  emigrate  to  Ireland  ; 
and  there,  the  King,  glad  to  have  them  out  of  England,  gave  them 
preferments.  Heylin  says  : — "  They  brought  with  them  hither 
such  a  stock  of  Puritanism,  such  a  contempt  of  bishops,  such  a 
neglect  of  the  public  Liturgy,  and  other  offices  of  the  Church, 
that  there  was  nothing  less  to  be  found  among  them  than  the  go- 
vernment and  forms  of  worship  established  in  the  Church  of  Eng- 
land !  He  was  understood  also  as  implying  the  validity  of  ordina- 
tions out  of  the  English  Church  as  truly  as  those  performed  by 
Diocesan  Bishops.  His  words  are  : — "  And  those  we  ought  to 
judge  lawfully  called  and  sent,  which  be  chosen  and  called  to  this 
work,  by  men,  who  have  pubUc  authority  given  them,  in  the 
Church,  to  call  and  send  ministers  into  the  Lord's  vineyard." 

Robert  Blair,  one  of  the  most  eminent  of  those  who  went  to 
Ireland,  from  Scotland,  refused  to  be  ordained  by  the  Diocesan 
Bishop  alone,  or  by  him  in  conjunction  with  Presbyters,  in  any  other 
light  than  as  a  Presbyter.  With  that  express  understanding,  as 
he  asserts,  he  was  ordained  by  the  Bishop  and  other  clergy. 

John  Livingston,  another  laborer  of  great  eminence,  objected 
to  ordination  by  the  Bishop  of  the  established  church,  and,  as  the 
Bishop  of  Dovni,  in  which  his  parish  was,  had  resolved,  in  obe- 
dience to  the  court  of  England,  to  require  submission  to  the  rules 
of  the  Established  Church,  he  applied  to  Knox,  Bishop  of  Raphoe, 
taking  with  him  letters  of  introduction  from  Lord  Claneboy,  and 
others.  He  says  Knox  received  him  kindly,  and  said  he  knew  his 
errand,  and  that  he  was  aware  he  had  scruples  against  Episcopacy, 
as  Welch  and  others  had,  and  then  proceeded  to  say,  "  that  if  I 
scrupled  to  call  him  my  Lord,  he  cared  not  much  for  it ;  all  that 
he  would  desire  of  me  was,  that  I  should  preach  at  Ramelton  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


first  Sabbath,  because  they  got  there  but  few  sermons,  and  that 
he  would  send  for  Mr.  William  Cunningham,  and  two  or  three 
other  neighboring  ministers  to  be  present,  who,  after  sermon, 
should  give  me  imposition  of  hands  ;  but,  although  they  perform- 
ed the  work,  he  behoved  to  be  present ;  and  although  he  durst  not 
answer  it  to  the  State,  he  gave  me  the  book  of  ordination,  and  de- 
sired that  anything  I  scnipled  at,  I  should  draw  a  line  over  it  on 
the  margin,  and  that  Mr.  Cunningham  should  not  read  it.  But  I 
found  that  it  had  been  so  marked  by  others  before^  that  I  need  not 
mark  anything^  Thus  it  appears  Presbyterian  ordination  was 
introduced  before  the  revival,  and  was  acted  on  during  that  great 
excitement  out  of  which  grew  the  Irish  Presbyterian  Church. 

But  the  rigor  of  James,  towards  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  and 
the  severity  of  Charles  I.,  and  Archbishop  Laud,  in  their  en- 
deavors to  enforce  conformity  to  the  EstabUshed  Church,  had  become 
more  and  more  oppressive,  tiU,  after  the  failure  of  the  attempt  at 
emigration  in  the  Eaole  Wing,  the  Presbyterian  clergy  left  the 
country  in  1637,  and  retired  to  Scotland.  The  congregations  to 
which  they  had  ministered  were  left  without  instruction,  except 
what  they  received  from  their  more  eminent  laymen,  who  conduct- 
ed public  worship  for  the  people  that  would  come  together  ;  and 
many  were  inclined  to  do  this,  notwithstanding  all  the  efforts  of 
Lord  Stafford,  the  Deputy  in  Ireland,  to  make  them  conform  to 
the  Established  Church.  By  the  petition  selit  by  these  Presby- 
terians to  the  Long  Parliament,  we  learn  that  after  all  efforts  for 
their  destruction,  they  continued  a  numerous  people.  The  re- 
vival had  subsided,  but  religion  had  not  died  away  ;  and  although 
King  Charles  had  forgotten  the  obligations  of  his  father  to  them, 
they  had  not  forgotten  their  obligation  to  the  great  head  of  the 
church,  or  lost  their  love  for  his  truth. 

The  introduction  of  the  Scottish  army  into  Ulster,  to  quell  the 
rebellion  that  broke  out  October  13th,  1641,  changed  the  face  of 
affairs  in  these  congregations,  and  was  the  means  of  forming  a 
presbytery,  and  restoring  pastors  to  these  suffering  flocks.  The 
Papists  had  made  insurrection  and  fi^ous  rebelUon,  with  design  of 
cutting  off  the  Protestants,  and  restoring  the  ceremonies  and  wor- 
ship of  the  Church  of  Rome.  Their  plans  were  laid  for  concerted 
action,  and  the  energy  with  which  they  were  carried  out  may  be 
judged  from  the  fact  that  in  a  few  months,  at  the  lowest  calculation 
40,000,  and  as  some  Catholic  writers,  and  some  Protestants  also, 
assert,  150,000  persons  were  brought  to  an  untimely  end.  These 
sufferers  were  Protestants ;  but  a  small  part  only  were  Presbyte- 

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rians,  for  the  nobles  and  clergy  of  that  denomination  had  fled  to 
Scotland  some  time  before,  to  escape  the  persecutions  and  impo- 
sitions of  the  Established  Church.  This  rebellion  was  at  first 
encouraged  by  King  Charles,  as  an  event  that  would  operate  fa- 
vorably upon  his  interests ;  and  both  he  and  the  Papists  agreed  in 
sparing  the  Scotch  Presbyterians, — ^probably  because  they  had  not 
declared  for  the  parliament  against  the  king.  The  flight  of  the 
Scotch  in  1637,  and  onwards,  was  pre-eminently  their  safety; 
they  escaped  from  the  imreasonable  Prelates  first,  and  then  from 
the  massacre  of  the  Papists.  God  knows  how  to  deliver  his 
people.  The  company  of  emigrants  in  the  Eagle  Wing  must  not 
reach  America,  neither  must  it  be  cut  ofi*  in  this  massacre; 
it  had  a  great  and  glorious  work  to  accompUsh,  and  that  work 
was  to  be  done  in  Ireland,  and  the  bright  day  of  its  accomplish- 
ment should  break  after  a  most  tempestuous  night. 

After  many  horrible  massacres  perpetrated  during  the  winter  of 
1641-2,  Major  General  Monro  was  sent  over  from  Scotland  in  the 
spring,  vrith  a  force  of  2,500  men ;  with  these,  in  conjunction  with 
the  Scotch  and  other  Protestants  in  Ulster,  after  many  battles  and 
sieges,  he  succeeded  in  crushing  the  rebellion.  The  Lagan  forces 
(or  those  from  the  northern  part  of  Donegal)  had  signalized  them- 
selves before  the  arrival  of  the  Scotch  army,  and  continued  their 
brave  and  enterprising  efibrts  after  that  event,  stimulating  them  by  an 
honorable  rivalry,  to  a  speedy  accomplishment  of  their  mission,  the 
suppression  of  the  rebellion.  The  Scotch  forces  were  from  seven  dif- 
erent  regiments,  each  of  which  had  its  chaplain.  The  Rev.  Hugh 
Cunningham  was  attached  to  Glencaim's  regiment;  Rev,  Thomas 
PccftZes,  to  Eglenton's ;  iJev./oAnBatrd,  toArgyle's;  Rev,  James 
Simpson,  to  Sinclair's ;  Rev,  John  Scott,  to  Home's ;  Rev,  John  Aird, 
to  Lindsay's,  or  Monro's ;  and  the  Rev,  John  Livingston,  who  was 
so  much  beloved  in  Ireland,  was  sent  along  with  the  army  by  the 
Council.  These  ministers  were  active  and  fervent  in  their  preach- 
ing to  the  army ;  and  in  the  parishes  near  the  encampment,  where 
their  labors  were  highly  appreciated,  "  as  cold  waters  to  a  thirsty 
soul,"  **  and  the  shadow  of  a  great  rock  in  a  weary  land."  The 
country  was  entirely  without  a  Protestant  clergy ;  the  Scotch  had 
been  driven  off"  before  the  rebellion,  and  the  Prelates  and  their 
clergy  fled  from  the  murderous  hands  of  the  Papists.  After  the 
rebellion  was  crushed,  public  attention  was  turned  to  procuring 
pastors  and  spiritual  guides  for  the  vacant  parishes  ;  and  the  incli- 
nation of  the  people  was  speedily  manifested  in  the  efibrts  to  obtain 
ministers.    Those  who  had  been  Presbyterians  previously,  re- 

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mained  so  still ;  and  many  others  were  now  inclined  to  unite  with 
them,  very  few  of  the  laity  being  attached  to  the  Prelates  or  the 
Established  Church.  Those  who  had  fled  to  Scotland  during  the 
rebellion  returned,  and  all  declared  for  Presbytery ;  and  many  that 
had  been  inclined  to  Episcopacy,  were  disgusted  with  the  transac- 
tions in  England,  and  united  with  the  Presbyterians  in  settling  their 
church  in  a  formal  manner  as  a  distinct  church.  The  plan  of 
Archbishop  Usher  would  probably  have  been  acted  out  in  Ireland, 
but  for  the  intolerant  disposition  and  principles  of  Laud  and  his 
master,  King  Charles.  Whether  under  any  circumstances  it  could 
prosper,  can  never  be  satisfactorily  determined  till  a  more  complete 
trial  be  made  than  the  few  years  of  imperfect  action  during  the  re- 
vival in  Ireland. 

The  chaplains  first  formed  regular  churches  in  four  of  the  regi- 
ments,— Argyle's,  Eglenton's,  Glencaim's  and  Home's — choosing 
the  most  grave  and  pious  men  for  elders,  and  setting  them  apart 
to  their  office  in  due  form,  according  to  the  Scotch  Confession* 
On  the  10th  of  June,  1642,  five  ministers,  Messrs.  Cunningham,. 
Peebles,  Baird,  Scott  and  Aird,  Messrs.  Livingston  and  Simpson 
being  necessarily  absent,  with  an  elder  firom  each  of  the  four 
sessions,  met  and  constituted  a  Presbytery  in  the  army.  Mr. 
Baird  preached  firom  the  latter  part  of  the  51st  Psalm — ^^  Do  good 
in  thy  good  pleasure  unto  Zion ;  build  thou  the  walls  of  Jerusa- 
lem." Mr.  Peebles  was  chosen  stated  clerk,  and  held  the  office 
till  his  death,  a  period  of  about  thirty  years.  The  ministers  pro- 
duced their  acts  of  admission  to  their  regiments,  and  the  elders 
their  commissions  firom  the  Sessions ;  and  the  Presbytery  was 
constituted  in  due  form.  As  the  formation  of  the  Presbytery  was 
speedily  known  in  the  country,  applications  poured  in  from  all 
sides  to  be  received  into  their  connexion,  and  to  obtain  the  regu- 
lar ordinances  of  the  gospel ;  and  the  ministers  proceeding  to  visit 
the  congregations,  in  a  short  time  there  were  sixteen  regular 
sessions  formed  in  important  parishes. 

By  the  prudent  and  zealous  efforts  of  these  seven  ministers  the 
foundations  of  the  Presbyterian  church  were  relaid  in  Ulster  pro- 
vince, in  conformity  with  the  model  of  the  Church  of  Scotland. 
From  this  period  the  complete  organization  of  the  Presbyterian 
church  in  Ireland  takes  its  date,  and  the  history  of  her  ministers, 
her  congregations,  and  her  ecclesiastical  councils,  can  be  traced 
in  uninterrupted  succession ;  the  principles  then  adopted,  and  the 
form  of  worship  then  introduced,  continue  to  this  day ;  and  the 
government  and  discipline  then  adopted  continue  in  all  essential 


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points  unaltered,  and  all  are  to  be  found  in  the  Presbj^rian 
church  in  the  United  States,  to  which  they  have  descended  as 
from  parent  to  child. 

T'he  people  agreed  to  petition  the  General  Assembly  of  the 
Church  of  Scotland,  which  was  to  meet  in  July,  for  supplies, 
and  various  papers  were  drawn  up  and  signed  by  the  inhabitants 
of  different  parishes,  requesting  that  those  ministers  who  had 
formerly  labored  among  them  might  be  sent  back  to  them,  and 
others  along  with  them,  to  fill  the  nimfierous  vacancies  in  that 
spiritually  desolate  province.  The  Assembly  listened  kindly  to 
these  petitions,  and  appointed  a  commission  of  six  ministers  to 
visit  Ireland  and  instruct  and  regulate  congregatic»is,  and  ordain 
to  the  ministry  such  as  might  be  found  properly  quaUfied.  The 
ministers  were  to  go  two  and  two  on  a  tour  of  four  months.  Mr. 
Robert  Blair  and  James  Hamilton  for  the  first  four  months,  Ro- 
bert Ramsay  and  John  McClellan  for  the  next  four,  and  Robert 
Baillie  and  John  ^Livingston  for  the  last  four.  These  brethren 
were  everywhere  received  with  joy ;  congregations  were  organ- 
ized on  Presbyterian  principles,  members  received  into  the  church, 
and  the  sacraments  of  baptism  and  the  Lord's  supper  administered. 
Their  preachings  were  incessant,  and  the  congregations  large ; 
people  renounced  prelacy,  and  those  who  had  taken  the  Black 
oath,  as  it  was  termed,  by  which  they  solemnly  engaged  not  to 
resist  the  king,  were  called  to  public  renunciation  and  repent- 
.ance.  No  person  was  admitted  to  the  privileges  of  the  church 
who  did  not  possess  a  competent  degree  of  knowledge,  or  who 
'did  not  fully  approve  of  her  constitution  and  discipline,  or  was 
vunable  to  state  the  grounds  of  that  approbation.  The  congrega- 
tions took  possession  of  the  parish  churches  that  were  standing 
vacant,  and  Jikely  to  remain  so,  and  many  who  had  been  episco- 
pally  ordained,  came  and  joined  the  Presbytery,  but  were  not 
recognized  as  members  until  they  had  been  regularly  called  and 
inducted  to  the  charge  of  some  congregation.  Thus  those  min- 
isters who  had  first  been  led  to  go  to  Ireland  because  they  could 
not  exercise  their  ministry  in  Scotland,  and  after  being  success- 
ful in  Ireland  were  driven  back  to  Scotland,  now  came  again  to 
Ireland,  having  been  driven  back  from  America  by  a  tempest, 
and  set  up  the  Presbyterian  church  which  has  flourished  so 
gloriously,  and  been  the  parent  church  of  so  many  in  America, 
particularly  in  Pennsylvania,  Virginia,  North  and  South  Carolina. 
During  the  year  1643,  the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant  was 
adopted  by  the  Westminster  Assembly  and  the  British  Parliament 

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on  the  one  side,  and  the  Scottish  nation  on  the  other.  This 
League  and  Covenant  was  presented  to  the  Presbyterians  in 
Ulster,  and  during  the  year  1644  was  adopted  by  great  numbers 
in  Down,  Derry,  Antrim,  Donegal,  and  parts  of  Tyrone  and 
Fermanagh.  The  English  parliament  on  the  16th  of  October, 
1643,  requested  the  Scotch  conunissioners  to  take  steps  that  the 
Covenant  "  be  taken  by  all  the  officers,  soldiers,  and  Protestants 
of  their  nation  in  Ireland."  After  some  correspondence  and  va- 
rious plans,  this  important  business  was  committed  to  those  mi- 
nisters who  had  been  appointed  by  the  assembly  to  visit  Ireland, 
the  Rev.  Messrs.  James  Hamilton,  John  Weir,  WilUam  Adair, 
and  Hugh  Henderson.  The  civil  and  ecclesiastical  autliorities  of 
Edinburgh  made  choice  of  the  first  of  these,  Mr.  Hamilton,  mi- 
nister of  Dumfries,  to  be  the  bearer  of  the  Covenant ;  the  others 
were  associated  for  the  work  of  presenting  it  to  the  churches. 
In  sending  word  to  the  forces  in  Ireland  of  their  appointment, 
these  ministers  say,  "As  our  cause  is  one,  and  has  common 
friends  and  enemies,  so  we  must  resolve,*  with  God's  assistance, 
to  stand  or  fall  together.**  They  reached  Carrickfergus  the  last 
of  March,  and  were  all  present  at  the  Presbytery  held  there  on 
the  1st  of  April,  1644.  "  The  Covenant  v^s  taken  on  the  4th  of 
that  month,  with  great  solenmity,  in  the  church  at  Carrickfergus, 
by  Monro  and  his  officers,  and  in  ten  days  afterwards,  by  all  his 
soldiers.  Major  Dalzel  (afterwards  so  well  known  in  the  dis- 
tresses in  Scotland)  was  the  only  person  who  refused.**  It  pro- 
duced the  same  effects  in  Ulster  it  had  in  other  ports  of  the  king-  ' 
dom,  ascertaining  and  uniting  the  friends  of  liberty,  and  inspiring 
them  with  fresh  confidence  in  the  arduous  struggle  in  which  they 
were  engaged,  and  diffused  through  the  country  a  strong  attach- 
ment to  the  Presbjrterian  cause  ;  and  what  is  of  higher  moment, 
it  revived  the  cause  of  true.  reUgion,  so  that  from  this  period  is 
reckoned  the  secmid  Reformation. 

Notwithstanding  the  difficulties  and  trials  to  which  the  Presby- 
terians in  Ireland  were  exposed,  on  one  side  by  the  authorities  of 
King  Charles,  and  on  the  other  by  the  parliament,  which  ultimate- 
ly brought  the  king  to  the  block,  the  church  continued  to  prosper. 
In  the  year  1647,  there  were  about  thirty  ordained  Presbyterian 
ministers  in  Ulster,  besides  some  chaplains  of  regiments ;  on  ac- 
count of  some  severe  laws  which  drove  many  to  Scotland,  there 
were,  in  the  year  1653,  but  about  twenty-four ;  and  again  in  the 
year  1657,  by  the  relaxation  of  the  laws,  there  were  about  eighty 
in  the  different  counties  of  the  province  of  Ulster. 

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In  the  year  1655,  it  was  agreed  there  should  be  what  is  called 
Meetings,  in  Down,  Antrim,  and  Route  with  Lagan,  consisting 
of  the  contiguous  brethren  who  met  for  consultation,  putting  over 
the  more  important  matters  that  required  action,  to  the  regular 
meeting  of  the  whole  Presbytery.  Two  years  after,  these  meet- 
ings were  increased  to  five,  Route  being  separated  from  Lagan, 
and  Tyrone  being  added ;  and  in  a  little  time  there  became^ve 
Presbyteries^  by  dividing  the  original  Presbytery ;  which  number 
continued  till  1702,  when  four  more  were  added,  making  the  whole 
number  nine.  At  this  present  time  there  are  twenty-four  in  the 
Synod  of  Ulster.  From  the  close  connection  between  Sjrnod  and 
Presbytery  in  Ireland,  it  probably  happened  that  the  first  Presby- 
terian Sjrnod  in  the  United  States,  made  by  the  division  of  a  large 
Presbytery,  frequently  performed  acts  which  are  now,  by  conunon 
consent,  performed  only  by  the  Presbytery  or  at  their  order.  At  the 
time  of  the  Restoration,  in  1660,  there  were  in  the  province  of 
Ulster  not  less  than  seventy  regularly  settled  Presbyterian  minis- 
ters ; — about  eighty  congregations,  comprising  not  less  than  one 
hundred  thousand  souls.  If  the  statement  of  one  of  their  ene- 
mies be  true,  the  population  connected  with  the  Presbyterian  min- 
isters must  have  much  exceeded  that  number ;  he  says — "  in  the 
north  (of  Ireland)  the  Scotch  keep  up  an  interest  distinct  in  garb, 
and  all  formalities,  and  are  able  to  raise  40,000  fighting  men  at  any 
time."  This  number  of  fighting  men  would  require  a  greater  popu- 
lation than  100,000.  That  they  would  raise  an  army  and  fight 
for  their  Uves,  their  enemies  knew  from  fatal  experience. 

From  six  ministers,  in  about  forty  years  of  constant  resistance 
to  oppression,  under  the  two  Charleses,  and  of  their  predecessor, 
James  I.,  the  congregations  had  increased  to  about  eighty;  and 
the  preachers  to  nearly  the  same  nimfiber,  though  repeatedly  driven 
off  and  kept  in  banishment  for  years,  on  every  return  increasing 
in  numbers  and  influence.  This  perseverance  of  a  harassed 
people  impresses  the  mind  with  the  strong  conviction,  that  they 
felt  in  their  consciences,  that  their  principles  of  civil  and  religious 
liberty  were  the  truth  of  God,  and  imperishable.  In  1689,  the 
time  the  Toleration  Act  came  in  force,  there  were  in  the  five 
Presbyteries  about  one  hundred  congregations,  eighty  ministers 
and  deven  licentiates.  The  vine  of  the  Lord's  plapting  grew, 
though  "  the  boar  out  of  the  wood  did  pluck  at  her,"  and  they  that 
passed  by  did  trample  her  down. 

The  Presbytery  of  Lagan,  embracing  die  northern  part  of  the 
county  of  Donegal,  principally  that  between  the  Foyle  and  the  Swilly , 

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and  containing  in  the  year  1660  thirteen  members,  all  of  whom 
were  ejected  by  Charles  II.  1661,  is  peculiarly  full  of  interest  to 
the  American  Church,  as  that  body  which  licensed  the  Rev. 
Francis  Makemie,  and  afterwards  ordained  him,  for  the  purpose 
of  sending  him  to  America,  the  first  Presbyterian  Preacher 
that  ever  visited  the  western  continent.  This  honor  belongs  un- 
disputedly  to  the  Church  in  Ireland,  and  the  Presbytery  of  Lagan, 
Those  in  New  England  who  have  been  called  Presbyterians  were 
not  formed  into  regular  Presbyteries  as  in  Scotland  and  Ireland ;  but 
had  lay  elders  and  held  Presbyterian  sentiments.  The  first  preach- 
ers and  the  first  regular  congregations  were  from  Ireland,  which 
poured  forth  emigrants  in  swarms  all  the  early  part  of  the  eighteenth 
century.  It  may  be  gratifying  to  many  to  know  the  names  of 
those  thirteen  ejected  ministers  of  the  Lagan,  worthy  of  everlasting 
remembrance.  King  Charies  began  the  work  of  ejectment  in 
Ireland  under  Jeremy  Taylor  in  1661,  giving  the  front  rank  in  this 
ecclesiastical  martyrdom  to  the  Presbyterians  of  Ulster.  The 
Puritans  of  England  were  called  to  the  same  trial  in  August,  1662, 
when  about  2,000  ministers  were  deprived  of  their  parishes ;  and  the 
same  scene  of  trial  and  heroic  suffering  was  enacted  the  following 
October  in  Scotland.  The  ministers  of  the  Presbytery  of  Lagan 
were,  Robert  Wilson,  Robert  Craighead,  Adam  White,  William 
MooTcraft,  John  Wool,  William  Sample,  John  Hart,  John  Adam- 
son,  John  Crookshanks,  Thomas  Drummond,  Hugh  Cunningham, 
Hugh  Peebles,  and  William  Jack.  The  first  three  survived  the 
happy  revolution  of  1688,  when  William,  Prince  of  Orange,  as- 
cended the  throne  of  England ;  and  enjoyed  the  toleration  proclaimed 
in  1689. 

The  Rev.  Thomas  Drunomond,  of  Ramelton  in  Donegal,  in- 
troduced Mr.  Makemie  to  the  Presbytery  as  a  member  of  his 
charge,  and  worthy  of  their  notice.  In  the  year  1681, — ^the  same 
year  that  four  of  the  members  of  the  Presb)rtery  were  put  in  con- 
finement, for  keeping  a  fast,  after  having  been  fined  £20  each,  to 
be  kept  in  confinement  till  they  should  give  bonds  not  to  offend 
again,  and  after  eight  months'  confinement  were  released, — ^he  was 
licensed  to  preach  the  gospel.  These  four  ministers  were  William 
Trail,  James  Alexander,  Robert  Campbell,  and  John  Hart ;  three 
of  them  were  members  introduced  after  the  ejectment  by  Jer^ny 
Taylor  in  1661.  The  Church  in  Ireland  was  like  the  Israelites  in 
bondage, — ^the  more  it  was  oppressed,  the  more  it  grew.  From  the 
minutes  of  this  Presbytery  it  appears  that  Capt.  Archibald  Johnson 
had,  as  early  as  August,  1678,  applied  for  a  minister  for  Barbadoes ; 

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and  in  1680^  Col.  Stevens  of  Maryland  applied  for  a  minister  to 
settle  in  that  colony;  and  Mr.  Makemie  was  designated  as  the  man. 
As  the  clerk  of  the  Presbytery  and  three  others  were  imprisoned 
in  1681,  there  is  a  deficiency  in  the  minutes,  and  the  meetings 
of  Presbytery  being  for  some  time  irregular,  no  record  is  pre- 
served of  the  time  or  place  of  his  ordination,  though  in  all  proba- 
bihty  it  took  place  in  1681  or  1682.  This  fixes  the  time  of  bis 
removal  to  America,  whether  to  Barbadoes  first,  or  to  Virginia  and 
Maryland,  for  he  labored  in  all  these  places,  as  is  now  satisfactorily 
ascertained.  He  led  the  way  for  Presbjrterian  ministers  to  Ame- 
rica, and  was  prominent  in  forming  the  first  Presbytery,  that  of 
Philadelphia,  in  1706,  a  Presbytery  which  has  since  spread  out  into 
the  General  Assembly  of  the  United  States  of  America. 

No  little  anxiety  has  been  felt  and  expressed  about  the  original 
component  parts  of  this  first  Presbytery,  and  what  interpretation 
of  the  Confession  of  Faith  they  may  have  given.  The  dis- 
cussion has  been  animated,  and  from  the  circumstantial  evidence 
collected,  the  inference  general  that  they  did  put  a  strict  con- 
struction on  the  Articles  of  our  Faith.  The  facts  just  related  about 
Francis  Makemie  and  the  Presbytery  that  ordained  him,  are  suffi- 
cient to  justify  our  belief  that  the  man  that  took  the  Solemn  League 
and  Covenant,  as  the  candidates  of  the  Presbyteries  in  Ireland  then 
did,  put  a  strict  construction  on  the  Articles  of  the  Confession  4 
and  the  following  facts,  that  th^  year  before  the  Presbytery  was 
formed,  he  brought  over,  from  a  visit  to  his  native  land,  two  minis- 
ters from  the  province  of  Ulster,  John  Hampton  and  George 
M'Nish,  who  formed  part  of  the  first  Presbytery, — ^men  educated  as 
he  had  been,  in  trouble,  and  made  to  choose  Presbytery  in  the  face 
of  great  opposition  and  suffering, — ^will  set  the  matter  at  rest- 
Three  other  ministers  soon  followed^  It  is  not  likely  that  such  a 
man  as  Makemie,  with  two  others  of  like  spirit,  would  have 
a^eed  to  form  a  doubtful  Presbytery,  to  please  Mr.  Andrews  and 
the  Church  in  Philadelphia  provided  they  wished  such  a  Presby- 
tery, of  which  there  is  no  evidence  ;  as  there  were  ministers 
enough  to  form  a  decided  and  strict  one,  without  going  to  Phila- 
delphia, the  church  of  which  city  was  weaker  than  the  church  at 
Snow  Hill  in  Maryland. 

The  solemn  League  and  Covenant  first  firamed  by  John  Craig, 
and  called  Craig's  Confession,  or  the  first  National  Covenant  of 
Scotland,  and  subscribed  by  the  leaders  of  the  people,  December 
3d,  1557 ;  and  subscribed  by  King  James  and  household,  and  the 
nation  generally  in  1581  :  enlarged  and  signed  again  in  1588 :  and 

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again  in  1638  enlarged,  and  made  to  consist  of  three  parts — the 
first,  the  old  Covenant  by  Craig, — the  second,  condemnijig  Popery, 
by  Johnston  of  Warriston, — third,  the  appUcation  of  the  whole  to 
the  present  time,  by  Alexander  Henderson ;  and  signed  by  the 
people  at  large  in  1638  :  and  again  remodelled  by.  Henderson  and 
adopted  in  August,  1643  :  and  also  by  the  Westminster  Divines  and 
the  Parliament  of  England,  September  25th  of  the  same  year;  and 
in  the  spring  of  1644  by  the  Churches  of  Ireland;  and  continuing 
to  this  day  a  binding  instrument  in  Scotland,  and  making  a  part  of 
their  printed  Confession  and  Discipline,  and  also  acknowledged  as 
binding  to  this  day  by  a  large  number  of  the  descendants  of  the 
Scotch  and  Irish  emigrants  to  America, — cleaves  no  rational  doubt 
what  views  of  the  Confession  of  Faith  those  that  lived  so  near  the 
times  of  the  grand  national  subscription  of  1643  and  1644  must 
have  had.  In  matters  of  conscience  they  had  been 
resist  the  king ;  they  bound  themselves  by  this  solemn  oath  to  do 
it ;  and  this  solemn  League  was  inseparably  connected  with  their 
doctrinal  creed  and  form  of  church  government,  which  were 
strictly  Presbyterian. 

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The  religious  sentiments  of  the  emigrants  haying  been  given,  as 
Calvinistic  and  Presbyterian,  for  the  holding  of  which  they  had 
suffered,  and  were  ready  to  suffer  again,  we  will  glance  at  their 
poUtical  principles,  which  had  no  small  influence  in  their  emigra- 
tion and  location,  and  after  life, — ^forming  one  of  the  three  grand 
motives  to  cross  the  voters, — ReUgion,  Politics,  and  Property. 

I.  In  the  truest  sense  of  the  word  they  were  lo3ral.  They, 
and  their  ancestors,  were  well  convinced  of  the  importance  of  a 
regular  and  firm  government ;  and  were  true  to  their  promises  and 
their  allegiance.  James  I.  chose  die  Scotch  for  die  colonizing 
Ireland,  for  two  reasons  :  first,  firom  their  habits  they  were  more 
likely  to  overcome  the  difficulties  of  a  settlement ;  and  second, 
from  their  principles  of  allegiance,  most  likely  to  make  Ireland 
what  he  wished  it — ^pacific  and  prosperous.  In  the  first  he  was 
not  disappointed  ;  and  his  hopes  of  the  second  were  crossed  only 
as  he  and  his  successors  failed  to  extend  to  the  emigrants  that 
protection  he  had  promised,  and  was  well  able  to  give.  They 
always  maintained  the  conceded  authority  of  the  king,  as  supreme 
ruler  according  to  the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant,  by  which 
they  held  themselves  bound  firom  the  time  it  was  taken  in  1644, 
till  they  left  Ireland  about  a  |;entury  afterward  ;  and  some  of  their 
posterity  in  America  profess  to  feel  its  binding  power  in  some 
respects  to  this  day.  They  opposed  those  violent  measures,  in 
parliament  and  out,  which  led  to,  or  hastened,  the  king's  death. 
They  desired  a  reform  of  abuses,  and  a  fulfilment  of  the  Solemn 
League,  on  the  part  of  the  king,  and  designed  a  fulfilment  of  their 
own  promises,  and  had  not  been  found  deficient  in  any  emer- 
gency. They  expected  the  king  to  be  honest  while  they  were 

Their  views  of  the  parliamentary  authority,  after  the  king's 
death,  are  well  expressed  by  one  of  their  .ministers,  on  examination 
before  the  military  authority  of  the  ParUament,  at  Carrickfergus, 
in  1650.  Being  required  to  take  the  Oathy  or  Engagement  of 
submission  to  Parliament,  which  was  to  be  in  place  of  the  Solemn 

\  • 

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League  of  obedience  to  the  king ;  the  parliament  having,  by  en- 
actment, made  it  high  tr^son  to  acknowledge  a  government  by 
King,  Lords,  and  Commons  : — "  We  must  be  convinced,"  said 
this  minister  in  the  name  of  the  rest,  "  that  the  power  which  now 
rules  England  is  the  lawful  parUamentary  authority  of  that  king- 
dom." Col.  Venable  replied  :  "  They  call  themselves  so  T  The 
minister  replied  :  "  It  seems  to  us  a  strange  assertion  that  they 
are  a  parliament  because  they  say  so ;  or  are  a  power  because 
they  place  power  in  themselves.  Kings  and  other  magistrates  are 
called  by  the  ordinance  of  man,  because  they  are  put  in  their 
office  by  men.  Men  are  called  to  the  magistracy  by  the  suffrage 
of  the  people,  whom  they  govern ;  and  for  men  to  assume  unto 
themselves  power,  is  mere  tyranny  and  unjust  usurpation, ^^ 

They  would  rather  be  governed  by  a  lawful  king  than  an  usurp- 
ing or  doubtful  parliament ;  by  one  they  chose,  ^ven  though  he 
might  be  a  tyrant  in  disposition,  than  by  a  company  they  had  not 
elected,  though  they  might  do  some  things  well.  They  fully  be- 
lieved that  the  liberties  of  the  subject  might  consist  with  the  regal 
authority  ;  that  the  privileges  they  asked  were  no  infringement  of 
the  necessary  rights  of  the  crovni,  and  that  their  enjoyment  would 
render  the  government  more  stable,  entrenching  it  in  the  hearts  of 
the  people,  in  whose  aflfections  all  governments  rest  at  last. 

n.  They  claimed,  and  persisted  in  claiming,  the  privilege  of 
choosing  their  own  ministers,  or  religious  instructors,  as  an  inhe- 
rent right  that  could  not  be  given  up,  and  any  civil  or  religious 
liberty  be  preserved.  Here  was  the  ground  of  all  the  difficulty  of 
the  Presbyterians  in  Ireland  ;  they  would  choose  their  own  minis- 
ters,— and  with  the  choice  of  ministers  was  of  course  connected 
the  forms  of  religious  worship,  and  the  articles  of  their  religious 
creed  ;  a  difficulty  that  was  removed  only  by  first  emigrating  to 
America,  and  then  toiling  through  the  Revolution.  They  desired 
in  Ireland  what  the  Scotch  are  now  asking  in  Scotland,  the  liberty 
of  choosing  their  ovni  ministry.  The  Irish  conceded  what  the 
Scotch  concede  now,  that  the  king  might  prescribe  the  way  the 
minister  should  be  supported ;  they  were  willing  to  be  taxed  in 
large  or  small  parishes,  but  insisted  on  the  liberty  of  choosing  their 
own  teachers,  and  deciding  on  the  forms  vrith  which  they  would 
worship  God.  They  yielded  to  the  civil  authority  all  honor  and 
service  and  money,  and  demanded  protection  for  their  persons  in 
the  enjoyment  of  their  property  and  religion.  Their  foUy,  if  folly 
it  might  be  called,  in  their  circumstances,  was,  to  expect  that 
freedom  in  religion,  under  a  monarchy,  which  never  had  been 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


found  ;  and  which  never  has  existed  under  any  government  except 
in  these  United  Stateit  These  people  had  advanced  far  in  the  know* 
ledge  of  human  rights ;  W6Be  in  the  high  road  to  republicanism,  with- 
out, perhaps,  being  aware  of  the  lengths  they  had  already  advanced; 
that,  judging  from  their  answer  to  the  parliamentary  committee 
— that  men  are  called  to  the  magistracy  by  the  suffrage  of  the 
people — ^they  were  already  republicans .  Perhaps  they  did  not  fully 
understand  liberty  of  conscience  ;  or  if  they  did,  as  there  is  some 
reason  to  believe,  they  had  not  room  or  opportunity  for  its  exer- 
qise  ;  henuned  in  to  choose  one  form  of  religion  as  the  paramount 
one,  they  of  course  chose  their  own  for  the  religion  of  the  whole. 
How  tliey  would  have  acted  had  the  power  of  the  State  been  at 
their  conunand,  it  is  in  vain  perhaps  to  conjecture. 

They  also  demanded  that  their  ministers  should  be  ordained  by 
Presbjrteries,  and  not  by  prelatic  bishops  ;  the  apparent  yielding 
of  some  things  under  the  iniSuence  of  Archbishop  Usher,  soon  being 
turned  to  uncompromising  sternness,  by  the  exercise  of  arbitrary 
power  to  compel  them  to  conform.  The  principle  of  the  house 
of  Stuart  was,  "  no  Prelate^  no  King ;"  that  of  the  Presbyterian 
Irish  was,  "  the  king  without  Prelates  ;  all  sufferings  at  home  rather 
than  Prelates  ;  exile  rather  than  Prelates." 

III.  Strict  discipline  in  morals,  and  full  instruction  of  youth  and 
children.  These  were  connected  with  the  Presbyterian  body  in 
Scotland  ;  were  transplanted  to  Ireland,  there  cherished,  and  were 
the  foundation  principles  on  which  their  society  was  -built ;  were 
taken  to  America  by  the  emigrants,  and  have  been  characteristic 
of  the  Scotch-Irish  settlements  throughout  the  land.  Children 
were  early  taught  to  read,  and  exercised  in  reading  the  Bible  every 
day  ;  and  became  familiar  with  the  word  of  God  in  the  family,  in 
the  school,  and  in  the  house  devoted  to  the  worship  of  the 
Almighty  God.  Their  moml  principles  were  derived  from  the 
words  of  him -Who  lives  and  abides  for  ever  ;  and  the  commands  of 
God,  and  the  awful  retributions  <rf  eternity,  gave  force  to  these 
principles,  which  became  a  living  power,  and  a  controlling  influ- 
ence. The  time  has  but  just  passed,  when  the  schoolmaster  from 
Ireland  taught  the  children  of  the  Valley  of  Virginia,  and  the 
upper  part  of  the  Carolinas,  as  they  taught  in  the  mother  country, 
— ^when  the  children  and  youth  at  school  recited  the  Assembly's 
shorter  Catechism  once  a  week,  and  read  parts  of  the  Bible  every 
day.  The  circle  of  their  instruction  was  circumscribed ;  but  the 
children  were^taught  to  speak  the  truth,  and  defend  it,-^lo  keep  a 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


conscience  and  fear  God, — ^the  foundation  of  good  citizens,  and 
tndy  great  men. 

\\Tierever  they  settled  in  America,  besidet  the  common  schools, 
they  turned  their  attention  to  high  schools  or  academies,  and  to 
colleges,  to  educate  men  for  all  the  departments  of  life,  carrying  in 
their  emigration,  the  deep  conviction,  that  without  sound  and 
extensive  education,  there  could  be  no  permanence  in  religious  or 
civil  institutions,  or  any  pure  and  undebased  enjojrments  of  domes- 
tic life.  The  religious  creed  of  the  emigrants  made  part  of  their 
politics,  so  far  as  to  decide  that  no  law  of  human  government 
ought  to  be  tolerated  in  opposition  to  the  expressed  will  of  God. 
It  was  on  this  ground,  their  fathers  in  Ireland  resisted  the  arbitrary 
exactions  of  the  Charleses  and  the  Jameses,  whom  they  consi- 
dered lawful  rulers,  whom  they  had  recognized  in  the  solemn 
League,  and  whom  they  were  bound,  and  willing  to  obey  in  all 
things  that  did  not  involve  violation  of  conscience  by  sinning 
against  God. 

Whether  they  were  aware  how  far  their  principles  actually 
led  them,  before  they  came  to  America,  is  doubtful;  they 
had  acknowledged  that  the  authority  of  human  ^  government 
was  from  the  same  divine  hand  that  made  the  world,  fashion- 
ing the  fabric  of  human  society  to  require  the  exercise  of 
good  and  wholesome  laws  for  the  promotion  of  the  greatest 
good ; — and  had  also  claimed  the  right  of  choosing  those  who 
should  frame  and  execute  these  laws  ; — contending  that  rulers, 
as  well  as  the  meanest  subject,  were  bound  by  law.  These  prin- 
ciples, modified  by  experience,  and  digested  into  extended  form, 
are  the  republican  principles  of  the  Scotch-Irish  in  America.  On 
matters  of  national  policy,  and  the  smaller  concerns  of  political 
organizations,  they  have  diflFered  in  opinion  and  diflfer  stiU, 
and  will  probably  diflfer  for  ever,  from  the  nature  of  the 
human  mind  in  the  independent  exercise  of  thought*  But  on  the 
great  principles  of  freedom  of  conscience  in  matters  of  religion — 
on  the  supremacy  of  the  laws — on  the  choice  of  rulers  by  the  ex- 
pressed will  of  a  free  people — -and  the  undisturbed  enjoyment  of 
life,  limb  and  property,  in  submission  to  constituted  govemment-7- 
there  never  has  been,  and  probably  never  wiB  be,  any  division  of 
sentiment  or  feeling.  In  the  blood  shed  on  the  Alamance,  and  in  the 
declaration  of  independence  in  Mecklenburg,  a  casual  observer 
must  see^'it  was  opposition  to  tyranny,  and  not  the  execution  of 
the  laws  <rf  a  just  government,  that  urged  the  people  on.  A  people 
educated  as  they  had  been  for  generations,  and  placed  in  circum- 

Digitized  by 



Stances  calculated  to  provoke  independence  of  action,  could  not 
have  act^d  diflferently,  and  retain  their  identity  of  character. 

The  siege  of  Derry  was  undertaken  and  sustained  with  its  in- 
numerable and  unpieasured  sufferings,  in  opposition  to  a  king  they 
had  repudiated,  and  a  hierarchy  they  abhorred ;  and  to  defend  the 
government  from  which  they  hopod  for  freedom  and  quietness,  and 
the  exercise  of  their  religious  principles  and  forms  without  t5rran- 
nical  interference.  It  is  not  probable  that  these  men, — and  some  of 
the  men  of  Derry  emigrated  to  America,  and  laid  their  bones  south  of 
the  Potomac, — or  their  immediate  descendants,  who  lived  in  the  days 
of  the  American  Revolution  (and  there  were  many  such),  would 
hold  back  their  hearts  and  hands,  and  belie  the  great  principles  that 
had  done  so  much  for  Protestant  England,  and  ultimately  so  much 
for  America.  Tyrannical  government  of  colonies  of  such  people 
must  produce  a  revolution  ;  and  had  Governor  Martin  studied  the 
character  and  circumstances  of  the  people  he  marched  to  subdue, 
with  any  feelings  of  justice  and  humanity,  he  would  first  have  re- 
dressed their  grievances,  and  then  bound  to  his  government  a  wil- 
ling, grateful  people,  and  at  least  for  a  time  stayed  the  progress  of 
revolution  in  North  Carolina,  and  by  the  wholesome  example,  de- 
layed, if  not  prevented  it,  throughout  the  United  Provinces. 

The  Presbyterians  in  Carolina  have  ever  been  a  law-loving,  law- 
abiding  people ;  differing  sometimes  about  the  extent  of  powers 
to  be  granted  to  magistrates,  all  unite  in  reverence  for  the  laws 
enacted  by  the  regular  authorities  under  the  adopted  Constitution. 
They  have  always  felt  it  was  better  to  endure  some  evils  than  en- 
counter the  horrors  of  a  revolutionary  war ;  but  they  have  always 
felt  it  better  to  endure  all  the  protracted  miseries  of  a  revolution- 
ary struggle  than  fail  to  enjoy  liberty  of  person,  property,  and  con- 
science. Their  ideas  of  reUgious  liberty  have  given  a  coloring  to 
their  political  notions  on  all  subjects ;  perhaps  it  is  more  just  to 
say,  have  been  the  foundation  of  their  political  creed.  The  Bible 
has  been  their  text-book  on  all  subjects  of  importance ;  and  the 
principles  of  the  Bible  carried  out  will  produce  a  course  of  action 
like  the  emigration  of  the  Scotch-Irish  to  America, — ^and  their  re- 
sistance to  tyranny,  in  the  blood  shed  on  the  Alamance,  and  their 
Declaration  of  Independence  at  Charlotte. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



THB    SETTLEMENT     OF     THE     SCOTCH    ON   THE    RIVER    CAPE    FEAR  ; 

The  time  of  the  settlement  of  the  first  Scotch  families  up^n  the 
river  Cape  Fear,  is  not  knovvrn  v^rith  exactness.  There  were  some 
at  the  tune  of  the  sep^^tion  of  the  province  into  North  and  South 
Carolina,  in  the  yeaM72^  In  consequence  of  disabilities  in  their 
native  land,  the  entei^risiiig  Scotch  followed  the  example  of  their 
relations  in  Ireland,  and  sought  refuge  and  abundance  in  America ; 
and  some  time  previous  to  the  emigration  from  the  province  of  Ulster 
to  the  Yadkin,  numerous  families  occupied  the  extended  plains 
along  the  Cape  Fear,  in  that  part  of  Bladen, county,  now  Cumber- 
land. From  records  in  possession  otlKe  descendants  of  Alexan- 
der Clark,  it  appears  that  he  came  over  and  took  his  residence  on 
the  river  in  the  year  17§fc  ^^^  ^^^  ^  "  ship  load"  of  emigrants 
came  over  with  him.  TtSlo  appears  that  he  found  "  a  good  many" 
Scotch  settled  in  Cumberland  at  the  time  of  his  arrival,  amongst 
whom  was  He^totJklcNeill,  called  Bluff  Hector,  from  his  resi- 
dence near  the  bluffs  above  Cross  Creeka,  or  Fayelteville,  and 
John  Smith,  with  his  two  children,  Malcolm  and^Janet,  his  wife, 
Margaret  Gilchrist,  having  died  on  the  passage  up  the  river. 

Alexander  Clark  came  from  Jura,  one  of  the  Hebrides.  His 
ancestors,  particularly  his  grandfather,  had  suffered  much  in  the 
wars  that  had  desolated  Scotland,  and  feB  heaviest  on  the  Presby- 
terians. Being  coastrained  to  flee  for  his  life,  his  grandfather  took 
two  of  his  sons  and  went  to  Ireland,  and  saw  many  trials  and  suf- 
ferings, which  were  brought  to  a  close  by  the  battle  of  the  Boyne, 
that  decided  the  fate  of  the  British  dominions.  Returning  to 
Scotland  after  the  peace,  he  sought  his  family ;  leaving  the  vessel, 
he  ascended  a  hill  that  overlooked  his  residence,  and  gazed  in  sad- 
ness over  the  desolation  that  met  his  eye ;  to  use  his  own  words, 
"  but  three  smokes  in  all  Jura  could  be  seen."  Not  a  member  of 
his  family  could  be  found  to  tell  the  fate  of  the  rest.  They  had 
all  perished  in  the  persecutions.  He  returned  to  Ireland  to  find 
his  cup  of  bitterness,  overflovnng  as  it  was,  made  still  more  bitter 

,      Digitized  by  VJOOQIC 


by  the  death  of  one  of  his  two  sons.  After  some  time  he  return- 
ed, and  spent  the  remainder  of  his  days  in  Jura,  having  for  his 
second  wife  one  whose  suflferings  had  been  equal  to  his  own.  Her 
infant  had  been  taken  from  her  arms,  its  head  severed  from  its  body 
in  her  presence,  and  used  by  a  ruffian,  twisting  his  hand  in  its  hair, 
to  beat  the  mother  on  the  breast  till  she  was  left  for  dead.  Gilbert, 
the  only  surviving  child  of  his  first  wife,  returned  wifc  his  father  to 
Jura,  and  there  lived  and  reared  a  family.  One  of  his  (Gilbert's) 
sons,  Alexander,  married  Flora  McLean,  and  reared  four  sons  and 
four  daughters,  and  when  his  eldest  son  Gilbert  was  sixteen  years 
of  age,  removed  to  America,  and  settled  in  Cumberland  county, 
on  the  Cape  Fear.  Some  of  the  descendants  of  Keneih  Clark, 
half  brother  of  Gilbert,  came  to  America.  From  this  stock  arose 
numerous  families  in  the  soutli  and  west. 

When  Alexander  Clark  emigrated  to  America,  he  paid  the  pas- 
sage of  many  poor  emigrants,  and  gave  them  employment  till  the 
price  was  repaid.  Many  companies  of  Scotchmen  came  to  Ame- 
rica in  a  similar  way,  some  person  of  property  paying  their 
passage,  and  giving  them  employ  upon  their  lands  until  they  were 
able  to  set  up  t^  themselves. 

Could  the  history  of  families  be  traced  out  with  certainty,  there 
is  little  doubt  that  vague  traditions  of  sufferings  and  trials  from 
the  hands  of  the  Catholics,  would  jprove  to  have  been  derived  from 
as  sacTfealities  as  are  found  in  the  family ^f  the  Clarks.  Almost 
without  exception  these  Scotchmen  were  Presbyterians,  who  held 
the  Confession'of  Faith,  the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant,  and  the 
Form  of  Government  and  Discipline  now  iuMse  in  Scotland.  And 
for  their  creed  they  were  willing  to  suffer ;  for,  as  little  as  liberty 
of  conscience  was  understood  at  that  time,  the  Scotch  had  found 
that  yielding  their  religious  creed  to  authority  was  giving  up  tliem- 
selves  to  hopeless  tyranny ;  and  through  many  political  mistakes 
they  held  the  palladium,  their  Confession  of  Faith  and  Form  of 
Government,  with  an  unwavering  spirit. 

More  than  sixty  years  had  passed  from  the  decisive  battle  of 
the  Boyne,  July  1st,  1690,  in  which  the  forces  of  James  IL  were 
entirely  routed  by:  William  IIL,  Prince  irf  Orange,  and  the  royal 
fugitive  James  took  refuge  in  Paris,  abandoning  his  throne  to  his 
rival,  when  his  grandson  Charles  Edward  began  to  make  pre- 
parations for  a  descent  upon  England.  From  his  very  cradle  he 
was  inspired  with  an  unquenchable  desire  to  regain  the  throne  of 
his  ancestors ;  of  this  he  talked  by  day  and  dreamed  by  night, 
and  in  his  delusive  plan  was  encouraged  by  the  thoughtless  and 

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SETTLEMENT    OP   THE    SCOTCH    ON    RIVER   CAPE    FEAR.       l27 

the  imaginative,  till  he  came  to  believe  that  the  principal  men  in 
the  kingdom  were  discontented  with  the  reigning  hcmse  of  Han- 
over, and  desirous  of  seeing  a  male  descendant  of  the  house  of 
Stuart  on  the  throne.     After  much  soHcitation  he  obtained  some 
encouragement  from  the  King  of  France,  but  no  public  acknow- 
ledgment either  of  the  present  'enterprise  or  the  validity  of  his 
claim.     On  the  16th  of  July,  a  day  remarked  by  some  as  fatal  to 
hifi  family,  in  1746,  he  landed  on  the  coast  of  Lochaber,  in  Scot- 
land, with  some  money,  a  few  stands  of  arms,  and  scarce  an  at- 
tendant, relying  on  the  national  feelings  of  the  Scotch,  whom  he 
expected  to  rally  around  his  standard.     Of  the  rising  in  his  favor, 
or  rebellion  against  the  constituted  authorities  of  the  kingdom, 
which  followed,  an  account  may  be  found  in  any  extended  history 
of  England  or  of  Europe,  suflScient  to  satisfy  a  general  reader. 
The  Pretender  to  the  crown  of  England,  Prince  Charles  Edward, 
soon  discovered  that  while  the  Scotch  loved  his  family  from  their 
hearts,  as  their  own  royal  house,  the  Lowlanders  had  become  so 
attached  to  the  reigning  house,  or  satisfied  with  their  govenunent, 
that  no  solicitations  could  engage  them  in  a  hasty  rebellion  against 
George  II. ;  and  that  among  the  Highlanders,  the  most  powerfbl 
chiefs  were  either  so  connected  with  the  government  as  to  be  alto- 
gether averse  to  amy  attempt  to  shake  its  peace  and  security,  or 
were  so  convinced  of  its  stability  as  to  consider  any  eflforts  to 
regain  the  crown  /to  their  own  royal  house  but  a  feeble  rebellion. 
Tae  head  of  the  Makenzies,  and  also  the  head  of  the  McLeods, 
were  members  of  parfiament ;  the  head  of  the  McDonalds,  tbe 
strongest  and  most  numerous  of  the  claiis"  that  had  favored  the 
father  and  grandfather  of  Prince  Charles  Edward,  was  entirely 
opposed  to  a  rising,  or  insurrection,  or  rebellion,  having  no  hope 
of  final  success.     In  their  view  neither  time  nor  circumstance 
was  propitious  ;  nor  were  they  prepared  to  say  that  any  govern- 
ment they  might  hope  for,  under  the  house  of  Stuart,  would  be 
more  favorable  to  Scotland  and  the  united  kingdom  than  the  do- 
minion of  the  reigning  family. 

Lord  Lovat  declared  for  him,  and  with  him  were  united  some 
of  the  feebler  noblemen  ;  some  of  the  smaller  clans  in  tbe  High- 
lands unanimously  raised  the  standard  for  the  Pretender ;  Bqxd 
many  of  the  young  men  of  the  clans  of  the  McDonalds,  the 
McLeods,  the  Makenzies,  and  others  whose  leaders  would  not 
favor  the  enterprise,  gave  way  to  the  impulse  of  national  enthusi- 
asm and  chivalric  enterprise,  and  joined  his  ranks.  For  a  time  it 
is  well  known  that  he  was  successful,  and  on  his  march  towards 

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the  capital  of  the  kingdom,  spread  terror  through  the  country,  and 
struck  alarm  in  the  cabinet  of  Ki»g  George.  Whether  his  success 
had  reached  its  boundary  and  ntcessarily  subsided  into  misfortune 
and  calamity,  or  whether  his  delays  and  revehies  wasted  the 
folden  hours  of  enterprise,  and  sujBfered  the  rising  enthusiasm  of  the 
nation,  warmed  for  a  young  prinee  claiming  his  ancestors'  throne, 
to  fPDW  cool,  his  tide  of  success  soon  changed,  and  he  retired, 
whether  wisely  or  unwisely,  first  to  the  borders  of  Scotland,  and 
then  to  the  northern  part,  and  took  possession  of  Inverness. 
The  disposition  to  declare  for  their  royal  house  was  spreading  in 
Scotland,  and  could  he  have  maintained  his  post  in  England,  or 
have  delayed  a  battle  for  a  time,  the  mass  of  the  nation  would 
have  taken  arms  in  his  cause.  On  the  16th  of  April,  1746,  he 
fought,  a  few  miles  north  of  Invemess,  against  the  Duke  of  Gunk- 
berland,  the  disastrous  battle  of  Gulloden ;  and  with  his  defeat 
his  hopes  of  empire  vanished.  Dismissing  his  followers,  whose 
hopes  and  courage  were  better  than  his  own,  he  wandered  a  fu- 
gitive among  the  mountains  and  crags,  and,  never  again  rallying 
his  forces,  sought  his  safety  in  secresy  and  flight. 

His  followers  were  taken  captive  in  great  numbers  ;  three  no- 
blemen, after  summary  trial,  perished  on  the  scafibld ;  one  of  them, 
Lord  Lovat,  in  his  eightieth  year,  exclaiming  with  his  latest  breath, 
'*  Dulce  et  decorum  est  pro  patria  mori."  The  English  army  rav- 
aged with  fire  and  sword  all  that  part  of  Scotland  that  had  favored 
the  prince.  The  men  were  hunted  down  like  wild  beasts,  and 
shot  on  the  smallest  resistance ;  the  huts  were  burned  over  the 
heads  of  the  womeft  and  children,  and  the  cattle  and  provisions 
were  carried  away  or  destroyed.  The  very  appearance  of  rebellion, 
and  in  many  places  even  of  population  itself,  was  extinguished  in 
the  Highlands  before  the  Duke  of  Gumberland  returned  to  London. 
Yet  in  all  this  misery  of  the  people,  and  the  keen  scrutiny  of  the 
soldiers,  the  prince  finally  escaped.  In  his  wanderings  he  experi- 
enced all  the  variety  of  dangers  and  hair-breadth  escapes  that  can 
be  imagined  from  the  efibrts  of  a  chivalrous  young  man  whose 
greatest  errors  and  misfortunes  had  sprung  from  the  success  of  his 
gallantry  among  the  ladies  of  his  court  and  country, — and  a  people 
rqiigh  and  untutored,  but  loyal  to  a  proverb,  and  though  poor,  too 
s^unch  to  be  bribed  by  the  ofier  of  £30,000  to  deliver  up  the 
fugitive  whose  hiding-places  were  known  to  many  and  could  easily 
be  guessed  at  by  multitudes.  During  the  five  montiis  of  his  wan- 
derings, ncf  less  than  fifty  individuals  were  in  possession  of  his 
person,  many  of  whom  hi^d  been  opposed  to  the  rising  in  his  favor. 

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from  the  conyiction  of  its  uselessness,  ftnd  had  suffered  thetoselyes 
to  be  drawn  into  tht  rebeUion  fay  the  enthusiasm  of  (heir  nation 
for  their  own  royal  house. 

Many  pleasing  instances  of  heroic  devotion  to  the  princ^in  his 
misfortunes  are  related  to  tfie  everlasting  honor  of  the  Mighlanda^ 
Immediately  after  the  battle  of  CuUoden,  he  took  refuge  in  Ross- 
shire  ;  and  to  save  him  from  the  hot  pursuit  of  the  soldier%  his 
adherents  and  friends  not  only  fought,  but  suffered  themselves  to 
be  slavi  that  he  might  escape.  One  gentleman,  always  known  as 
opposed  to  the  rebeUion,  being  apprehended  for  aiding  him  in  his 
aecessity,  pleaded  before  his  judges — '^  I  only  gave  fa&B  what  nature 
seemed  to  require,  a  night's  lodging  and  an  huojble  repast,  And 
who  among  my  judges,  though  poor  as  I  am,  would  have  sought 
to  acqxiire  riches  by  violating  the  rights  of  hospitahty  in  order  to 
earn  Uie  price  of  blood  ?"  This  generous  plea  gained  him  his  dis- 
mission with  applause.  Another  by  the  name  of  Kennedy,  who 
often  exposed  his  life  for  his  prince,  and  though  poor,  despised  the 
large  reward  offered  for  betraying  the  royal  fugitive,  was  some 
time  after  seized  at  Inverness  and  executed  on  the  charge  of  steal- 
ing a  cow.  At  the  place  of  his  execution  he  pulled  off  his  bonno^ 
and  looking  round  upon  the  assembly,  exclaimed,  **  I  give  most 
hearty  thanks  to  Almighty  God  that  I  never  proved  false  to  an  en- 
gagement of  any  kind;  that  I  never  injured  a  poor  man ;  and  never 
refused  to  share  whatever  I  had  with  the  stranger  and  those  in 

On  the  return  of  the  army  under  the  Duke  of  Cumberland,  a 
large  number  of  prisoners  were  taken  along,  and  after  a  hasty  trial 
by  a  mihtary  court,  publicly  executed.  Seventeen  suffered  death 
at  Kemiington  Conunon,  near  London ;  thirty-two  were  put  to 
death  in  Cumberland ;  and  twenty-two  in  Yorkshire.  This  was 
probably  done  by  way  of  vengtance  and  alarm.  But  kinder 
thoughts  prevailed  with  his  Majesty  George  II. ;  and  a  large  num- 
ber were  pardoned,  on  condition  of  their  imigrating  to  the  planta- 
tions, after  having  taken  the  solemn  oath  of  allegiance.  This  is 
the  origin  of  the  large  settlements  of  Highlanders  on  Cape  Fear 
River.  For  a  large  number  who  had  taken  arms  for  the  Pretender, 
preferred  exile  to  death,  or  subjugation  in  their  native  land ;  and 
during  the  years'  1746  and  1747,  with  their  families  and  the  fiuni- 
Ues  of  many  of  their  friends,  removed  to  North  Carolina  and  settled 
along  the  Cape  Fear  River,  occupying  a  large  space  of  country  of 
which  Crosscreek,  afterwards  Campbelton,  now  Fayettpville,  was 
the  centre.    Probably  the  report  from  those  who  had  settled  along 

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this  riter,  of  the  mild  winters,  the  open  forests,  the  abundant  ^ane- 
brakes  and  ^Id  grass,  turned  the  attention  of  these  emigrants  to 
this  part  of  America,  where  lands  were  abundant  and  cheap.  Per- 
haps, too,  the  royal  authority  was  exerted  in  fixing  a  location  for 
..the  pardoned  exiles,  that  Carolina  might  have  a  hardy  race  of 
industrious  people  to  occupy  her  waste  lands,  increase  her  popula- 
tion and  her  revenue  to  the  royal  coffers.  This  wilderness  become 
a  refuge  to  the  harassed  Highlanders ;  and  shipload  after  ship- 
load landed  at  Wihnington  in  1746^  and  1747.  The  emigration 
once  fairly  begun  by  royal  authority  and  clemency,  was  carried  on 
by  those  who  wished  to  improve  their  condition,  and  become 
owners  of  th^  soil  upon  which  they  lived  and  labored ;  and  in  the 
course  of  a  few  years  large  companies  of  industrious  Highlanders 
joined  their  countrymen  in  Bladen  county.  North  Carolina.  Their 
descendants  are  found  in  the  counties  of  Cumberland,  Bladen, 
Sampson,  Moore,  Robeson,  Richmond  and  Anson,  all  of  which 
were  included  in  Bladen  at  the  time  of  the  first  emigration ;  and 
are  a  moral,  religious  people,  noted  for  their  industry  and  eccniomy, 
perseverance  and  prosperity ;  forming  a  most  interesting  and  im- 
portant part  of  the  State.  Their  present  descendants  are  to  be 
found  everywhere  in  the  South  and  West. 

The  religious  principles  of  these  emigrants  have  been  better 
known  and  more  generally  understood,  and  better  expressed,  by 
vniters  of  American  history,  whether  sectional  or  general,  than 
those  of  the  people  who  took  possession  of  the  upper  country,  and 
acted  so  nobly  in  the  Revolution ;  and  better,  perhaps,  than  those 
of  any  other  section  of  the  State  in  its  earUer  years.  The  religion 
of  the  Scotch  Church  is  known  to  the  world ;  it  is  the  reUgion  of 
the  nation.  The  reUgion  of  Ireland  is  part  Protestant  and  part 
Papist ;  the  predominant  being  of  the  Church  of  Rome,  and  the 
Protestant  being  divided  between  the  Presbyterian  and  the  Church 
of  England.  To  say  a  company  of  emigrants  are  firom  Ireland 
does  not  decide  either  the  political  or  religious  creed ;  to  say  they 
are  from  Scotland,  in  general,  decides  both.  In  the  former  case 
we  inquire  for  their  birth-place  and  their  creed;  in  the  latter, 
we  take  it  for  granted  we  know  what  their  creed  is,  unless  we  are 
warned  to  the  contrary. 

From  the  time  of  the  introduction  of  the  Christian  religion  into 
Scotland  the  bias  of  the  national  mind  has  been  to  the  creed' aad. 
forms  of  Presbytery.    The  Culdees  were  to  all  mtonts  and  pur- 
poses Presbyleriaas ;  they  held  strenuously  to  the  pai-ity  of  the 
clergy ;  had  but  one  ordination ;  and  governed  the  Church  by  a 

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Council  of  Presbyters.  Popery  for  a  time  did  obtain  tbe  ascend- 
ency in  Scotland,  all  the  time  straggling  against  th^  spirit  of  the 
nation  that  demanded  independence  in  religion.  But  &om  the  time 
of  John  Knox,  there  has  been  no  doubt  respecting  the  religious 
forms  or  the  creed  desired  by  the  great  body  of  the  people.  The 
National  Covenant  adopted  and  signed  publicly  in  1638,  and  re- 
peated afterwards,  and  the  Confession  of  Faith,  which  has  been 
used  now  more  than  two  hundred  years  by  the  Presbyterians  in 
Scotland,  England,  and  Ireland,  and  about  a  century  and  a  half  in 
America,  leave  no  doubt  what  their  views  of  church  government, 
church  order,  and  beUef,  were.  The  feet  that  many  of  them  had 
borne  aims  for  the  Pretender,  a  Papist  sent  over  by  the  instigation 
of  the  Pope  and  his  adherents,  for  the  purpose  of  introcfaicing 
Popery  once  more  into  England,  is  easily  and  very  truly  accounted 
for  mk  other  feelings  and  principles  than  any  sympathy  in  reli- 
gious belief,  of  which  it  is  known  there  was  none. 

No  minister  of  religion  accompanied  the  first  emigrants  in  1746 
and  1747 ;  nor  is  it  known  that  any  came  with  any  succeeding 
company  till^^the  year  1770,  when  the  Rev.  John  McLeod  came 
direct  firom  Scotland  and  ministered  to  them  for  some  time,  though 
he  was  not  the  first  preacher.  This  fact,  that  no  minister  of  reli- 
gion came  with  these  people,  many  of  whom  were  pious,  and  all 
of  whom  were  accustomed  to  attend  on  public  worship,  cannot 
easily  be  accounted  for ;  and  it  had  an  unhappy  efiect  upon  the  emi- 
grants and  upon  their  children.  Without  public  ministrations  of 
the  ordinances  of  the  gospel  a  sense  of  reUgion  will  soon  begin  to 
pass  away  from  the  public  mind ;  and  the  fire  will  be  kept  burning 
only  on  here  tnd  there  a  private  altar.  The  wonder  is  that  in  the 
circumstances  of  these  colonists  the  sense  of  reUgion  was  so  well 
maintained  under  the  ministrations  and  labors  of  one  solitary 
preacher,  James  Campbell,  who  pursued  his  laborious  course  alone 
among  the  outspreading  neighborhoods  in  what  is  now  Cumberland 
and  Robeson,  firom  1767  to  1770. 

This  worthy  evangeUst,  the  Rev.  James  Campbell,  was  bom  in 
Campbelton,  on  the  peninsula  of  Kintyre,  in  Argyleshire,  Scotland. 
Of  his  early  history  little  is  known  ;  and  too  little  has  been  pre- 
served of  his  pioneer  labors  in  later  life.  About  the  year  1730  he 
emigrated  to  America,  a  licensed  preacher  in  the  Presbyterian 
.  Chorch,  and  landed  at  Philadelphia.  He  soon  became  connected 
with  a  congregation  of  Scotch  emigrants  somewhere  in  Pennsyl- 
vania, and  labored  in  the  ministry  with  them  £ar  a  time.  His  mind 
became  clouded,  and  his  heart  full  of  fears,  on  the  subject  of  his 

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call  to  the  ministry,  and  even  of  his  own  personal  piety ;  and  he 
ceased  to  perform  the  duties  of  a  minister,  believing  that  it  was 
wrong  for  him  to  preach.  In  this  state  of  mind  he  heard  the  fa- 
mous Whitefield  preach,  as  he  was  traversing  the  country,  and 
sought  an  interview  with  him.  This  eminent  servant  of  God  heard 
him  state  his  case,  removed  most  of  his  difficulties,  and  encouraged 
him  to  resume  his  ministry.  He  labored  for  a  time  in  Lancaster 
county,  on  the  Coneweheog,  where  the  Rev.  Hugh  McAden  visited 
him,  as  is  recorded  in  his  journal.  His  attention  being  turned  to 
his  countrymen  on  the  Cape  Fear,  Mr.  Campbell  emigrated  to 
North  Carolina  in  the  year  1757,  and  took  his  residence  on  the  left 
bank  of  the  Cape  Fear,  a  few  miles  above  Fayetteville,  nearly 
opposite  to  the  Bluflf  church. 

For  a  long  time  he  held  his  Presbyterial  connection  vrith  a 
Presbytery  in  South  Carolina,  which  was  never  united  with  the 
Synod  of  Philadelphia.  About  the  year  1773  his  connection  with 
Orange  Presbytery  was  formed,  and  in  that  connection  he  con- 
tinued till  his  death  in  the  year  1781.  Mr.  Campbell  left  behind 
him  no  papers  or  memoranda  from  which  anything  can  be  gleaned 
respecting  his  religious  exercises,  or  ministerial  labors ;  but  he 
has  left  traditions  which  sprung  from  the  experience  of  the  people 
of  his  charge,  that  he  was  a  zealous  laborious  man,  who  never 
wearied  in  his  work,  from  the  time  he  came  to  Carolina,  but  spent 
his  days  in  affectionate  and  unremitting  efforts  to  bring  men  home 
to  God  through  Christ.  His  labors  had  no  boimds  but  his  strength. 
It  is  probable  that,  for  a  time,  he  supplied  the  Scotch  population 
at  the  rate  of  a  Sabbath  once  in  three  or  four  to  a  neighborhood, 
the  people  going  in  many  instances  a  long  distance  to  attend  the 
ministrations  of  the  sanctuary,  and  glad  to  hear,  even  at  distant 
intervals,  the  gospel  of  Christ. 

It  would  be  greatly  gratifying  to  the  church  and  the  public 
generally  could  some  pages  of  history,  formed  from  the  accredited 
doings  of  this  laborious  minister,  be  presented  to  the  world.  But 
for  want  of  documents  less  place  is  given  than  his  memory  de- 
serves. God  has  been  pleased  to  leave  much  of  his  doings  covered 
up  from  posterity,  to  be  revealed  when  the  veil  is  taken  off  from 
all  things. 

His  preaching  places  appear  to  have  been  three,  for  regidar 
congregations,  on  the  Sabbath,  besides  occasional  and  irregular 
preaching,  as  the  necessities  of  the  country  required.  For  ten  or 
twelve  years  he  preached  on  the  southwest  side  of  the  river  below 
the  Bli:^,  in  a  meeting-house  near  Roger  McNeill's,  and  called 

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**  Roger's  meeting-house."  Here  Hector  McNeill .  (commonly 
(tailed  Bluff  Hector)  and  Alexander  McAlister,  acted  as  Elders. 
AAer  the  death  of  Mr.  Campbell,  and  about  the  year  1787,  the 
"Bluff  Church''  was  built,  and  Duncan  McNeill  (of  the  Bluff, 
Hector  being  dead)  and  Alexander  McAlister,  and  perhaps  others, 
officiated  as  Elders. 

Soon  after  his  removal  to  Carolina,  Mr.  Campbell  commenced  . 
preaching  at  Alexander  Clark's,  and  continued  his  appointments 
for  a  number  of  years.  About  the  year  1746,  John  Dobbin,  who 
had  married  the  widow  of  David  Alexander  in  Pennsylvania,  and 
had  resided  in  Virginia,  near  Winchester,  about  a  year,  removed 
to  Carolina ;  and,  while  the  Alexander  families  that  came  with  him 
took  their  abode  on  the  Hico  or  the  Yadkin,  he  fixed  his  residence 
on  the  Cape  Fear,  somewhat  against  the  inclinations  of  his  wife 
and  step-daughter.  The  situations  on  the  river  being  esteemed 
less  healthy  than  those  more  remote,  Mr.  Dobbin  and  others  took 
their  abode  on  Barbacue ;  and  about  the  year  1758  Mr.  Campbell 
began  to  preach  at  his  house,  and  continued  so  to  do  till  the 
"Barbacue  Church"  was  built,  about  the  year  1765  or  1766. 
The  first  Elders  of  this  church  were — Gilbert  Clark,  eldest  son 
of  Alexander  Clark,  and  step-son  of  John  Dobbin  (having  married 
Ann  Alexander),  one  of  the  first  magistrates  of  Cumberland 
county,  under  the  Colonial  Government, — Duncan  Buie,  who  early 
in  the  Revolutionary  war  removed  to  the  Cape  Fear  River,  nearly 
opposite  the  Bluff  Church, — Archibald  Buie  of  Green  Swamp, — 
and  Daniel  Cameron  of  the  Hill.  These  men  were  pious,  and 
devoted  to  the  cause  of  religion  and  their  duties  as  Elders  ;  and 
for  their  strict  attention  to  their  duties  got  the  name  of  "  the  little 
ministers  of  Barbacue.^^  The  congregation,  Uke  the  others  under 
the  care  of  Mr.  Campbell,  were  trained  in  the  old  Scotch  fashion 
of  reading  the  Bible,  attending  church  when  practicable,  and  repeat- 
ing the  Catechism ;  and  were  accustomed  to  follow  the  minister 
in  his  proof  texts.  It  was  of  this  congregation  the  Rev.  John 
McLeod  said,  ''  he  would  rather  preach  to  the  most  polished  and 
fsEishionable  congregation  in  Edinburgh  than  to  the  little  critical 
carls  of  Barbacue."  Not  that  they  were  so  particularly  captious 
about  his  manner  and  delivery,  for  he  was  esteemed  an  eloquent 
man,  but  they  were  so  well-informed  on  the  doctrines  and  usages 
of  the  church,  that  it  required  great  particularity  in  his  sermons 
to  avoid  their  criticism.  The  kind  of  sermons  demanded  by  that 
people  might  now  seem  novel  or  antiquated,  but  would  be  found 
full  of  instruction ;  and  even  their  length  would  be  no  objection  in 

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congregations  that  can  hear  the  gospel  but  once  in  a  month  or  six 

Barbacue  church  was  tlie  place  of  worship  of  Flora  McDonald, 
while  she  hved  at  Cameron's  Hill,  and  though  the  congregation  is 
less  extended  and  flourishing  than  in  former  years,  it  is  still  in 
existence.     May  it  revive  and  flourish  ! 

Mr.  Campbell  also  began  to  preach  soon*  after  his  coming  to 
Carolina,  at  McKay's,  now  known  as  Long  Street,  one  of  the 
places  visited  by  Mr.  McAden  in  his  first  journey  through  Caro- 
lina. A  church  was  built  about  the  year  1765  or  '66,  the  time  at 
which  Barbacue  was  built.  The  first  elders  were  Malcom  Smith, 
Archibald  McKay,  and  Archibald  Ray.  This  congregation  is  still 
in  existence,  and  though  much  curtailed  in  extent  and  numbers, 

These  three  congregations  were  the  principal  places  of  Mr. 
Campbell's  preaching,  and  for  a  time  accommodated  the  greater 
part  of  the  Scotch  settled  in  Cumberland.  As  the  emigration 
continued  new  neighborhoods  were  formed,  and  the  limits  of  these 
congregations  contracted  :  and  one  after  another  the  numerous 
cliurches  in  Cumberland,  Robeson,  Moore  and  Richmond,  and 
Bladen,  were  gathered,  some  of  which  now  surpass  in  numbers 
these  ancient  mothers. 

At  the  time  Mr.  Campbell  labored  in  Cumberland,  the  larger 
number  of  the  people  used  the  Gaehc  language  ;  some  could  use 
both  that  and  the  English  ;  and  there  were  some  Lowland  Scotch, 
and  a  few  Scotch-Irish  families,  and  some  Dutch  that  could  not 
use  the  Gaelic  :  divine  service  was  therefore  performed  in  both 
languages.  Mr.  Campbell,  to  accommodate  his  hearers,  preached 
two  sermons  each  Sabbath,  one  in  English  and  one  in  Gaelic ; 
this  he  did  in  all  three  of  his  churches.  In  a  few  congregations, 
in  the  Presbytery  of  Fayetteville,  this  practice  of  preaching  in  the 
two  languages  is  still  continued.  The  influence  of  this  language 
has  been  great  upon  the  Scotch  settlements  in  CaroUna.  There 
have  been  some  disadvantages  attending  it,  and  the  language  is 
fast  passing  away.  But  for  a  long  time  it  was  a  bond  of  union, 
and  a  preservation  of  those  feelings  and  principles  peculiar  to  the 
Scotch  emigrants,  many  of  which  ought  to  be  preserved  for  ever. 
The  change  has  been  so  gradual  in  putting  ofl*  the  Graelic,  and 
adopting  the  English,  that  the  people  of  Cumberland  have  sufifered 
as  little,  firom  a  change  of  their  language,  as  any  people  that  have 
ever  undergone  that  unwelcome  process.    They  have  retained  the 

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fiiith  and  habits  of  their  ancestors,  things  most  commonly  thrown 
away  or  changed  by  a  change  of  the  common  dialect. 

Mr.  CampbeU,  for  a  few  years,  had  an  assistant  in  the  ministry. 
The  Rev.  John  McLeod  came  from  Scotland  some  time  in  the 
year  1770,  accompanied  by  a  large  number  of  famiUes  from  the 
Highlands,  who  took  their  residence  upon  the  upper  and  lower 
Little  Rivers,  in  Cumberland  county.  Barbacue  and  liong  Street 
were  part  of  the  places  in  which  he  preached  during  the  three 
years  he  remained  in  Carolina.  In  the  year  1773,  he  left  Ame»» 
rica  with  the  view  of  returning  to  his  native  land ;  being  nevet 
heard  of  afterwards,  it  is  supposed  that  he  found  a  watery  grave. 
He  was  a  man  of  eminent  piety,  great  worth,  and  popular  elo- 

With  this  exception  it  is  not  known  that  he  had  any  mmisterial 
brother  residing  in  Cumberland,  or  the  adjoining  counties,  that 
could  assist  him  in  preaching  to  the  Gaels.  McAden,  who 
preached  in  Duplin,  could  give  him  no  assistance  where  the  lan- 
guage of  the  Hignlanders  was  the  vernacular  tongue. 

How  the  congregations  of  the  Scotch  maintained  so  much  of  a 
spirit  of  piety  and  true  religion,  can  be  accounted  for  on  no  other 
principles,  than  the  pious,  devoted  labors  of  Mr.  CampbeU  and  hia 
elders,  accompanied  by  the  blessing  of  the  Holy  Spirit.  The 
children  were  taught  the  catechism,  and  called  to  frequent  exami- 
nations by  the  church  officers  ;  and  the  Bible  was  much  read ; 
and  himly  religion  very  generally  maintained.  These  forms  were 
kept  up  even  after  the  spirit  of  godliness  had  much  decayed,  in 
the  old  age  of  Mr.  Campbell,  and  by  the  confusion  and  strifes  and 
bloodshed  of  the  Revolution,  which  were  felt  in  all  their  terrors 
on  the  Cape  Fear. 

Since  the  Revolution  the  congregations  of  the  Scotch  have  been 
much  better  supplied  with  ministers  than  previously ;  but  it  is 
doubtful  whether  family  government  and  religion  are  as  careftilly 
attended  to  now  as  in  former  days.  One  reason  of  the  smaU 
supply  of  ministers,  before  the  Revolution,  may  have  been  in  the 
feict,  Uiat  the  emigrants,  while  in  Scotland,  had  been  accustomed 
to  the  division  of  the  country  into  parishes  by  the  civil  authority^ 
and  the  collection  of  the  ministers'  support  by  law,  in  some  pa- 
rishes having  a  quaUfied  voice  in  the  choice  of  their  pastor,  and 
in  others  possessing  no  right  of  choice  worth  naming.  In  Carolina, 
all  interference  of  law  was  to  divide  the  county  into  parishes  for 
the  establishment  of  the  English  National  Church,  to  which  these 
emigrants  were  greatly  averse.    After  the  revolutionary,  war, 

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nacMsitj  lad  the  Scotch  to  voluntary  efforts  for  the  suppoit  of  their 
ministers,  and  these  efforts  were  attended  with  success ;  and  their 
descendants  enjoy  gospel  privileges  in  as  high  a  degree  as  any 
section  of  the  southern  and  western  States.  The  Scotch-Irish 
had  been  more  accustomed  to  these  efforts  in  k^land,  being  left  to 
provide  for  their  own  ministers  by  volimtary  gifts,  after  they  had 
paid  what  the  law  required  for  tiie  nationsd  deargy.  They  were 
more  active  in  Carolina,  before  the  Revolution,  than  the  Scotch  ; 
after  that  event,  the  efforts  of  both  are  worthy  of  hi^  comm^i;-' 

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The  Scotch,  never,  id  the  land  of  their  fathers,  or  in  the  United 
States  of  Amo'ica,  have  been  inclined  to  radicalism,  or  the  prostra- 
tion of  all  law.  In  their  warmest  aspirations  for  the  liberty  of 
choosing  their  own  rulers,  or  framing,  or  consenting  to  the  laws,  by 
which  they  shoald  be  goTemed,  they  always  acknowledged  the  ne- 
cessity of  law  and  order;  in  fact,  they  never  asked  for  anything 
else.  The  general  run  of  Scottish  history  shows  the  nation  to  have 
been  in  favor  of  a  government  of  sufficient  strei^th  to  control  its 
subjects  in  the  exercise  of  their  passions,  and  defend  them  from 
aggression  and  violence. 

They  have  ever  been  strenuous  that  their  rulers  should  govern 
according  to  some  established  law,  well  known  and  understood,  to 
which  reference  should  be  had  in  cases  of  dispute  among  themselves, 
or  with  their  rulers ;  and  to  the  decision  of  this  law,  fairly  inter- 
preted, there  should  be  no  opposition  while  the  law  was  unrepealed. 

They  contended  that  there  is  of  necessity  an  agreement  betwien 
the  rulers  and  the  people,  the  one,  to  govern  by  these  fixed  laws, 
and  the  other,  to  obey  the  directiona  given  by  tiie  constituted  au- 

They  ever  contended  that  there  is  a  conscience  towards  (rod, 
paramount  to  all  human  control ;  and  for  the  government  of  their 
conscience  in  all  matters  of  morality  and  religion,  the  Bible  is  the 
storehouse  of  information, — ^acknowledging  no  Lord  of  the  consci- 
ence, but  the  Son  of  God,  the  head  of  the  Church,  Jesus  Christ ; 
and  the  Bible  as  his  divine  communication  for  the  welfare  and 
guide  of  mankind. 

They  have  held  that  tyranny  and  usurpation  may  be  set  aside  by 
force ;  that,  in  extreme  cases,  revolution  by  force  is  the  natural 
right  of  man;  not  a  revolution  to  throw  down  authority,  and  give 
license  to  passion,  but  a  revolution  to  first  principles,  and  to  the 
unalienable  rights  of  man. 

On  these  principles,  they  formed  their  various  Covenants.  The 
first  made  m  1557,  Dec  3d,  and  the  second  on  31st  of  May,  1659 ; 
inbodi  of  which  the  leading  men,  and  many  others,  bind  themselves 

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to  maintain  their  religion  against  all  opposition  from  any  and  eyery 
quarter.  TTie  first  National  Covenant  of  Scotland  was  drawn  op 
by  John  Craig,  and  sometimes  has  been  called  Craig's  Confession  ; 
was  publicly  owned  and  signed  by  the  king  himself,  his  household^ 
and  the  greater  part  of  the  nobility  and  gentry,  throughout  the 
kingdom,  in  1581 ;  the  signing  of  it  being  greatly  prcnnoted 
through  the  country  by  the  ministers  of  religion.  The  same  core* 
nant,  with  many  additions,  was  publicly  signed,  with  great  solem- 
nity, by  the  people  in  Edinburgh,  Feb.  28th,  1638.  By  this,  they 
all  bound  themselves  to  preserve,  at  all  hazards,  their  religions 
rights  and  liberties  against  opposers.  And  finally,  the  Solemn 
League  and  Covenant,  drawn  up  by  Alexander  Henderson,  and 
read  by  him  in  the  General  Assembly  of  the  Churck  of  Scotland^ 
on  the  17th  of  August,  1643,  and  was  received  and  i^roved,  with 
emotions  of  the  deepest  solemnity  and  awe,  with  whispered  thanks* 
givings  and  prayers.  It  was  then  carried  to  the  Convention  of 
States,  and  by  them  unanimofusly  ratified;  subsequently,  it  was 
sent  to  London,  where,  on  the  25tti  Sept  of  the  same  year,  it  was 
accepted  and  subscribed  by  the  English  Parliament  and  the  Assem- 
bly of  Westminster  Divines ;  and  afterwards  carried  over  to  Ireland, 
and  taken  generally,  by  the  congregations  of  Presbyterians,  ia 
Ulster  province.  The  services  attending  the  signing  of  this  import- 
ant instrument  were  solemn  and  protracted,  not  only  in  Scotland, 
but  in  England  and  in  Ireland. 

This  Solemn  League  and  Covenant,  so  generally  taken,  bound 
the  United  Kingdoms  to  endeavor  the  preservation  of  the  Reformed 
Religion  in  the  Church  of  Scotland,  in  doctrine,  discipline,  and 
government, — and  the  Reformation  of  Religion  in  England  and 
Ireland  according  to  the  Word  of  (}od,  and  the  example  of  the  best 
reformed  Churches, — ^the  extirpation  of  Popery  and  Prelacy, — ^the 
defence  of  the  King's  person,  authority,  and  honor, — and  the  pre- 
servation and  defence  of  the  true  Religion  and  Liberties  of  the 
kingdom,  in  peace  and  quietness.  Hetherington,  a  writer  of  note, 
in  his  History  of  the  Church  of  Scotland,  thus  writes :  ^^  Perhaps 
no  great  international  transaction  has  ever  been  so  much  misrepre- 
sented and  maligned,  as  the  Solemn  League  and  Covenant  Even 
its  defenders  have  often  exposed  it,  and  its  authors,  to  severe  cen- 
sures, by  their  unwise  mode  of  defence.  There  can  be  no  doubt  in 
the  mind  of  any  intelligent  and  thoughdul  man,  that  on  it  mainly 
rests,  under  Providence,  the  noble  structure  of  the  British  OHistitu- 
tion.  But  for  it,  so  far  as  man  may  ^  judge,  these  kingdoms  would 
have  been  placed  beneath  the  deadening  bondage  of  absolute  despot- 

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ism ;  and  in  the  fate  of  Britain,  the  liberty  and  civilisation  of  the 
world  wotdd  have  sustained  a  fatal  paralyzing  shock.  This  con- 
sideration alone  might  be  sufficient  to  induce  the  statesman  to 
pause,  before  he  ventures  to  condemn  the  Solemn  League  and  Cove- 
nant But  to  the  Christian,  we  may  suggest  still  loftier  thoughts. 
Hie  great  principles  of  that  sacred  bond  are  those  of  the  Kble 
itself.  It  may  be  that  Britain  was  not  then,  and  is  not  yet,  in  a  fit 
state  to  receive  them,  and  to  make  them  her  principles  and  rules  of 
national  government  and  law ;  but  they  are  not,  on  that  account, 
untrue,  nor  even  impracticable :  and  the  glorious  predictions  of  the 
kiq>ired  Scriptives  foretell  a  time  when  they  will  be  more  than 
realized,  and  when  all  the  kingdoms  of  this  earth  shaU  become  the 
kingdoms  c^  Jehovah,  and  of  his  anointed,  and  all  shall  be  united  in 
one  solemn  league  and  covenant  under  the  King  of  Kings  and  Lord 
of  Lords.  And  who  may  presume  to  say  that  the  seemingly  pre- 
mature and  ineffectual  attempt  to  realize  it  by  the  heavenly-minded 
patriarchs  of  Scotland's  second  Reformation,  was  not  the  first  faint 
struggling  day-beam  piercing  the  world's  thick  darkness,  and  reveal- 
ing to  the  eye  of  faith  an  earnest  of  the  rising  of  the  Sun  of  Right- 
eousness ?  A  sacred  principle  was  then  infused  into  the  heart  of  na- 
tions which  cannot  perish ;  alight  then  shone  into  the  world's  dark- 
ness which  cannot  be  extinguished;  and  generations  not  remote  may 
see  that  principle  quickening  and  evolving  in  all  its  irresistible 
might,  and  that  light  bursting  forth  in  its  all-brightening  glory." 

**  It  has  often  been  said  the  Covenanters  were  circumvented  by 
the  English  Parliament,  and  were  drawn  into  a  league  vnth  men 
who  meant  only  to  employ  them  for  their  own  purposes,  and  then 
either  cast  them  off,  or  subdue  them  beneath  a  sterner  sway  than 
that  of  Charles.  Were  it  even  so,  it  might  prove  the  treachery  of 
the  English,  but  would  expose  the  Covenanters  to  no  heavier  accu- 
sations than  that  of  unsuspecting  simplicity  of  mind.  They  ought 
.to  have  first  ascertained,  men  say,  what  form  of  church  government 
England  intended  to  adopt,  before  they  had  consented  to  the 
League.  And  yet  the  same  accusers  fiercely  condemn  the  Scottbh 
Covenanters  for  attempting  to  force  their  ovm  Presbyterian  forms 
upon  the  people  of  England.  The  former  accusation  manifestly 
destroys  the  latter.  That  the  Covenanters  did  not  attempt  to  force 
Presbyterianism  upon  England,  is  proved  by  the  fact,  that  they 
entered  into  the  league  without  any  such  specific  stipulation,  be- 
cause it  was  contrary  to  their  principles  either  to  submit  to  force 
in  matters  of  religion,  or  to  attempt  using  force  against  other  free 
Qtflidan  men.    It  argues,  therefore,  ignorance  both  of  their  prin- 

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ciples  and  of  their  conduct,  to  bring  against  them  an  accusation  so 
groundless  and  so  base.  They  consented  to  lend  ther  aid  to  Eng- 
land in  her  day  of  peril,  in  which  peril  they  were  themselves  in- 
voWed ;  but  they  left  to  England's  assembled  divines  the  grave  and 
responsible  task  of  refonning  their  own  church ;  lending,  merel/,  as 
they  were  requested,  the  assistance  of  some  of  their  own  most  learned^ 
pious,  and  experienced  ministers,  to  promote  the  great  and  holy 
enterprise.  For  that  they  have  been  and  will  be  blamed  by  witr 
lings.  Sciolists  and  Infidel  philosophers  3  but  what  England's  best 
and  greatest  men  sought  wiQi  earnest  desire,  and  received  with  re- 
spect and  gratitude,  Scotland  need  never  be  ashamed  that  her  vene- 
rable covenanted  fathers  did  not  decline  to  grant" 

"  And  let  it  be  carefully  observed,  that  the  difference  bdween  the 
conduct  of  the  English  Parliament  in  the  great  civil  war,  and  of 
the  Coyenanters  in  their  time  of  struggle,  consisted  in  and  was 
caused  by  this — ^that  in  England  it  was  essentially  a  contest  in  de- 
fence, or  for  the  assertion  of  civil  liberty, — in  Scotland  for  religious 
purity  and  freedom.  England's  fierce  wars  for  civil  liberty  laid  her 
and  her  unfortunate  assistant  prostrate  beneath  the  feet  of  an  iron- 
hearted  usurper  and  despot  Scotland's  calm  and  bloodless  defence 
of  religious  purity  and  freedom  secured  to  her  those  all-inestimable 
blessings,  broke  the  chains  of  her  powerful  ndghbor,  revealed  to 
mankind  a  principle  of  universal  truth  and  might,  and  poured  into 
her  own  crushed  heart  a  stream  of  life,  sacred,  immortal,  and 

The  famous  book  Lex  ReXj  by  Rev.  Samuel  Rutherford,  was  foil 
of  principles  that  lead  to  republican  action,  as  the  Scotch  generally 
have  understood  republicanism, — to  be  governed  by  rulers  chosen, 
and  by  laws  framed  according  to  the  will  of  the  people, — and  reli- 
gious liberty  untouched. 

These  great  principles  the  Scotch  brought  with  them  to  America ; 
they  are  still  held  by  their  descendants,  who  differ*  from  their  parent 
stock  in  insisting  on  and  enjoying  the  form  of  government,  which, 
while  it  protects  the  citizens,  is  elective,  and  is  executed  by  the 
same  persons  but  a  short  time  in  continuance.  On  the  other  side 
of  the  water,  the  Scotch  enjoy  but  an  implied  choice  in  their  here- 
ditary monarch,  and  but  in  part  that  freedom  of  conscience,  and 
that  liberty  from  legislative  interference  in  matters  of  religion,  they 
aimed  at  in  their  National  Covenant 

James  L  had  signed  the  first  National  ^Covenant,  and  Charles  11., 
on  his  being  crowned  at  Scone,  by  the  Scotch,  January  1st,  1651, 
heard  the  National  Covenant  and  the  solemn  League  and  Covenant 

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read,  and  solemnly  swore  to  keep  them  both ;  and  when  the  oath 
to  defend  the  Church  of  Scotland  wws  administered  to  him,  kneeling 
and  holding  up  his  right  hand,  he  uttered  the  following  awful  tow  : 
^  By  the  Eternal  and  Almighty  Gtod,  who  liveth  and  reigneth  for 
ever,  I  shall  observe  and  keep  all  that  is  contained  in  this  oath/' 

Now  with  men  who  had  felt  that  it  was  right  to  bind  a  heredi- 
tary monarch  by  a  solemn  covenant,  to  which  they  bound  them- 
selves, and  who,  in  emigrating  to  North  Carolina,  had  come,  some 
of  them  of  their  own  free  will,  with  the  expectation  of  enjoying 
more  liberty  and  acquiring  more  property,  and  some  on  compulsion, 
to  save  their  lives  after  the  rebellion  of  1748,  and  loaded  with  a 
solemn  oath  of  allegiance  as  part  of  the  conditions  of  pardon ;  and 
in  Carolina  kept  a  part  of  ^em  in  ignorance  of  the  real  state  of 
the  country,  and  imposed  upon  by  the  representations  of  the  Gov- 
ernor, ia  ^om  they  trusted, — it  is  not  at  all  strange  there  should 
be  diiSerence  of  opinion  and  action  as  the  revolutionary  struggle 
came  on.  Some  were  ready  to  carry  out  their  principles  at  once, — 
and  were  republicans,  doing  away  at  once  all  hereditary  claims  to 
the  tiirone  or  chair  of  state.  Others  had  not  felt  the  evils  com- 
plained of  in  Carolina  to  any  great  degree,  and  were  not  hasty  to 
enter  into  a  contest.  Others  felt  themselves  bound  to  obey  the 
long,  to  whose  government  and  person  they  had  taken  the  solemn 
oath  of  allegiance,  as  a  condition  of-  their  spared  lives.  And  some 
were  so  convinced  that  the  king's  forces  could  not  be  successfully 
resisted, — and  from  what  they  knew  or  heard  from  their  nation's  ex- 
perience, they  had  some  cause  to  fear, — ^that  it  was  better  to  beer 
the  evils  they  endured,  than  to  suffer  greater  after  a  crushed  rebel- 
lion. One  man,  William  Bourk,  was  heard  to  say  in  the  winter  of 
1776,  that  <*  we  should  all  be  subdued  by  the  month  of  May,  by  the 
king's  troops ;  that  General  Gage  ought  to  have  let  the  GKiards  out 
to  Bunker  Hill,  and  it  would  have  settled  the  dispute  at  that  time ;" 
and  for  this  he  was  brought  before  the  provincial  council,  March 
2d,  1776,  and  acknowledged  his  words,  and  added, — ^^  he  wished 
the  time  would  happen  this  instant,  but  was  sure  the  Americans 
would  be  subdued  by  the  month  of  August ;"  whereupon  he  was 
sent  to  Halifax  and  committed  to  close  gaol  till  further  orders. 

Those  that  had  come  to  the  province  of  their  own  accord,  pre- 
vious to  the  great  emigration,  by  authority,  in  1746  and  1747; 
and  many  of  those  who  emigrated  afterwards,  followed  out  their 
inclinations  and  their  principles  in  taking  part  in  the  revolution ; 
— and  many,  perhaps  most  of  those  who  came  in  that  emigration, 
took  part  for  Uie  kbg, — ^feeling  themselves  bound  by  their  oath  of 

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allegiance,  and  their  presait  position,  to  defend  the  rights  and  do* 
minions  of  the  crown.  For  a  time,  at  least,  the  majority  of  the 
inhabitants  of  what  was  Cmnberland  were  in  favor  of  the  crown, 
and  even  disposed  to  assist  Governor  Martin,  who  kept  them  in- 
formed of  the  preparations  made  by  the  crown  for  the  subjugation 
of  the  colonies ;  and  appealed  to  their  sense  of  honor  and  religion 
and  loyalty  to  rally  around  his  standard,  which,  after  his  flight  firom 
Newbem  on  the  night  of  April  24th,  1775,  was  raised  at  Fort 
Johnson,  on  the  Cape  Fear ;  and  from  that  removed  to  an  armed 
vessel  until  the  arrival  of  forces  enabled  him  to  take  again  his  posi- 
tion in  safety  on  land. 

The  following  paper  shows  that  those  in  Cumberland  who  felt 
free  to  act  for  the  revolution  were  no  less  spirited  than  those  in 
Mecklenburg  or  any  other  part  of  the  State.  After  th«  Declaration 
made  by  the  inhabitants  of  Mecklenburg,  the  different  counties 
formed  what  were  called  associations ;  a  paper  being  drawn  up  ex- 
pressing their  sentiments  on  the  great  questions  agitating  the  public 
mind,  they  subscribed  their  names,  pledging  themselves  to  the  de- 
fence of  American  Liberty.  Within  a  month  a  paper  was  circulated 
in  Cumberland  county,  of  which  the  following  is  a  copy. 

"  THE   ASSOCIATION,   JUNE   20tH,    1775. 

^^  The  actual  commencement  of  hostilities  against  the  Continent, 
by  the  British  troops,  in  the  bloody  scene  of  the  19th  of  April  last, 
near  Boston,  in  the  increase  of  arbitrary  impositions  from  a  wicked 
»nd  despotic  Ministry,  and  the  dread  of  instigated  insurrections  in 
the  colonies,  are  causes  sufficient  to  drive  an  oppressed  people  to 
the  use  of  arms.  We,  therefore,  the  subscribers,  of  Cumberland 
county,  holding  ourselves  bound  by  the  most  sacred  of  all  obliga- 
tions, the  duty  of  citizens  towards  an  injured  country,  and  thoroughly 
convinced  that,  under  our  distressed  circumstances,  we  shall  be  jus- 
tified in  resisting  force  by  force,  do  unite  ourselves  under  every  tie 
of  religion  and  honor,  and  associate  as  a  band  in  her  defence  against 
every  foe,  hereby  solemnly  engaging,  that,  whenever  our  continental 
or  provincial  councils  shall  decree  it  necessary,  we  will  go  forth 
and  be  ready  to  sacrifice  our  lives  and  fortunes  to  secure  her  freedom 
and  safety.  This  obligation  to  continue  in  full  force  until  a  recon- 
ciliation shall  take  place  between  Great  Britain  asd  America,  upon 
constitutional  principles,  an  event  we  most  ardently  desire,  and  we 
will  hold  all  those  persons  inimical  to  the  liberty  of  the  colonies, 
who  shall  reftise  to  subscribe  to  this  association  ;  and  we  will  in  all 
things  follow  the  advice  of  our  general  committee  respecting  the 

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purpose  aforesaid^  the  preservation  of  peace  and  good  order,  and 
the  safety  of  individual  and  private  pr^erty.^ 

This  paper  was  the  composition  of  Robert  Rowan,  whose  name 
stands  first  on  a  long  list  of  subscribers ;  it  is  still  in  existence  in 
Robeson  County.  The  phrase,  "  instigated  insurrections^*  in  the 
aboTe  paper  refers  probably  to  a  charge  made  against  Governor 
Martin,  that  he  favored  the  effort  that  was  made  for  an  insurrection 
of  the  Slaves,  planned  by  the  captain  of  a  coasting  vesseL 

The  difference  of  opinion  in  Cumberland  county  led  to  much 
distress  and  trouble,  not  from  the  foreign  foe,  for  the  firitish  forces 
never  visited  the  county,  except  in  the  hasty  retreat  of  Cornwall  is 
to  Wilmington,  after  the  battle  of  Guilford ;  but  from  the  inhabit- 
ants themselves.  Some  of  the  most  ardent  Whigs  in  the  State 
were  citizens  of  Cumberland  county,  who  hesitated  not  to  give  the 
Royalists  much  trouble.  We  shall  not  stop  to  dwell  upon  or  re- 
count the  plunderings,  the  skirmishes,  and  battles,  the  personal  ren- 
counters between  the  two  parties  in  Cumberland  and  the  surround-' 
ing  counties,  though  they  afforded  many  thrilling  scenes  of  courage 
and  of  suffering ;  and  shall  relate  the  circumstances  of  only  one 
engagement  between  the  Whigs  and  Tories  in  the  lower  part  of  the 
State,  as  the  consequence?  were  of  importance  to  the  country  through 
the  whole  war. 

Governor  Martin  had  issued  a  Commission  of  firigadier  General 
to  Donald  M'Donald,  a  leading  man  among  the  Scotch,  and  perhaps 
the  most  influential  among  the  Highlanders ;  and  had  sent  him  « 
proclamation  without  date,  which  the  General  might  send  forth  at 
any  time  he  should  think  it  advisable,  commanding  all  the  king's 
subjects  to  rally  around  the  General.  On  the  1st  day  of  February, 
1776,  M'Donald  erected  the  Royal  Standard  at  Cross  Creek,  and 
issued  his  proclamation.  In  a  short  time  fifteen  hundred  men  were 
assembled  under  his  command,  well  armed  and  provided  with  proper 
military  stores  for  a  march  to  join  the  Governor  at  the  mouth  of  the 
river.  The  celebrated  Flora  M'Donald,  whose  history  will  fill 
another  chapter,  is  said  to  have  used  her  influence  over  her  clans- 
men and  neighbors  to  join  the  standard  of  the  old  veteran,  who  had 
held  a  commission  in  the  army  of  the  Pretender,  Charles  Edward, 
and  taken  part  in  the  battle  of  Culloden,  in  1745,  and  had  saved 
his  life  by  the  oath  of  allegiance  and  emigration  to  Carolina,  and 
iras  now  prepared  to  fight  for  his  king  as  his  only  proper  sovereign 
ruler.  Her  husband  took  a  Captain's  commission ;  and  others  of 
the  name  held  commissions,  and  were  in  the  camp,  which  was  well 

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supplied  by  contributioiis,  and  the  king's  money,  a  large  amount  of 
which  was  secured  by  the  Whigs  after  the  battle. 

Colonel  James  Moore  of  New  HanoTer,  who  had  been  commis- 
sioned by  the  Provincial  Congress  of  North  Carolina,  in  1776,  and 
had  a  regiment  under  his  command  of  five  hundred  men,  four  hun- 
dred of  whom  had  been  stationed  at  Wilmington,  marched,  with 
his  regiment,  and  a  detachment  of  the  New  Hanover  militia,  to- 
wards Cross  Creek,  and  fortified  a  camp  on  Rockfish  River,  about 
twelve  miles  south  of  M'Donald  head-quarters;  and  by  his  scouts 
and  spies  broke  up  the  regular  communication  betweai  the  General 
and  the  Grovemor.  The  first  move  of  M'Donald  was  towards 
Moore.  Halting  a  few  miles  from  his  camp,  he  sent  a  decided  but 
friendly  letter  to  the  Colonel,  ui^ng  him  to  prevent  all  bloodshed 
by  joining  the  royal  standard ;  and  offering,  in  the  name  of  the 
king,  a  firee  pardon  and  indemnification  for  past  rebellion, — *^  other- 
wise he  should  consider  them  as  traitors  to  the  constitution^  and 
take  the  necessary  steps  to  conquer  and  subdue  them."  Moore, 
after  the  delay  of  some  days,  returned  his  answer — ^that  he  and  his 
men  were  engaged  in  the  most  glorious  cause  in  the  world,  the  de- 
fence of  the  rights  of  mankind,  and  needed  no  pardon ; — and  urged 
the  Greneral  to  sign  the  test  proposed  by  the  Provincial  Congress, 
— otherwise  he  might  expect  that  treatment  which  he  had  threatened 
him  and  his  followers. 

McDonald  havii^  in  the  meantime  received  information  that  Sir 
Henry  Clinton  and  Lord  William  Campbell  had  arrived  at  the  head- 
quarters of  the  Governor,  determined,  if  possible,  to  avoid  an  en- 
gagement with  Moore,  and  decamped  at  midnight,  and  conmienced 
his  march  to  join  the  Governor.  By  rapid  marches  and  crossing 
the  Cape  Fear,  he  eluded  the  pursuit  of  Moore,  and  was  bending 
his  course  to  the  sea  shore,  intending  to  leave  Wilmington  to  the  left, 
when,  on  the  third  day's  march,  crossing  the  South  River  from  Bladen 
into  Hanover,  he  comes  to  Moore's  Creek,  which  runs  from  north  to 
south,  and  empties  into  the  South  River  about  twenty  miles  above 
Wilmington,  and  finds  the  encampment  of  Cols.  Alexander  Lil- 
lington  with  the  minute  men  of  the  Wilmington  district,  and  Rich- 
ard Caswell,  with  the  midute  men  of  New  Berne  district,  who 
assembled  their  forces  on  hearing  of  McDonald's  proclamation,  and 
had  united  their  regiments,  and  were  in  search  of  the  army  of  the 

McDonald's  situation  admitted  of  no  delay  3  Moore  was  in  rapid 
pursuit,  and  these  Colonels  in  front ;  he  determines  upon  an  attack 
upon  the  forces  in  firont    A  certain  individual,  who  claimed  to  be 

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neutral,  risited  the  camp  of  Lillington  that  night;  and  informed 
him  that  an  attadc  would  be  made  the  next  morning.  The  Colonel 
drawing  up  his  men  in  a  very  advantageous  position,  to  command 
both  the  road  and  the  bridge,  and  remoYing  the  planks  from  the 
bridge,  keeps  his  men  under  anns  all  night  About  day,  the  27th 
of  February,  the  Scotch  forces  advance  for  battle,  under  the  com- 
mand of  Colonel  McLeod,  the  General  himself  being  confined  to 
his  tent,  too  unwell  to  lead  his  forces.  McLeod  is  speedily  killed, 
and  also  Colonel  Campbell ;  and  the  forces  of  Lillington  Itnd  Cas- 
well rushing  on  with  great  spirit,  the  forces  of  McDonald,  deprived 
of  their  leaders,  are  thrown  into  confiision,  and  routed,  and  either 
taken  prisoners  or  entirely  dispersed.  McDonald  was  found  sitting 
on  a  stump  near  his  tent,  alone; — and  as  the  victorious  officars 
advanced  towards  him,  waving  the  parchment  scroll  of  his  commis- 
sion in  the  air,  he  delivers  it  into  their  hands*  Colonel  Moore 
aorlred  in  camp  a  few  hours  after  the  battle  was  over,  and  his  for^ 
ces  ^1  came  up  during  the  day. 

By  this  batde  the  spirits  of  the  loyalists  were  broken,  and  they 
never  again  were  embodied  in  large  companies  till  the  fate  of  the 
war  became  doubtful  by  the  movements  of  the  army  of  Comwallis. 

The  Provincial  Congress  determined  to  show  kindness  to  the 
prisoners  and  their  families,  respecting  their  principles,  though  op- 
posbg  their  course ;  and  on  the  29th  of  April  published  a  mani- 
festo fix)m  which  the  following  are  extracts.  "  We  have  their  secur- 
ity in  contemplation,  not  to  make  them  miserable.  In  our  power, 
their  errors  claim  our  pity,  their  situation  disarms  our  resentment 
We  shall  hail  their  reformation  with  increasing  pleasure,  and  re- 
ceive them  among  us  with  open  arms.  Sincere  contrition  and 
repentance  shall  atone  for  their  past  conduct  Members  of  the 
same  political  body  with  ourselves,  we  feel  the  convulsion  which 
such  a  severance  occasions ;  and  shall  blens  the  day  which  shall 
restore  them  to  us,  friends  of  liberty,  to  the  cause  of  America,  the 
cause  of  God  and  mankind." 

"  We  war  not  with  helpless  females,  whom  they  have  left  behind 
them ;  we  sympathize  in  their  sorrow,  and  wish  to  pour  the  balm 
of  pity  into  the  wounds  which  a  separation  from  husbands,  fathers, 
and  the  dearest  relations  has  made.  They  are  the  rightful  pension- 
ers upon  the  charity  and  bounty  of  those  who  have  aught  to  spare 
from  their  own  necessities,  for  the  relief  of  their  indigent  fellow 
creatures;  to  such  we  recommend  them." 

^<  May  the  humanity  and  compassion  which  mark  the  cause  we 
are  engs^ed  in,  influ^ce  them  to  such  a  conduct  as  may  call  forth 


Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

146  8KETCHB8   OF   NORTH   CA&^UNA« 

our  utmost  tenderness  to  their  friends,  whom  we  have  in  our  power/ 
Much  depends  upon  the  fiiture  demeanor  of  the  friends  of  the  insur- 
gents who  are  left  among  us,  as  to  Qie  treatment  our  prisoners  may 
experience.  Let  them  consider  these  as  hostages  for  their  own 
good  behavior,  ^d  by  their  own  merits  make  kind  offices  to  their 
friends  a  tribute  of  duty  as  well  as  humanity  from  us,  who  hate 
them  in  their  power." 

The  Congress  granted  to  General  McDonald  and  his  son,  who 
held  a  colonel's  commission,  a  liberal  parole  of  honor;  and  com- 
plimented both  these  officers  on  their  candor.  Some  time  in  the 
summer,  the  general  and  twenty-five  of  the  officers  taken  prisoners 
in  the  battle  at  Widow  Moore's  Creek  Bridge,  were  taken  to  Phila- 
delphia, and  held  in  confinement  for  the  purpose  of  promoting  an 
exchange  of  prisoners  between  the  two  armies. 

We  cannot  but  admire  the  integrity  of  these  men,  though  we 
lament  their  course;  we  reverence  their  moral  principles,  whUe 
we  deplore  their  mistake.  We  pass  by  their  error,  and  glory  in 
receiving  and  instructing  others  in  the  principles  of  religion  and 
morality  which  governed  these  men.  Their  descendants  are  among 
the  best  citizens  of  the  States.  The  great  principles  of  their  an- 
cestors still  reign  among  the  descendants  along  the  Cape  Fear ; 
and  though  divided  on  the  party  questions  of  the  day,  as  might  be 
expected  in  a  nation  of  freemen,  they  are  united  on  ^e  great  prin- 
ciples of  republicanism. 

The  descendants  of  these  men  are  altogether  in  favor  of  an  en- 
lightened ministry ;  and  are  patrons  of  efforts  for  the  instruction  of 
&e  rising  generation.  They  are  firm  friends  to  the  grand  princi- 
ples of  the  supremacy  of  law^  and  yield  a  cheerfrd  obedience  to  the 
laws  of  the  land  enacted  by  the  legislators,  chosen  by  freemen  from 
their  own  body.  Not  given  to  change  either  in  their  politics  or 
their  friendships,  they  support  the  government  of  their  choice ;  and 
are  divided  only  on  the  question  respecting  the  powers  of  a  repub- 
lican government 

When  once  it  was  settled,  by  the  surrender  of  Yorktown,  that 
monarchical  government  was  at  an  end  in  the  colonies,  those  along 
the  Cape  Fear  that  had  felt  themselves  bound  to  support  the  royal 
authority  while  that  authority  could  be  supported,  joined  heartily 
with  their  countrymen,  who  had  all  along  been  struggling  for  the 
independence  of  the  colonies,  in  preparing  and  adopting  and  de- 
fending the  constitution  that  guards  our  liberties.  But  it  is  to  be 
remembered  that^  Ihe  most  earnest  defenders  of  the  rights  of  the 
crown,  along  Cape  Fear,   contemplated  monarchy  as  hedged  in 

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and  centralled  by  the  principles  of  their  Solemn  League  and  Cove- 
nant, which  in  due  time  lead  all  men  that  adopt  them,  to  struggle 
as  for  life,  for  the  liberty  of  conscience  and  freedom  of  property  and 
person.  The  free  church  of  Scotland  have  struggled  nobly  for 
the  first ;  one  more  step,  and  they  are  republicans  of  the  American 
stamp.  Martin,  who  knew  the  power  of  an  oath  over  the  Scotch 
on  Gape  Fear,  used  it  skilfully  to  keep  them  to  their  allegiance. 
He  saw  its  power  in  Orange  and  Mecklenburg,  but  knew  not 
how  to  ingratiate  himself  with  that  peculiar  race  of  people,  in  whose 
politics,  as  among  the  Scotch,  a  strong  religious  principle  pre- 

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Among  the  emigrants  to  the  Scotch  settlements  on  the  Cape 
Fear,  was  Flora  McDonald,  a  name  held  in  the  highest  reverence 
in  the  traditions  of  North  Carolina  and  the  Highlands  of  Scotland, 
though  English  history  has  given  her  neither  a  name  nor  a  place 
in  her  pages,  crowded  with  the  events  and  personages  of  that  day, 
that  no  human  art  can  save  from  the  obUvion  they  deserve.  With 
or  without  history,  the  descendants  of  the  Highlanders  in  North 
Carolina  will  love  the  name  of  Flora  McDonald,  while  female  ex- 
cellence can  be  found  among  their  sisters  and  daughters. 

In  those  heart-stirring  events  that  succeeded  the  rising  in  favor 
of  the  Pretender,  and  led  to  the  emigration  of  the  Scotch  settle- 
ment on  the  Cape  Fear  river.  Flora  McDonald  first  makes  her  ap- 
pearance, a  young  and  blooming  girl ;  in  the  troubles  and  dis- 
tresses that  affected  the  honest  yet  divided  Scotch  in  Carolina,  at 
the  commencement  of  the  American  Revolution,  she  is  the  digni- 
fied matron ;  before  the  disasters  and  radical  principles  of  the 
French  Revolution  troubled  her  country  and  employed  her  chil- 
ren,  she  was  carried  to  the  cemetery  of  Kilmuir. 

The  most  romantic  escape  of  the  Pretender,  Prince  Charles 
Edward,  in  his  five  months'  wanderings  in  the  Highlands  of  Scot- 
land, himted  from  mountain  to  dell,  from  crag  to  cavern,  by  day 
and  by  night,  by  the  soldiers  of  the  Duke  of  Cumberland,  and  a 
price  set  upon  his  head  as  a  ftigitive  felon,  was  planned  and  ex- 
ecuted by  the  McDonalds,  the  most  powerftil  of  whom  had  op- 
posed the  attempt  to  place  the  Prince  upon  the  throne,  as  a  hope- 
less rebellion,  and  many  of  whom  were  bearing  arms  for  the 
house  of  Hanover  ;  and  some  even  then  leading  forces  in  search 
of  the  Royal  ftigitive,  into  the  wilds  and  fastnesses  of  the  High- 
lands and  the  Western  Isles. 

Roderick  Mackenzie  aided  the  flight  of  the  Prince  by  his  chival- 
rous death  ;  Flora  McDonald  by  her  romantic  spirit  and  womanly 
contrivance.  "  This  young  man,"  says  one,  "  sought  conceal- 
ment in  the  mountains  of  Ross-shire  after  the  battle  of  Culloden, 
and  was  surprised  by  a  party  of  soldiers  sent  in  pursuit  of  Charles 
Edward.      His  age,  his  figure,  his  air,  deceiving  the  military 

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FLORA   m'dONALD.  1%9 

c(»npletely,  they  were  going  to  secure  him,  believing  they  had 
got  hold  of  the  true  prince.  Mackenzie  perceiving  theur  mistake, 
with  great  fortitude  and  presence  of  nund  instantly  resolves  to 
render  it  useful  to  his  master.  He  drew  his  sword,  and  the 
courage  with  which  he  defended  himself,  satisfied  these  soldiers 
that  he  could  be  no  other  than  the  Pretender.  One  of  them  fired 
at  him  ;  Mackenzie  fell,  and  with  his  last  breath  exclaimed — ^  You 
hare  killed  your  Prince.'  This  generous  sacrifice, suspended  for 
the  time  all  pursmt,  and  afforded  an  opportunity  for  the  unfor- 
tunate Charles  to  escape  firom  the  hands  of  his  enemies." 

The  escape  by  the  aid  of  Flora  was  less  bloody  and  more  ro- 
mantic. With  great  difficulty  he  had  made  his  way  across  the 
Highlands  to  the  western  shore,  and  setting  sail  in  an  eight-oared 
boat  firom  the  him  of  Arasag,  after  encountering  a  most  furious 
storm,  such  as  are  frequent  on  that  northern  sea,  when,  in  the 
language  of  Ossian,  "  The  thimder  of  the  skies,  as  a  rock, 
penetrated  the  heavens,  and  a  fiery  pillar  issued  firom  the  blac^ 
cloud,^  he  landed  on  one  of  the  western  islands.  South  Uist,  and 
found  a  shelter  for  a  time  at  Ormaclet,  with  Laird  McDonald,  of 
Clan  Ronald.  The  keen  scent  of  his  pursuers  at  length  traced 
him  to  this  place,  and  three  thousand  soldiers,  red  coats  as  they 
were  called,  were  sent  to  search  the  island,  through  every  dell, 
and  rockf  and  crag,  and  cottage  ;  and  armed  vessels  were  station- 
ed all  around  to  intercept  every  ship  or  boat  that  might  attempt  to 
leave  the  shore  and  convey  away  the  royal  fugitive.  Many  pro- 
jects for  his  escape  were  proposed  by  his  anxious  friends,  and  laid 
aside  in  rapid  succession.  At  length  Lady  McDonald  suggested 
a  romantic  plan, — that,  arrayed  in  female  clothes,  he  should  ac- 
company a  lady  as  her  waiting  woman,  or  servant  maid.  Two 
difiiculties  were  to  be  encountered ;  what  lady  would  engage  in 
the  dangerous,  though  romantic  enterprise  ?  and  how  should  they 
obtain  a  passport  firom  the  hostile  officers  for  such  a  company  to 
leave  the  island  ?  Two  young  ladies  in  the  house  of  McDonald 
were  appealed  to,  but  their  courage  was  less  than  their  tenderness. 
At  this  critical  time,  who  should  come  to  the  house  of  Laird 
McDonald  but  the  kind  and  beautiful  Flora,  firom  Millburg,  in  the 
same  island,  to  visit  her  relations,  on  her  return  firom  Edinburgh, 
having  just  completed  her  education  in  that  metropolis.  The  father 
of  this  accomplished  young  lady  had  been  some  time  dead,  and 
her  mother  was  united  in  marriage  vrith  Captain  Hugh  McDonald, 
the  one  eyed ;  the  son  of  Samuel,  the  son  of  great  James,  the  son 
of  young  Blue  Donald,  of  Armadale,  in  the  Isle  of  Skye.    Her 

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Step-father,  Capt.  Hugh  McDonald,  was  then  in  Uist,  in  commancl 
of  a  company  of  the  clan  McDonald,  in  the  senrice  of  King 
George,  searching  for  the  Prince. 

The  peculiar  feelings  of  the  Scotch  towards  the  Royal  family 
of  theur  nation  is  beautifully  exhibited  in  the  occurrences  connect- 
ed with  that  young  lady's  visit.  While  these  McDonalds  could 
not  take  arms  to  place  the  prince  upon  the  throne,  esteeming  the 
effort  madness,  and  were  defending  the  reigning  house  of  Hano- 
ver, and  even  then  in  arms  in  search  of  Charles,  henmied  in 
among  the  crags  of  Uist,  they  could  not  find  it  in  their  heart  to 
seize  him,  now  in  their  power,  though  some  of  them  were  so 
pressed  with  debt  that  the  large  reward  offered  might  have  been 
a  temptation,  and  the  fines  and  confiscations  that  would  follow  sus- 
picion of  their  favor  for  the  Pretender,  might  have  been  a  sufii- 
cient  reason  to  hold  them  back  firom  any  effort  for  his  escape. 
"  Will  you,"  says  the  lady  of  Laird  McDonald  to  Flora,  after 
making  her  iux]uainted  with  the  presence  and  hiding-place  of  the 
Prince  on  the  island,  and  the  plan  she  was  meditating  for  his 
escape,  "  will  you  expose  yourself  to  this  danger  to  aid  the  escape 
of  the  Prince  firom  his  enemies  that  have  him  here  enclosed  I"  The 
maijlen  answered,  '^  Since  I  am  to  die,  and  can  die  but  once,  I 
am  perfectly  willing  to  put  my  life  in  jeopardy  to  save  his  Royal 
Highness  from  the  danger  which  now  besets  him."  DeUghted 
with  this  response,  the  lady  opened  the  matter  to  an  offioer  named 
O'Neill,  who  expressed  the  same  romantic  desire  to  aid  the  escape 
of  the  very  man  for  the  apprehension  of  whom  he  was  then  in 
arms.  He  accompanied  Flora  to  Carradale,  a  rocky,  craggy,  wild, 
sequestered  place,  where  the  Prince  lay  concealed,  in  a  cave,  that 
they  might  concert  with  him  the  details  of  the  plan  of  his  escape. 
On  entering  the  cave  they  foimd  the  Prince  alone,  broiling  a  small 
fresh  fish  upon  the  coals  for  his  lonely  repast.  Startled  at  their 
approach,  and  supposing  his  retreat  had  been  discovered  by  the 
soldiers,  and  escape  to  be  hopeless,  he  put  himself  on  the  defence 
to  sell  his  life  as  dearly  as  his  dignity  required.  The  gallant 
young  officer  and  the  beautiful  lady  do  him  reverence  as  a  prince. 
At  their  kind  salutations  his  alarm  gives  place  to  astonishment ; 
and  the  unfolding  of  the  plan  for  his  escape  from  his  desperate 
condition,  filled  his  heart  with  unmeasured  delight.  After  a  short 
interview.  Flora  left  him,  and  calling  on  her  brother  at  Millburg, 
finds  a  youth,  Neill  McDonald,  the  son  of  Hector,  as  noble,  gen- 
erous, and  romantic  as  herself,  who  entered  with  devotion  into  the 
plan  for  the  escape  of  the  Prince,  in  whose  company  she  returns 

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FLORA  m'dONALD.  151 

to  Ormaclet,  to  complete  the  inreparations  for  the  departure  from 
the  island. 

The  most  important  step  was  to  procure  a  passport  from  the 
island,  that  might  protect  them  from  the  search  of  officers,  and 
detention  by  the  vessels  on  the  coast.  Flora  at  length  obtained 
one  from  her  step-father,  Captain  Hugh  McDonald,  for  herself, 
her  youthful  companion  Neill  McDonald,  and  three  others,  to  con- 
stitute a  boat's  crew,  and  also  for  her  serving  maid,  Betsey 
Burke,  a  stout  Irishwoman,  whom  Flora  pretended  she  had  en- 
gaged for  the  special  purpose  of  becoming  her  mother's  spinster, 
at  Armadale,  in  Skye.  As  the  Captain  gave  the  passport,  and 
wrote  by  Flora  a  letter  recommendatory  of  Betsey  Burke  as  a 
spinster,  it  is  conjectured,  not  without  reason,  that  he  was  not 
altogether  unaware  of  the  designs  of  his  fair  step-daughter,  though 
he  wisely  kept  himself  in  ignorance. 

While  the  arrangements  were  in  progress  for  this  visit  of  Flora 
to  her  mother,  in  Skye,  Allan  McDonald,  of  the  hill,  arrived  at 
Ormaclet  with  a  company  of  soldiers  in  search  for  the  Prince, 
without  any  particular  suspicions  that  the  fugitive  was  near,  or 
any  thought  that  his  fair  kinswoman  was  concerting  a  plan  of 
escape  which  his  presence  might  particularly  discommode.  There 
was  now  no  time  to  be  lost.  Flora,  hastening  to  his  hiding-place, 
clothes  the  Prince  in  the  attire  of  an  Irish  serving  woman,  and  on 
the  afternoon  of  Saturday,  the  28th  of  June,  1746,  the  party  em- 
bark from  Uist  for  the  isle  of  Skye.  Soon  after  they  launch  forth, 
there  comes  upon  them  a  ftirious  storm  of  wind.  Tossed  to  and 
fit),  and  driven  about  all  night,  the  courage  of  the  maiden  never 
forsakes  her ;  anxious  for  her  charge,  rather  than  for  herself,  she 
encourages  the  men  not  to  turn  back.  Inspirited  by  the  exhorta- 
tions of  the  maiden,  the  oarsmen  exert  their  utmost  strength,  and 
surmounting  all  the  dangers  of  the  tempest,  at  dawn  of  day  they 
approach  Point  Vatermish  in  the  Isle  of  Skye.  As  they  draw 
near,  however,  the  sight  of  a  band  of  soldiers  drawn  up  upon  the 
shore  to  receive  the  boat,  turns  them  back  to  the  ocean ;  and  the 
voUeys  discharged  at  them  by  the  soldiers  hasten  their  flight,  while 
the  balls  are  whistling  by  and  rebounding  from  the  waves.  Turn- 
ing eastwardly  they  pursue  their  course,  and  about  noon,  on  Sab- 
bath, land  at  Kilbride,  in  the  parish  of  Kilmuir,  near  the  Magustat- 
house,  the  residence  of  Sir  Alexander  McDonald,  the  Laird  of 
Sleite,  to  repose  like  the  dove  after  her  flight  over  the  waters,  for 
a  httle  space,  in  the  ark. 

Concealing  the  Prince  in  a  hollow  rock  on  the  beach.  Flora  re- 

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paired  to  the  chieftain's  mansion,  and  met  a  most  cordial  reception 
from  Lady  McDonald,  in  the  absence  of  the  Laird.  The  hall  was 
full  of  officers,  whose  sole  business  was  to  search  for  th^  royal 
fugitiye ;  and  the  Laird  himself  was  known  to  be  hostile  to  his 
pretensions.  The  maiden,  more  self-possessed  from  the  danger^ 
with  confiding  enthusiasm  makes  known  to  the  lady  the  hiding- 
place  of  the  Prince,  and  the  circumstances  of  his  escape  ironn 
Uist.  The  lady's  heart  answers  to  the  maiden's  confidence,  and 
she  espouses  her  cause,  and  sends  by  Alexander  McDonald,  the 
Laird  of  Kingsburg,  Baillie  to  Sir  Alexander,  h^  husband,  who 
happened  to  be  in  the  house,  refreshments  of  wine  and  other 
comforts  suited  to  the  necessities  of  the  fatigued  and  distressed 
wanderer.  By  advice  of  Lady  McDonald,  who  feared  discovery 
from  the  numerous  officers  and  soldiers  then  on  the  estate,  Flora 
and  Betsey  Burke  set  out  inmiediately  for  Kingsburg,  about 
twelve  miles  distant,  accompanied  by  the  Baillie  as  their  guide. 
On  their  way  they  met  many  of  the  country  people  returning  from 
church,  whose  curiosity  was  much  excited  by  the  coarse,  negli- 
gent, clumsy-looking,  long-legged  female  figure  that  accompanied 
the  Laird  and  the  maiden.  Without  any  indignity  or  suspicion 
they  reached  the  place  of  their  destination  about  sunsei,  wearied 
from  the  storm  and  perils  of  the  preceding  night,  and  the  escapes 
and  journeys  of  the  day.  The  next  morning  Flora  accompanied 
the  Prince  to  Portaree,  and  there  bid  him  adieu.  On  parting  he 
kissed  her,  and  said,  ''  Gentle,  faithful  maiden,  I  entertain  the 
hope  that  we  shall  yet  meet  in  the  Palace  Royal."  They  never 
met  again  ;  the  hopes  of  the  Prince  were  as  unsubstantial  and 
evanescent  as  the  shadows  of  the  clouds,  and  the  fogs  that  rest 
upon  the  hills.  His  escape  was  the  work  not  of  his  chivalry  or 
courage,  but  of  woman's  tenderness,  and  the  loyal  feelings  of 
Scottish  hearts. 

From  Portaree,  the  Prince  took  passage  to  Raarsay ;  and  from 
that  island  he  went  to  Straith  McKinnon,  having  for  his  guide  a 
poor  man,  Malcolm  McLeod,  whose  pack  he  carried  as  a  paid 
servant,  to  escape  observation.  From  thence,  he  took  passage  by 
water  to  Arasag,  and  then  wandered  through  Arasag  and  Moodart 
and  the  roughest  of  the  Highlands,  enduring  incredible  hardships, 
till  about  the  middle  of  autumn  he  found  vessels  to  convey  him 
and  a  few  friends  to  France,  leaving  Scotland  as  unattended  as  he 
entered,  hopeless  of  his  crown,  multitudes  of  his  friends  butchered, 
and  others  beggared  or  in  exile,  his  resources  all  exhausted,  him- 
self the   scorn   of  France  and  pity  of  the  world.    With  him 

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FLORA    M^DOKALD.  153 

sailed  to  France  Neill  McDonald,  who  assisted  in  his  flight  from 
Uist,  and  had  shared  his  fortunes  during  his  wanderings.  The 
enthusiasm  of  his  fair  kinswoman  dwelt  in  his  bosom,  and  spread 
itself  through  the  youth  of  the  Highlands,  and  rendered  the  cap- 
ture of  the  Prince  more  hopeless  ;  after  the  exploit  of  the  maiden 
and  the  two  ladies  McDonald^  who  would  hesitate  to  give  him 
succor  and  conceal  his  retreat?  Neill  McDonald  remained  in 
Prance ;  and  his  son  became  famous  in  the  wars  of  the  French 
Revolution,  being  made  marshal  by  Buonaparte,  and  for  his  suc- 
cess created  Duke  of  Tarentum.  Had  the  unfortunate  Charles 
Edward  possessed  a  spirit  to  command,  equal  to  the  courage  and 
daring  of  his  friends,  the  house  of  Stuart  might  now  occupy  the 
throne  of  England. 

After  the  escape  of  the  Prince  to  France,  the  troubles  of  Flora 
McDonald  commenced.  Incensed  at  the  loss  of  their  victim,  and 
not  satisfied  with  the  possession  of  the  kingdom,  and  the  execu- 
tions that  the  plea  of  necessity  may  have  justified,  the  officers  of 
the  crown  seized  on  those  who  were  known  to  have  aided  the 
Prince  in  his  flight,  and  conveyed  them  to  London  as  state  pri- 
soners, for  sending  from  the  island  the  cause  of  the  late  disturbance, 
routed,  broken  dovm  and  discouraged,  and  at  once  delivering  the 
crown  from  farther  cause  of  uneasiness,  and  the  country  from 
agitation.  Flora  was  arrested,  and  together  with  Malcolm  Mc- 
Leod,  whose  pack  the  princ^had  carried,  McKinnon  of  the 
Sttaith,  who  received  him  from  McLeod,  and  McDonald  of  Kings- 
burg,  who  aided  Flora  on  the  29th  of  June,  were  taken  to  London 
and  confined  in  the  Tower  as  prisoners  of  state,  to  be  tried  for 
their  life,  as  aiding  and  abetting  attempts  against  the  life  and 
crown  of  King  George.  The  example  of  the  young  lady  in 
rousing  up  her  countrymen,  however  friendly  to  the  house  of 
Hanover,  to  promote  the  escape  of  one  whom  they  could  not,  and 
perhaps  on  account  of  his  reUgion,  would  not  make  king,  turned 
the  indignation  of  those  who  had  lost  the  splendid  reward  offered 
for  the  Pretender  dead  or  alive,  upon  herself  and  her  friends. 
During  their  confinement,  the  nobility  of  England  became  deeply 
interested  in  the  beautiful  and  high  spirited  Flora,  especially  as  she 
was  not  a  partisan  of  the  Pretender,  nor  of  his  religious  faith. 
Her  devotion  to  royalty,  so  romantically  expressed,  won  the  favor 
of  Prince  Frederick  the  heir  apparent,  great  grandfather  of  Vic- 
toria, the  present  queen  of  England ;  visiting  her  in  prison,  he 
became  enlisted  in  her  favor  most  strongly  ;  she  awakened  in  his 
bosom  the  chivalric  gallantry  she  had  called  forth  in  her  country- 

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men ;  and  by  his  strenuous  exertions  he  procured  her  release, 
greatly  to  his  own  honor  and  the  prosperity  of  the  kingdom,  and 
the  popularity  of  the  king. 

After  bemg  set  at  liberty,  her  residence,  while  she  remained  in 
London,  was  surrounded  by  the  carriages  of  the  nobiUty  and 
gentry,  who  paid  their  respects  p«rsonally,  congratulating  her  on 
her  enterprise,  her  courage,  her  loyalty,  and  her  release.  Lady 
Primrose,  a  favorer  of  the  Pretender,  a  lady  of  wealth  and  distinc-^ 
tion,  introduced  her  to  the  court  society,  wnd  by  her  example  and 
influence,  obtained  large  presents  to  make  her  forget  her  captivity, 
and  to  meet  the  expenses  of  her  detention  and  her  return  to  her 
own  country.  The  tradition  in  Carolina,  where  she  afterwards 
lived,  is,  that  **  she  received  golden  ornaments  and  coin  enough  to 
fill  a  half  bushel."  She  was  introduced  to  the  king,  George  K. ; 
and  to  his  somewhat  ungallant  inquiry — "  How  could  you  dare  to 
succor  the  enemy  of  my  crown  and  kingdom?"  rfie  replied 
with  great  simplicity — "  It  was  no  more  than  I  would  have  done 
for  your  majesty,  had  you  been  in  like  situation."  A  chaise  and 
four  were  fitted  up  for  her  return  to  Scotland  ;  for  her  escort  she 
chose  a  fellow  prisoner,  Malcolm  McLeod,  who  used  afterwards 
to  boast,  "  that  he  went  to  London  to  be  hanged — ^but  rode  back  in 
a  chaise  and  four  with  Flora  McDonald." 

Four  years  after  her  return  to  Scotland  she  was  married  to  Allan 
McDonald,  son  of  the  Laird  of  Kingsburg,  who,  at  the  death  of  his 
father,  succeeded  to  the  estate  and  title;  and  thus  she  became 
mistress  of  the  very  mansion  in  which  the  Prince  passed  his  first 
night  in  the  Isle  of  Skye,  June  29th,  1746,  after  the  romantic  escape 
from  Uist.  Dr.  Johnson  and  Mr.  Boswell,  in  their  tour  to  the 
Hebrides  in  1773,  were  hospitably  entertained  by  Allan  and  Flora 
McDonald,  and  were  greatly  gratified  by  being  put  to  sleep  in  the 
same  bed  in  which  the  unfortunate  Charles  Edward  had  slept  the 
night  he  passed  upon  the  island.  Flora,  though  then  more  than 
twenty  years  a  wife,  and  the  mother  of  numerous  children,  still 
retained  her  blooming  countenance  and  genteel  form,  and  was  fiill 
of  the  enthusiasm  of  her  youth.  On  account  of  the  pecuniary  em- 
barrassments of  her  husband,  they  were  then,  the  doctor  tells  us, 
in  his  journal,  contemplating  a  removal  to  North  Carolina,  to  join 
their  countrymen  and  friends  on  the  Cape  Fear  river,  sent  thither 
immediately  after  the  rebellion  of  1745.  From  that  period  the 
sandy  country  of  the  Carolinas  had  been  the  refiige  of  the  High- 
landers, whether  they  fled  from  poverty  or  oppression,  or  were 
drawn  by  the  desire  of  being  independent  landholders  and  wealthy 

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FLORA  M'dONALD.  155 

men.  In  the  year  1775,  just  as  the  troubles  in  the  American  colo- 
nies were  turning  into  rebellion  against  the  tyranny  of  England, 
and  the  assertion  of  independence  of  all  foreign  control,  Allan  and 
Flora,  with  their  family  and  some  friends,  landed  in  North  Carolina 
and  took  their  abode  for  a  short  time  at  Cross  Creek,  now  Fayette- 
ville.  The  place  of  her  residence  was  destroyed  by  the  great  fire 
that  swept  off  a  large  part  of  the  town  one  Sabbath  in  the  summer 
of  182-.  The  ruins  of  this  dwelling  are  still  to  be  seen  as  you 
pass  from  the  market-house  to  the  court-house,  on  your  right  hand, 
just  before  you  cross  the  creek,  not  far  from  the  office  built  out 
over  the  stream.  After  a  short  stay  in  this  place,  they  removed  to 
Cameron's  Hill,  in  the  Barbacue  congregation,  about  twenty  miles 
above  Fayetteville,  in  Cumberland  county.  While  residing  at 
this  place,  Mrs.  Smith,  now  living  in  Robeson  county,  from  whom 
much  of  the  information  respecting  Flora  was  derived,  remembers 
seeing  her,  at  the  Barbacue  qhurch,  a  dignified  and  handsome 
woman,  to  whom  all  paid  great  respect.  They  afterwards  removed 
farther  up  the  country  into  Anson  county.  While  residing  there, 
Donald  McDonald,  a  relation  of  Flora's,  who  had  been  an  officer 
in  the  Pretender's  army  in  1745,  and  had  taken  the  oath  of  allegi- 
ance and  emigrated  to  save  his  life,  was  commissioned  by  Governor 
Martin  as  general  in  the  service  of  his  Majesty  George  III.  On 
the  1st  of  February,  1776,  he  issued  his  proclamation  calling  on 
all  loyal  and  true  Highlanders  to  join  his  standard  at  Cross  Creek. 
Some  fifteen  hundred  men  soon  assembled  in  arms ;  some  of  whom 
were  sincerely  attached  to  the  house  of  Hanover,  and  others  were 
under  oaths  of  allegiance  to  which  they  owed  their  life,  and,  as 
some  believed,  their  property.  With  these  were  assembled  Kings-  ^ 
burg  McDonald,  the  husband  of  Flora,  with  their  kindred  and 
neighbors,  animated  by  the  spirit  of  this  matron,  who  now,  on  her 
former  principles,  defended  George  HI.  as  readfly  as  she  had  aided* 
the  unfortunate  Charles  Edward  about  thirty  years  before.  Tra- 
dition says  she  accompanied  her  husband  and  neighbors  to  Cross- 
wicks,  and  communicated  her  own  enthusiasm  to  the  assembled 
Scotch.  From  this  fact  it  has  been  supposed  by  some,  that  she 
followed  the  army  in  its  march  to  join  Governor  Martin  at  the 
mouth  of  Cape  Fear.  Mrs.  Smith,  however,  expressly  asserts  that 
she  did  not  follow  the  army ;  but  returned  to  her  residence  in  An- 
son, when  the  army  first  moved  up  Rockfish,  as  it  did  in  a  short 
time,  in  preparation  to  march  down  the  river. 

On  their  march  down  the  river  the  forces  of  General  McDonald 
were  met  by  Colonels  Lillington  and  Caswell,  near  the  mouth  of 

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Moore's  Crej^k,  in  New  Hanover,  and  after  a  severe  engagement, 
on  the  27th,  were  entirely  routed  and  dispersed,  taken  pri8<Hier8  or 
killed.  Among  the  prisoners  was  the  husband  of  Flora,  who 
served  as  captain. 

After  the  release  of  her  husband  firom  Halifax  jail,  the  place  of 
confinement  for  the  officers  taken  in  the  battle,  having  suffered 
much  in  their  estate  from  the  plunderings  and  confiscations  to  which 
the  Royalists  were  expo9ed,  they  with  their  family  embarked  in  a 
sloop  of  war  for  their  native  land.  On  the  voyage  home,  the  sloop 
was  attacked  by  a  French  vessel  of  war ;  and  as  the  engagement 
grew  warm  the  courage  of  the  sailors  deserted  them,  and  capture 
seemed  inevitable.  Ascending  the  quarter  deck,  she  animated  the 
men  to  renew  the  conflict  with  activity  and  courage,  nothing 
daunted  by  a  wound  she  received  in  her  hand.  The  sight  ci  the 
courageous  and  wounded  woman  aroused  the  spirit  of  the  crew  to 
the  highest  pitch.  Having  beaten  off  the  enemy,  they  landed 
Flora  and  the  family  safe  on  their  native  soil,  from  which  she 
never  agaimdeparted.  She  used  sometimes  to  remark  pleasantly 
on  the  peculiarity  of  her  condition,  "  I  have  hazarded  my  life  botfi 
for  the  house  of  Stuart  and  the  house  of  Hanover  ;  and  I  do  not 
see  that  I  am  a  great  gainer  by  it." 

To  the  close  of  her  life  she  was  of  a  gentle,  affable  demeanor, 
and  greatly  beloved ;  her  modesty  and  self-respect  were  blended 
with  kindness  and  benevolence.  There  were  none  of  those  mas- 
culine passions  and  habits,  or  tempers,  so  commonly  connected  in 
our  thoughts  with  acts  of  braveqr  performed  by  females.  She  was 
always  womanly  in  her  course,  and  always  lovely.  The  mother 
of  a  numerous  family,  five  sons  and  two  daughters,  she  inspired 
them  all  with  her  spirit  of  loyalty  and  adventure  ;  the  sons  all  be- 
came miUtary  offitwrs,  and  were  faithful  to  their  king  and  country ; 
the  daughters  were  married  to  miUtary  men,  and  maintained  their 
loyalty  and  their  honor,  as  .true  descendants  of  such  a  mother. 
Loyalty  in  these  ladies  had  no  serviUty  in  it ;  it  was  a  sense  of  the 
necessity  of  a  firm  and  established  government  to  execute  laws 
for  the  peace  of  the  community,  and  a  conviction  that  a  restricted 
monarchy  was  the  best  form  of  government,  and  tlrttt  a  hereditary 
was  better  than  an  elective  crown.  The  most  desolating  wars 
in  the  history  of  their  country  had  been  waged  by  disputants  for 
the  crown. 

The  eventful  life  of  this  amiable  lady  was  closed  March  6th, 
1790.  We  have  no  record  of  the  mevlal  and  religious  exercises 
of  her  last  moments.    She  was  educated,  lived,  and  died  in  the 

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FLOEA  m^DOV JlLD.  157 

Presbyterian  faith,  the  faith  of  the  Church  of  Scotland ;  and  never 
sympathized  in  the  religious  creed  pf  the  Pretender,  whose  life  she 
saved.  It  was  not  so  much  admiration  of  the  Prince,  as  a  charac- 
ter or  a  man,  as  the  workings  of  her  own  kind  heart  and  noble 
soul  in  looking  upon  her  hereditary  Prince  in  distress,  that  moved 
her  to  the  romantic  and  hazardous  enterprise  of  his  escape  from 
Uist.  An  immense  concourse  of  people  were  assembled  at  her 
funeral ;  not  less  than  three  thousand  persons  followed  the  corpse 
to  the  grave  in  the  cemetery  of  Kilmuir,  in  the  Isle  of  Skye.  Ac- 
cording to  a  request  long  previously  expressed,  her  shroud  was 
made  of  the  identical  sheets  in  which  the  Prince  reposed  the  night 
he  slept  at  Kingsburg, — ^thus  carrying  to  her  grave  the  romantic 
spirit  of  her  youth. 

A  writer  who  visited  the  cemetery  in  September,  1841,  says  : 
"  There  is  not  so  much  as  one  of  that  family  in  the  land  of  the 
living.  At  the  end  of  two  years  the  body  of  her  husband  was  de- 
posited in  a  grave  by  her  side, — ^where,  alas,  all  her  offspring  now 
silently  slumber.  'Thus  is  Flora  McDonald,  she  who  once  was 
beautiful  as  the  flower  of  the  morning,  now  reposing  beneath  a 
green  hillock ;  and  nO  monument,  as  yet,  has  been  erected  to  per- 
petuate the  memory  of  her  faithfulness  or  her  achievements  ! 
Thus  the  beauty  of  the  world  shall  pass  away  !" 

Though  no  monument  be  erected  in  England  or  in  Scotland  to 
her  memory ;  though  no  page  of  English  history  shall  inscribe  her 
worth,  because  displayed  in  an  unpopular  cause ;  though  from  the 
time  of  that  ill-planned  and  ill-fated  rebellion,  the  whole  policy  of 
England  towards  her  native  country  has  been  to  annihilate  the 
habits,  and  the  very  language  and  dress  of  the  Highlands,  and  of 
her  youth,  her  memory  will  live  in  North  Carolina  while  nobleness 
has  admirers,  and  romantic  self-devotion  to  the  welfare  of  the 
distressed  can  charm  the  heart.  And  will  not  ihat  be  for  ever  ? 
Will  not  posterity  admire  her  more  than  Prince  Charles  who 
led  his  followers  to  slaughter?  or  George  II.,  who  envied  the 
popularity  of  his  own  son  ?  and  draw  more  instruction  from  her 
romance,  and  affection,  and  boldness,  and  devotion,  and  womanly 
graces,  and  feoamne  loveliness,  than  firom  all  the  court  of  Eng- 
land that  fill  the  histories  of  that  by-gone  period  ? 

Massachusetts  has  her  Lady  Arabella ;  Vir|pnia  her  Pocahontas ; 
and  North  Carolina  her  Flora  McDonald. 

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The  first  ordained  minister  that  took  his  abode  among  the  Pres- 
byterian settlements  in  North  Carolina,  was  the  Rev.  James 
Campbell,  on  the  Cape  Fear  river.  The  first  missionary  whose 
journal,  or  parts  of  journal,  has  been  preserved,  is  Hugh  McAden 
(or  as  sometimes  spelled  McCadden),  who  was  also  the  first 
missionary  that  settled  in  the  State. 

The  first  Presbyterian  minister  that  preached  in  North  Caro- 
lina of  whom  we  have  any  knowledge,  was  WiUiiLm  Robinson, 
famous  in  the  annals  of  'the  Virginia  churches,  of  whom  the 
Jlev.  Samuel  Davies  says, — "that  favored  man,  Mr.  Robinson, 
whose  success,  whenever  I  reflect  upon  it,  astonishes  me.**  This 
eminent  missionary  passed  through  Virginia  to  North  Carolina, 
and  spent  ar  part  of  the  winter  of  1742  and  1743,  among  Pres- 
bjrterian  settlements.  It  was  on  his  petum  firom  Carolina,  and 
while  preaching  at  Cub  Creek,  in  Charlotte  county,  that  the  mes- 
senger from  Hanover  county  waited  upon  him  and  persuaded  him 
to  visit  that  county,  in  which  werje  no  settlements  of  Presbyterian 
emigrants,  and  which  of  course  had  not  been  included  either  in 
his  original  mission,  or  his  intended  route  homeward. 

We  are  not  able  to  asoertain  the  places  with  precision,  which 
he  visited,  but  as  the  Presbyterian  settlements  in  the  county  of 
Duplin  and  New  Hanover  were  the  oldest  in  the  State,  and  there 
were  none  othfew  at  that  time  of  much  strength,  the  probability 
is  that  Duplin  and  New  Hanover  were  the  places  he  visited,  and 
the  scattered  settlements  then  commenced  in  the  upper  part  of 
the  State  also  received  some  attention.  Mr.  Davies  tells  us  that 
the  success  attending  the  ministry  of  this  eminent  man,  so  abun- 
dant in  Virginia,  was  very  smsdl  in  Carolina.  It  is  probably 
owing  to  that  fact  that  the  whole  history  of  his  mission  is  cir- 
cumscribed in  the  single  statemant,  that  he  visited  the  country 
through  much  exposure,  and  many  hardships,  owing  to  the  un- 
settled wilderness  through  which  he  had  to  pass. 

Supplications  were  sent  from  Carolina  to  the  Synod  of  Phila- 

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HUGH  m'abbn.  159 

delphia  as  early  as  the  year  1744.  The  records  spealc  of  them  as 
having  come  ''from  many  people,'*  but  do  not  tell  us  from  what 
section  of  the  State  they  were  sent.  In  the  year  1 753,  two  mission- 
aries were  sent  by  the  direction  of  the  Synod  to  visit  Virginia  and 
North  Carolina,  Mr.  McMordie  and  Mr.  Donaldson ;  but  there  is 
no  mention  made  of  the  settlements  they  were  to  visit,  further 
than  they  were  "to  show  special  regard"  to  the  vacancies  of 
North  Carolina,  especially  betwixt  Atkin  (Yadkin)  and  Catawba 
rivers.  In  the  year  1754  the  Synod  of  New  York  directed  four 
ministers,  Messrs.  Beatty,  Bostwick,  Lewis,  and  Thane,  to  visit 
the  States  of  Virginia  and  North  Carolina,  each  three  months,  but 
no  particular  plaoes  are  specified.  In  1755,  the  same  S)mod  ap- 
pointed two  other  missionaries,  and  named  some  places  in  the 
upper  part  of  the  State ;  but  owing  to  the  disturbances  in  the 
country  from  the  depredations  of  the  Indians,  this  mission  was 
not  fulfilled. 

The  settlemtnt  of  Presbyterians  in  Duplin  county  is  probably 
the  oldest  large  settlement  of  that  denomination  in  the  State. 
About  the  year  1736,  or  perhaps  1737,  one  Henry  McCulloch 
induced  a  colony  of  Presbyterians  from  the  province  of  Ulster,  in 
Ireland,  to  settle  in  Duplin  county.  North  Carolina,  on  lands  he 
had  obtained  from  his  majesty,  George  II.  The  stipulated  con- 
dition of  the  grant,  or  promised  grant,  was,  that  he  should  pro- 
cure a  certain  number  of  settlers  to  occupy  the  wide  forests,  as 
an  inducement  to  other  emigrants  to  seek  a  residence  in  the  un- 
occupied regions  of  Carolina.  His  son  reported  oetweej  three 
and  four  hundred  emigrants,  for  whose  introduction  he  retained 
about  sixty-four'  thousand  acres  of  land.  The  descendants  of 
these  emigrants  are  found  in  Duplin,  New  Hanover,  and  Samp- 
son counties — ^the  family  names  indicating  their  origin.  The 
Grove  congregation,  whose  place  of  worship  isj|^|ut  three  miles 
southeast  of  Duplin  court-house,  traces  its  ori^Ko  the  church 
formed  from  this,  the  oldest  Presbyterian  settlement  in  the  State, 
whose  principal  place  of  worship  was  at  first  called  Goshen. 

Nearer  Wilmington  was  a  settlement  on  what  was  called  the 
Welch  Tract,  on  the  northeast  Cape  Fear. 

This  was  composed  at  first  of  Welch  emigrants,  but  after  a 
short  period  other  families  were  located  on  the  tract,  ond  then 
were  associated  families  enough  to  form  a  congregation  sufficient^ 
large  to  invite  the  services  of  a  minister. 

These  two  settlements,  one  in  Duplin  and  the  other  in  Hanover, 
formed  the  field  of  labor  in  which  McAden  passed  the  first  part  of 

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his  settled  ministry.  As  you  pass  rapidly  on  the  cars  from  Rich- 
mond, Virginia,  to  Wilmington,  North  Carolina,  after  crossing  the 
Tar  River,  and  entering  upon  the  extended  sandy  level  that 
stretches,  without  an  elevation  of  an  ordinary  hill,  through  the 
State,  abounding  in  the  species  of  pine  that  pours  forth  the  tur- 
pentine of  commeice,  you  enter  up6n  the  country  roamed  over  by 
McAden,  in  his  ministry  in  Duplin.  Passing  on,  with  scarce  an 
elevation  or  a  turn,  through  that  country,  and  the  unchanging 
groves  of  pines  in  New  Hanover,  till  you  cross  the  Cape  Fear, 
you  have  measured  the  space  allotted  to  him  for  the  exercise  of 
his  ministry.  A  singular  country ;  the  wealth  of  the  inhabitants 
is  in  the  endless  forest  of  pines,  and  their  principal  employment  is 
gathering  the  product  of  diese  forests  in  the  shape  of  turpentine, 
tar,  and  lumber,  for  foreign  markets.  The  grain  and  grass  crops 
are  a  secondary  consideration,  and  scarcely  supply  the  home  de- 
mand. The  supply  from  the  forest  has  hitherto  been  unfailing, 
abundant,  and  often  very  profitable.  To  one  accustomed  to  the 
cultivated  fields  of  western  Carolina,  or  the  more  northern  States, 
this  country,  in  passing  hastily  through  it  in  the  steam  cars,  ap- 
pears one  vast  solitude.  The  turpentine  groves  present  little  of 
romance  or  beauty  in  their  constantly  recurring  sameness,  while 
they  are  pouring  out  streams  of  wealth  to  an  industrious  people. 

Hugh  McAden  was  bom  in  Pennsylvania;  his  parentage  is 
traced  to  the  North  of  Ireland.  His  Alma  Mater  was  Nassau 
Hall ;  his  instructor  in  Theology,  John  Blair,  of  New  Castle  Pres- 
bytery^ He  was  graduated  in  1763,  and  was  licensed  in  1766,  by 
the  Presbytery  to  which  his  instructor  belonged,  and  ordained  by 
the  same  Presbytery  in  1757 ;  and  dismissed  in  1769  to  join  Han- 
over Presb3rtery,  whose  limits  extended  indefinitely  south.  Com- 
paratively httle  is  known  of  his  early  life;  as  his  papers  were 
almost  entirol^^^troyed  by  the  British  soldiers,  in  January,  1781, 
while  the  armyBR  Cwnwidlis,  in  the  pursuit  of  Green,  was  en- 
camped at  the  Red  House,  in  Caswell  county.  Of  the  few  papers 
that  escaped  was  the  Journal  of  his  first  trip  through  Carolina,  and 
is  the  only  document  of  the  kind  known  to  be  in  existence.  As 
it  contains  many  facts,  incidentally  stated,  that  will  now  be  <lseful, 
all  the  important  and  interesting  parts  of  this  brief  document  will 
be  presented,  either  verbatim,  or  in  a  condensed  form,  leaving  out 
repetitions,  and  things  that  are  likely  to  be  in  a  journal  not  intend- 
ed for  the  public,  and  which  are  not  of  lasting  importance. 

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HVOH   m'aBEN.  161 

"  Tuesday,  June  3d,  1755. — Took  my  journey  for  Carolina  from 
Mr.  Kirkpatrick's  in  the  evening ;  came  to  Mr.  Hall's,  where  I  tar- 
ried all  night.  Next  day  crossed  the  river  in  company  with  Mr. 
Bay  and  his  wife.  Spent  the  day  in  visiting  her  friends  on  b#th 
sides," — ^that  is,  the  old  and  new  sides  into  which  the  church  was 
then  divided.  "  Thursday  we  set  off  and  came  to  York,  forty 
miles,  with  some  difficulty,  the  weather  being  extremely  hot,  and 
no  food  for  our  horses.  A  very  bad  prospect  of  crops  appears 
everywhere,  the  ground  being  quite  burned  up  with  drought,  and 
the  com  much  hurt  by  the  frost ;  the  green  wheat  and  meadows, 
in  some  places,  entirely  withered  up  from  the  roots  as  if  they  had 
been  scorched  by  &e.  Here  I  left  Mr.  Bay  and  his  wife,  rode 
out  in  the  afternoon  aAd  lodged  in  the  congregation.  Next  day 
set  off  in  the  morning  and  came  to  his  house,  where  I  stayed  for 
breakfast,"  This  Mr.  Bay  was  a  Presbyterian  minister,  of  New 
Castle  Presbytery,  of  the  new  side,  and  he  speaks  as  if  it  were 
remarkable  that  he  visited  both  sides  with  Mrs.  Bay.  York  is  the 
first  town  mentioned  ;  and  the  bearing  of  his  journey,  and  cross- 
ing "  the  river,"  would  seem  to  fix  the  location  of  Mr.  Kirkpatrick  in 
Lancaster  county.  The  mention  he  here  makes  of  the  grwit  drought 
is  repeated  through  all  the  summer  and  fall ;  from  which  it  ap- 
pears a  severe  drought  prevailed  extensively  the  same  summer  that 
Braddock's  war  raged  so  disastrously. 

The  second  Sabbath  of  June  he  was  at  Rock  Springs  and  con- 
tinued till  the  Friday  after ;  the  people  making  prepardtions  to 
attend  tbe  administration  of  the  Lord's  Supper  in  the  two  congre- 
gations, that  lay  on  each  side,  of  one  of  which  the  Rev.  James 
Campbell,  who  was  the  next  year  in  Carolina,  was  the  pastor. 
In  this  he  passed  the  third  Sabbath  of  June,  in  c^3|pany  with  the 
pastor  and  the  Rev.  Andrew  Bay,  whom  he  says  I^P  heard  preach 
with  great  satisfaction."  This  Mr.  Campbell  he  had  for  his  neigh- 
bor, in  Carolina,  on  the  Cape  Fear,  in  about  a  year  from  this ; 
the  patriarch  of  the  Scotch  churches. 

"  Monday,  June  the  16th,  set  out  from  Connegocheg,  upon  my 
journey  for  Carolina,  crossed  the  Potomac,  and  lodged  at  Mr. 
Caten's,  where  I  was  very  kindly  entertained,  and  civilly  used. 
Next  day  (Tuesday)  set  off  about  12  o'clock,  and  came  to  Win- 
chester, forty  miles,  and  tarried  all  night.  In  the  morning  rode 
out  to  Robert  Wilson's,  where  I  was  kindly  entertained.  Spent 
the  day  with  Mr.  Hogg"  (or  Hoge)     This  Mr.  Wilson  Ijved  a 


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\  -  X 


short  distance  from  the  present  Opecquon  meeting-house,  and 
was  proverbial  for  his  hospitality. ,  IJis  house,  which  is  still  stand- 
ing, on  the  east  side  of  the  great  turnpike,  part  of  stone  and  part 
of  wood,  was  the  resort  of  preachers  in  his  day ;  and  during  the 
time  that  Washington  was  encamped  in  Winchester,  the  resort  of 
his  Excellency.  The  Mr.  Hogg,  or  Hogge,  or  Hoge,  for  the  name 
has  been  spelled  all  these  ways,  had  been  ordained  by  New  Castle 
Presbytery  about  the  time  that  Mr.  McAden  was  licensed.  He 
was  graduated  at  Nassau  Hall,  in  1748  ;  how  long  he  had  been  at 
Opecquon  is  not  known.  He  was  the  first  settled  minister  in  that 
congregation,  the  oldest  in  the  yalley. 

On  Thursday,  the  19th,  he  set  off  up  the  valley  of  the  Shenan- 
doah, of  which  he  says  :  "  Alone  in  the  wilderness.  Sometimes 
a  house  in  ten  miles,  and  sometimes  not  that.**  On  Friday  nighty 
he  lodged  at  a  Mr.  Shankland's,  eighty  miles  from  Opecquon,  and 
twenty  from  Augusta  court-house.  On  Saturday  he  stopped  at  a 
Mr.  Poage's — "  stayed  for  dinner,  the  first  I  had  eaten  since  I  left 
\  •  Pennsylvania." 

From  Staunton  he  went  with  Hugh  Celsey  to  Samuel  Downey's, 
at  the  North  Mountain,  where  he  preached  on  the  fourth  Sabbath 
of  June,  according  to  appointment,  and  being  detained  by  his  horse, 
preached  there  the  fifth  Sabbath  also.  The  same  cause  detaining 
•  him  another  week,  he  consented  to  preach  in  the  new  court-house 
on  the  first  Sabbath  of  July.  "  Rode  to  widow  Preston's  Satur- 
day evening,  where  I  was  very  kindly  entertained,  and  had  a  com- 
.  modious  lodging."    This  is  probably  the  widow  of  John  Preston, 

•  whose  family  have  since  been  so  famous  in  Virginia.  The  North 
Mountain  congregation  has  long  since  given  place  to  Bediel  and 

•  Hebron.  On  Monday  he  rode  out  to  John  Trimble's,  more  en- 
couraged by  the  appearances  at  North  Mountain  than  in  Staunton. 

"  On  Tuesday  ^taoassed  on  to  the  Rev.  John  Brown's,  who  was 
the  first  sett^^ minister  of  Providence  and  Timber  Ridge. 
"  Here  I  was  vehemently  desired  by  Mr.  Brovim  to  preach  in  one 
of  his  places,  having  set  apart  a  day  of  fasting  and  prayer,  on  the 
account  of  the  wars  and  many  murders  committed  by  the  savage 
Indians  on  the  back  inhabitants.  To  this  I  agreed,  having  ap- 
pointed the  Forks  of  James  River  for  the  next  Lord's  day,  where 
I  could  easily  reach  on  Saturday.  So  I  tarried,  and  preached  at 
Timber  Ridge  on  Friday,  which  was  the  day  appointed,  to  a  pretty 

•  large  congregation  ;  felt  some  life  and  earnestness  in  alarming  the 
people  of  their  dangers  on  account  of  sin,  the  procuring  cause  of 
all  evils  that  befal  us  in  this  life,  or  that  which  is  to  come ;  en- 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


coaraging  them  to  turn  to  the  Lord  with  all  their  hearts,  to  wait 
upon  him  for  deliverance  from  all  their  enemies,  the  only  sure 
refiige  in  every  time  of  diflSiculty ;  and  exciting  them  to  put  them- 
selves in  the  best  posture  of  defence  they  could,  and  endeavor,  by 
all  possible  means  in  their  power,  to  defend  themselves  from  such 
barbarous  and  inhuman  enemies.  Great  attention  and  solemnity 
appeared  throughout  the  whole  assembly  ;  nay,  so  engaged  were  • 
they  that,  though  there  came  up  a  pretty  smart  gust,  they  seemed 
to  mind  it  no  more  than  if  the  sun  had  been  shining  on  them. 
But  in  a  little  time  the  Lord  turned  it  so  about  that  we  were  little 
more  disturbed  than  if  we  had  been  in  a  house. 

"  Came  to  Mr.  Beyer's,  where  I  tarried  till  Sabbath  morning,  a 
very  kind  and  discreet  gentleman,  who  used  me  exceedingly 
kindly,  and  accompanied  me  to  the  Forks,  twelve  miles,  where  I 
preached  the  second  Sabbath  of  July,  to  a  considerable  large  con- 
gregation, who  seemed  pretty  much  engaged,  and  very  earnest 
that  I  should  stay  longer  with  them  ;  which  I  could  by  no  means 
consent  to,  being  determined  to  get  along  in  [my]  journey  as  fast 
as  possible  ;  and  proposed  to  preach  at  Round  Oak  next  Sabbath. 
Rode  home  with  Joseph  Lapsley,  two  miles,  from  meeting,  where 
I  tarried  till  Wednesday  morning. 

*^  Here  it  was  I  received  the  most  melancholy  news  of  the 
entire  defeat  of  our  army  by  the  French  at  Ohio,  the  General 
killed,  numbers  of  the  inferior  officers,  and  the  whole  artillery 
taken.  This,  together  with  the  frequent  account  of  fresh  murders 
being  daily  committed  upon  the  frontiers,  struck  terror  to  every 
heart.  A  cold  shuddering  possessed  every  breast,  and  paleness 
covered  almost  every  face.  In  short,  the  whole  inhabitants  were 
put  into  an  universal  confusion.  Sc€u:cely  any  man  durst  sleep  in 
his  own  house — ^but  all  met  in  companies  with  their  wives  and 
children,  and  set  about  building  little  fortifications,  |ftdefend  them- 
selves from  such  barbarians  and  inhuman  enemi^  whom  they 
concluded  would  be  let  loose  upon  them  at  pleasure.  I  was  so 
shocked  upon  my  first  reading  Col.  Innes's  letter,  that  I  knew  not 
well  what  to  do." 

This  was  the  defeat  of  Gen.  Braddock.  The  consternation  that 
followed  through  all  the  fit)ntiers  of  Virginia,  which  were  then  all 
in  the  valley,  is  well  described  in  the  few  lines  given  above.  The 
difficulties  and  dangers  increased  till  many  of  the  inhabitants  of 
Augusta  fled  to  the  mdte  quiet  frontiers  of  North  Carolina,  as  will 
be  seen  in  the  progress  of  this  journal.  Among  others  who  fled, 
and  in  a  few  years  took  his  residence  on  Sugar  Creek,  was  the 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Rev.  Mr.  Craighead,  who  had  been  some  year^  in  Virginia,  re- 
siding on  the  cow  pasture.  His  congregation  was  not  in  the  track 
of  Mr.  McAden's  journey,  which  left  Mr.  Craighead's  residence  to 
the  right,  and  Mr.  Craig's  to  the  left. 

After  much  consideration  whether  he  should  remain  where  he 
was,  or  return  to  Pennsylvania,  or  go  on  to  his  destined  field  of 
labor  in  Carolina,  he  determined,  in  the  fear  of  God,  to  go  on.  "  I 
resolved  to  prosecute  my  journey,  come  what  will,  with  some 
degree  of  dependence  on  the  Lord  for  his  divine  protection  and 
support,  that  I  might  be  enabled  to  glorify  him  in  all  things, 
whether  in  life  or  in  death,  though  not  so  sensible  as  I  could  wish 
for  and  earnestly  desired." 

On  Wednesday,  the  16th  of  July,  he  left  Mr.  Lapsley's,  in 
company  with  a  young  man  from  Mr.  Henry's  congregation,  in 
Charlotte,  who  had  been  at  the  Warm  Springs,  and  was  fleeing 
from  the  expected  inroads  of  the  savages.  Giving  up  the  appoint- 
ment at  Round  Oak,  he  took  the  route  by  Luny's  Ferry,  which 
was  distant  about  twenty-six  miles — "  because  it  was  now  too 
late  to  cross  the  mountain,  nor  did  I  think  it  quite  safe  to  venture 
it  alone  :  but  here  I  thought  we  might  lodge  with  some  degree  of 
safety,  as  there,  were  a  number  of  men  and  arms  engaged  in 
building  a  fort,  round  the  house,  where  they  were  fled  with  their 
wives  and  children." 

The  next  day  Major  Smith  sent  a  guard  with  them  across  the 
mountains  ;  and  after  riding  thirty-two  miles  they  reached  Mr. 
I.  Sable's,  about  three  miles  from  Bedford  court-house.  Here 
he  was  out  of  danger  from  the  Indians,  but  found  the  same  op- 
pressive drought  he  left  in  Pennsylvania.  The  next  day  he  reach- 
ed "  Mr.  Thomas  Dickson's,  at  Falling  River,  twenty-three  miles, 
JSL  place  where  Mr.  Henry  preached  once  a  month.  The  people 
insisted  very  jmch  -upon  my  staying  here  till  Sabbath  day :  as  it 
was  now  FricS^evening,  it  was  impossible  to  get  over  to  Dan  River 
(which  was  the  first  vacancy  I  could  preach  at)  in  time  to  warn  a 
congregation  before  Sabbath  day,  therefore  I  tarried  and  preached 
at  Falling  River.'' 

On  Monday,  the  21st,  he  rode  thirty  miles  to  the  Rev.  Mr. 
Henry's — "  where  I  was  much  refreshed  by  a  relation  of  Mr. 
Henry's  success  among  his  people,  who  told  me  of  several  hope- 
fully brought  in  by  his  ministry,  and  frequent  appearance  of  new 
awakenings  amongst  them,  scarcely  a  SAbath  passing  without 
some  life  and  appearance  of  the  power  of  God.     So  likewise  in 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

HTJOH  h'aden.  165 

Mr.  Wright's  congregation,  I  hear,  there  is  a  considerable  appear- 
ance of  the  power  of  God." 

On  Wednesday,  23d  of  July,  he  left  Mr.  Henry's,  rode  ten 
miles,  and  preached  at  a  Mr.  Cardwall's,  in  Halifax  county,  and 
passed  on  that  night  to  Ephraim  HilPs,  five  miles.  The  country 
was  then  thinly  settled,  and  the  people  appeared  to  Mr.  McAden 
as  sheep  without  a  shepherd.  On  the  next  day  rode  twenty  miles 
to  Capt.  Moore's,  on  Dan  River,  where  he  remained  and  preached 
the  Sabbath,  July  27th.  On  Tuesday  he  left  Capt.  Moore's,  pro- 
ceeded five  miles  up  the  Dan,  crossed  over,  and  preached  at  Mr. 
Brandon's ;  and  on  the  same  evening,  riding  twelve  miles,  came 
to  Solomon  Debow's  on  Hico,  an  emigrant  from  Bucks  county,  ' 
Pennsylvania.  Here  he  remained,  and  preached  the  first  Sabbath 
of  August.  "  Having  now  got  within  the  limits  prescribed  me  by  \ 
the  Presbytery,  I  was  resolved  not  to  be  so  anxious  about  getting 
along  in  my  journey,  but  take  some  more  time  to  labor  among  the 
people,  if  so  be  the  Lord  might  bless  it  to  the  advantage  of  any. 
May  the  Lord,  of  his  infinite  mercy,  grant  his  blessing  upon  my 
poor  attempts,  and  make  me  in  some  .way  instrumental  in  turning 
some  of  these  precious  souls  from  darkness  unto  light,  and  from  / 
the  power  of  Satan  unto  God,  that  the  power  may  be  known  to  be 
of  God,  and  all  the  glory  redound  to  His  own  name." 

Mr.  McAden  was  now  out  of  the  sphere  of  alarm  occasioned  by 
Braddock's  defeat ;  and  he  was  also  now  beyond  the  southern 
bounds  of  any  settled  minister  of  the  Presbyterian  denomination 
in  connection  with  the  Synods  of  New  York  and  Philadelphia. 
There  were  some  Presbyterian  churches  built  in  North  Carolina, 
and  many  worshipping  assemWies,  but  few,  if  any,  organized 
churches  at  this  time,  and  no  settled  minister.  Mr.  McAden  was 
of  the  New  Side,  as  they  were  termed.  This  is  discoverable  from 
a  very  few  sentences  in  his  journal  which  occasionajfty  appear,  when 
he  meets  with  some  opposing  circumstance  from  the  other  side ; 
for  through  Virginia  and  in  the  settlements  in  Carolina  the  differ- 
ence of  opinion  had  spread,  and  the  fierceness  of  the  dispute  had 
yet  scarcely  passed  away. 

We  shall  follow  him  with  interest  from  this  first  Sabbath  in  Caroli- 
na, August  3, 1 765,  at  Solomon  Debow's,  on  Hico,  through  the  settled 
part  of  the  State.  Some  of  his  preaching-places  can  be  identified, 
and  others  witli  difficulty  conjectured ;  as  they  were  at  private 
houses  generally,  or  in  the  open  air.  As  might  be  expected,  some 
became  permanent  preaching-places,  and  others  gave  way  to  more 
ccmyenient  locations. 

Digitized  by 




On  Tuesday,  6th,  he  preached  at  Mr.  Debow's ;  on  Wednesday, 
rode  ten  miles  to  the  chapel  on  South  Hico,  where — "  I  preached 
to  a  number  of  church  people  and  some  Presbyterians.    After  ser- 
mon they  seemed  exceedingly  pleased,  and  returned  abundance  of 
thanks  for  my  sermon,  and  earnestly  entreated  me  by  all  means 
to  call  upon  them  as  I  came  back,  and  showed  a  very  great  desire 
,  that  all  our  ministers  should  call  upon  them  as  they  travel  back 
i  and  forward."    He  went  home  with  Mr.  Vanhook,  five  miles,  and 
.  preached  at  his  house  on  Thursday ;  and  on  Friday  was  conducted 
by  Mr.  Vanhook  "  to  Eino  "  (Eno),  about  twenty  miles,  to  a  Mr. 
^derson's.     The  second  Sabbath  of  August,  the  10th  day,  he 

< preached  at  Eno — "  to  a  set  of  pretty  regular  Presb)rterians,"  who 
appeared  to  him  to  be  in  a  cold  state  of  religious  feeUng.  "  In  the 
evening  returned  to  Mr.  Anderson's ;  here  I  tarried  till  Tuesday, 
the  12th  of  August ;  preached  again  to  the  same  company."    From 

<&ese  expressions  it  would  seem  there  was  a  house  for  public  wor- 
ship on  the  Eno. 

"  Being  sent  for,  and  very  earnestly  entreated  to  go  to  Tar  River, 
I  took  n»y  journey  the  same  evening,  with  my  guide,  and  rode  to 
Bogan's,  on  Flat  River,  twenty  miles.  Next  morning,  set  off 
again,  and  rode  to  old  Sherman's,  on  Tar  River,  and  preached  that 
afternoon  to  a  small  company,  who  seemed  generally  attentive,  and 
some  affected."  Next  day  he  went  to  Grassy  Creek,  sixteen  miles, 
where  was  a  Baptist  meeting-house,  and  preached  to  a  people 
"  who  seemed  very  inquisitive  about  the  way  to  ^ion."  The  next 
day  he  accompanied  his  host,  old  Mr.  Lavnrence,  to  Fishing  Creek, 
to  the  Baptist  Yearly  Meeting ;  and  on  Saturday  and  Sabbath 
preached  to  large  and  deeply  interested  audiences.  "  Here  I  think 
the  power  of  God  appeared  something  conspicuous,  and  the  word 
seemed  to  fall  with  power."  Being  earnestly  pressed,  he  preached 
again  on  Sabbath  afternoon,  with  some  hope  of  success.  On  Mon- 
day he  preached  again  with  greater  appearance  of  usefulness.  The 
inhabitants,  he  was  informed,  were  principally  firom  Virginia,  and 
/some  from  Pennsylvania  and  Jersey.     "  I  was  obliged  to  leave 

""^  them  after  I  had  preached  to  and  exhorted  them  with  many  words, 
that  they  should  carefully  guard  against  taking  shelter  under  the 

\  shadow  of  their  own  righteousness,  conunitting  them  to  God,  who, 
I  know,  is  able  to  make  them  wise  unto  salvation."  On  Monday, 
P.  M.,  the  18th,  he  rode  to  Granville  court-house,  twenty-five 
miles.  On  Tuesday  he  rode  to  Mr.  Sherman's,  on  Tar  River,  at 
about  11  o'clock,  twenty  miles  ;  and  preached  in  the  afternoon  "  to 
a  middling  congregation,  who  appeared  very  devout,  and  some  of 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

HUGH  m'aden.  167 

them  much  affected."  On  Wednesday,  returned  to  Mr.  Anderson's, 
on  Eno.  On  Friday  evening  he  rode  "to  the  Hawfields,  where  I 
preached  the  fourth  Sabbath  in  August,  to  a  considerable  large 
CMmgregation,  chiejQy  Presbyterians,  who  seemed  highly  pleased, 
and  very  desirous  to  hear  the  word.  Preached  again  on  Tuesday ; 
the  people  came  out  to  hear  quite  beyond  expectation.  Wednes- 
day, set  out  upon  my  journey,  and  came  to  the  Buffalo  Settlement, 
aboutthirty-five  miles ;  lodged  at  William  Mebane's  till  Sabbath  day ; 
then  rode  to  Adam  Michel's,  where  I  preached ;  the  people  seemed 
solenm  and  very  attentive,  but  no  appearance  of  the  life  of  reU- 
gion.  Returned  in  the  evening,  about  a  mile,  to  Robert  Rankin's, 
where  I  was  kindly  received  and  well  entertained  till  Tuesday  ; 
then  returned  to  the  former  place,  and  preached ;  no  stir  appeared, 
but  some  tears."  On  Wednesday,  September  3d,  he  set  out  for  the 
Yadkin,  having  Robert  Rankin  as  his  guide,  and  having  ridden  forty- 
five  miles,  lodged  at  John  Vannoy's.  "  Next  morning,  came  to  Henry 
Sloan's^  at  the  Yadkin  Ford,,  where  I  was  kindly  entertained  till 
Sabbath  day ;  rode  to  the  meeting-house  and  preached  to  a  small 
congregation."  Here  there  appears  to  have  been  a  congregation 
of  some  strength  that  had  a  meeting-house,  but  had  become  di- 
vided,— "  Many  adhere  to  the  Baptists  that  were  before  wavering, 
and  several  that  professed  themselves  to  be  Presbyterians ;  so  that 
very  few  at  present  join  heartily  for  our  ministers,  and  will  in  a 
little  time,  if  God  prevent  not,  be  too  weak  either  to  call  or  sup- 
pUcate  for  a  faithful  minister.  0  may  the  good  Lord,  who  can 
bring  order  out  of  confusion,  and  call  things  that  are  not  as  though 
they  were,  visit  this  people  !"  One  cause  of  the  divisions  in  this 
congregation  arose  from  the  labors  of  a  Baptist  minister  among 
them  by  the  name  of  Miller.  \ 

After  preaching,  he  visited  some  sick  people,  and  went  home 
with  James  Smith,  about  four  miles.  On  Tuesday,  he  preached 
again  at  the  meeting-house,  and  went  home  with  Cornelius  Ander- 
son, about  six  miles — "  a  judicious,  honest  man,  I  hope,  who 
seems  to  be  much  concerned  for  the  state  of  the  church  and  perish- 
ing souls."  On  Wednesday,  10th,  he  visited  Captain  Hunt,  who 
was  sick  with  an  intermitting  fever,  and  found  his  visit  welcome  \  y 
and  returned  to  Mr.  Sloan's.  On  Friday,  12th,  he  crossed  the 
Yadkin,  and  rode  about  ten  miles  to  James  Alison's.  (Tn  Satur- 
day, he  went  three  or  four  miles  to  Mr.  Brandon's — "  one  of  my 
own  countrymen."  On  Sabbath,  14th,  he  preached  at ''  the  meet- 
ing-house ta  a  considerable  congregation  of  professing  people  ;" 
and  on  Monday,  rode  to  John  Luckey's,  about  five  or  six  miles. 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


"Preached  again  on  Wednesday,  being  appointed  as  a  day  of 
fasting  and  prayer,  to  entreat  the  Lord  for  deliverance  from  these 
sad  calamities,  with  which  the  land  seems  in  general  to  be  threatened, 
being  in  very  great  danger  both  of  sword  and  famine."  In  the 
evening,  he  paid  a  faithful  visit  to  a  man,  about  to  die,  from  a  fall 
from  his  horse,  in  a  very  unprepared  state  of  mind.  "  Went  home 
with  John  Andrew,  a  serious,  good  man,  I  hope,  with  whom  my 
soul  was  much  refreshed,  by  his  warm  conversation  about  the 
things  of  God.  How  sweet  to  meet  one  in  the  wilderness  who 
can  speak  the  language  of  Canaan !  The  next  day,  he  rode  to 
Justice  Ckrruth's,  about  eight  miles,  and  remained  till  Sabbath, 
21st,  and  then  preached  at  the  meeting-house  about  two  miles  off, 
'*  to  a  pretty  large  congregation  of  people,  who  seemed  generally 
pretty  regular  and  discreet."  The  next  day,  he  set  out  for  Mr. 
David  Templeton's,  about  five  miles  from  Mr.  Carruth's ;  on  his  way 
— "  came  up  with  a  large  company  of  men,  women  and  children, 
who  had  fled  for  their  lives  from  the  Cow  or  Calf  pasture  in  Virgi- 
nia ;  from  whom  I  received  the  melancholy  account,  that  the 
Indians  were  still  doing  a  great  deal  of  mischief  in  those  parts,  by 
murdwing  and  destroying  several  of  the  inhabitants,  and  banishiog 
the  rest  from  their  houses  and  livings,  whereby  they  are  forced  to 
fly  into  desert  places."  Rode  on  that  evening  to  William  Denny's, 
four  miles  further ;  who  presented  him  with  what  he  considered  a 
great  present,  "  a  pair  of  shoes,  made  of  his  own  leather,  which 
was  no  small  favor."  On  Tuesday,  he  returned  to  David  Temple- 
ton's,  and  on  Wednesday,  a  day  appointed  for  fasting  and  prayer, 
rode  to  "  the  meeting-house  and  preached."  After  sermon,  he 
went  home  with  Captain  Osborne,  about  six  miles ;  here,  he 
remained  till  Sabbath,  the  28th,  when  he  preached  "  at  the  new 
meeting-house,  about  three  miles  off ;" — and  "  again  on  Wednes- 
day, being  appointed  for  fasting  and  humiliation."  In  the  evening, 
he  rode  home  with  William  Reese,  about  seven  miles,  and 
remained  till  Sabbath,  the  6th  of  October,  when  he  preached  at 
Captain  Lewis's,  about  three  miles  distant — **  to  as  large  a  con- 
gregation as  any  I  have  had  since  I  came  to  these  parts."  The 
whole  of  the  succeeding  week  he  lodged  at  Captain  Lewis's.  On 
Wednesday,  he  preached  again,  it  being  the  day  appointed  by  the 
governor  and  council,  for  humiliation,  fasting  and  prayer,  on 
account  of  the  distress  upon  the  land. 

On  the  Sabbath,  the  12th  of  October,  he  rode  seven  miles 
to  Justice  Alexander's,  **  when  I  preached  in  the  afternoon,  a  consi- 
derable solemnity  appeared."    Though  it  was  now  near  the  middle 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

HUGH  m'aden.  169 

of  October,  the  drought  was  still  so  great  that  he  says — "  I  have 
not  seen  so  much  as  one  patch  of  wheat  or  rye  in  the  ground." 
On  Wednesday,  he  went  over  to  Major  Harris's,  about  three  miles, 
and  preached  ;  on  Friday,  he  preached  at  David  Caldwell's,  about 
five  or  six  miles,  to  a  small  congregation,  and  went  on  to  William 
Alexander's,  and  tarried  till  Sabbath,  the  19th,  and  then  rode  about 
twelve  miles  to  James  Alexander's,  on  Sugar  Creek,  and  preached 
— "  where  there  are  some  pretty  serious,  judicious  people — may 
the  Lord  grant  his  blessing !"     That  evening,  he  rode  home  with  * 
Henry  Knealy  (or  Neely,  as  he  spells  the  name  both  ways),  six 
miles ;  and  on  Monday,  the  20th,  took  his  journey  for  Broad  Vs^ 
River — "sixty  miles  to  the  southward,  in  company  with   two 
young  men,  who  came  thus  far  to  conduct  me  thither — a  'place    y 
where  never  any  of  our  missionaries  have  been"  / 

On  this  journey,  he  passed  through  the  lands  of  the  Catawba 
Indians.  On  the  first  night,  they  prepared  to  encamp  in  the 
woods,  about  three  miles  south  of  the  Catawba — "  there  being  no 
white  man's  house  on  all  the  road."  This  was  his  first  night 
"  out  of  doors."  On  the  next  day,  they  passed  one  of  their  hunt-\ 
ifig  camps  unmolested;  but  when  they  stopped  to  get  their 
breakfast,  they  were  surrounded  by  a  large  number  of  Indians, 
shouting  and  hallooing,  and  firightening  their  horses  and  rifling  their 
baggage.  Accordingly,  they  moved  oflF  as  fast  as  possible,  without 
staying  to  parley ;  and  to  their  great  annoyance,  in  a  little  time 
they  passed  a  second  camp  of  hunters,  who  prepared  to  give  them 
a  similar  reception,  calling  them  to  stop,  from  each  side  the  path. 
Passing  on  rapidly,  they  escaped  without  harm  ;  and  after  a  ride 
of  twenty-five  miles,  were  permitted  to  get  their  breakfasts  in/ 

{Here  some  leaves  of  the  journal  are  missing,] 

On  Sabbath,  the  2d  of  November,  he  preached  "  to  a  number 
of  those  poor  baptized  infidels,  many  of  whom  I  was  told  had 
never  heard  a  sermon  in  all  their  lives  before,  and  yet  several 
of  them  had  families."  This  seems  hardly  credible.  But  he  re- 
lates an  anecdote  told  him  here  of  an  old  gentleman,  who  said  to 
the  governor  of  South  Carolina,  when  he  was  in  those  parts,  in 
treaty  with  the  Cherokee  Indians,  that  he  "  had  never  seen  a 
shirt,  been  in  a  fair,  heard  a  sermon  or  seen  a  minister,  in  all 
his  life."  Upon  which  the  governor  promised  to  send  him  up  a 
minister,  that  he  might  hear  one  sermon  before  he  died.  The 
minister  came  and  preached ;  and  this  was  all  the  preaching  that 

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had  been  heard  in  the  upper  part  of  South  Carolina  before  Mr. 
McAden's  visit. 

How  far  he  penetrated  the  State  is  not  known,  on  account  of 
the  loss  of  a  few  leaves  of  the  journal.  "  On  Monday,  the  10th 
of  November,  returned  about  twenty  miles,  to  James  Atterson's, 
on  Tyger  river  ;  preached  on  Tuesday,  which  was  the  first  they 
had  ever  heard  in  these  parts,  but  I  hope  it  will  not  be  the  last, 
for  there  are  men  in  all  these  places  (blessed  be  God),  some  at 
least,  that  have  a  great  desire  of  hearing  the  gospel  preached. 
Next  day  rode  to  James  Love's,  on  Broad  River :  Thursday, 
preached."  On  Broad  River  his  congregation  was  eflfected  under 
his  preaching.  It  is  not  unlikely  that  son^  latitude  of  expression 
was  used  by  those  who  gave  him  the  statements  he  records.  It 
is  very  Ukely  that  he  was  the  first  minister  the  people  heard  in 
those  neighborhoods ;  but  those  who  had  never  heard  a  sermon 
were  comparatively  few,  as  the  mass  of  the  early  settlers  were  of 
a  parentage  that  taught  their  children  the  way  to  church.  There 
were,  however,  some  settlers  from  the  older  parts  of  the  State  that 
had  not  been  much  accustomed  to  any  religious  forms. 

"  Friday,  the  I4th,  took  my  leave  of  these  parts,  and  set  out 
for  the  Waxhaws,  forty-five  miles,  good;  that  night  reached 
Thomas  Farrel's,  where  I  lodged  till  Sabbath  day ;  then  rode  to 
James  Patton's,  about  two  miles,  and  preached  to  a  pretty  large 
congregation  of  Presbyterian  people.  Wednesday,  preached 
again  in  the  same  place,  and  crossed  the  Catawba  river  and  came 
to  Henry  White's."  Here  he  remained  till  Sabbath ;  part  of  the 
time  sick  of  the  flux,  but  was  able  to  preach  on  Sabbath,  the 
2dd,  at  "  the  meeting-house  "  five  miles  ofi*;  and  went  home  with 
Justice  Dickens.  On  the  Monday  following  he  set  out  for  the 
Yadkin,  retracing  his  steps ;  lodging  that  night  at  Henry  Neely's, 
where  his  disorder  returned  upon  liim,  and  kept  him  till  Sabbath, 
when  he  rode  six  miles,  to  James  Alexander's,  and  preached. 
From  thence  he  proceeded  to  Justice  Alexander's,  on  Rocky 
River^  twelve  miles ;  thence  on  to*  Captain  Lewis's,  in  the  Welch 
settlement,  and  there  tarried  some  days  as  before,  and  preached 
the  first  Sabbath  of  December  (the  7th);  thence  to  William 
Recce's ;  and  on  the  next  Sabbath  (the  14th)  he  preached  in  the 
"  new  meeting-house,"  near  Mr.  Osborne's ;  the  next,  at  Coddle 
Creek ;  and  passing  on  he  called  on  David  Templeton,  William 
Denny,  Justice  Carruth,  and  John  Andrew,  and  preached  on 
Sabbath,  the  28th,  at  Cathey's  meeting-house,  now  called  Thya- 
tira,  to  a  large  audience.     Here  he  was  urged  to  remain  and 

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HUOH  M  ADEN.  171 

divide  his  time  with  that  congregation  and  Rocky  River.  The 
congregation,  however,  was  divided  in  their  preference,  some  for 
the  old  side,  and  some  for  the  new ;  and  the  movements  to  settle 
a  minister  mifortmiately  became  a  party  question.  Being  ur- 
gently solicited,  he  preached  the  next  Sabbath  at  the  same  church, 
and  his  firiends  made  out  their  subscription.  On  the  whole,  he 
thought  it  unadvisable  to  prosecute  the  matter.  After  visiting 
Second  Creek,  and  preaching  at  Captain  Hampton's,  he  passed  on 
to  the  Yadkin,  and  having  crossed  it  with  difficulty,  he  lodged 
with  his  former  host,  Mr.  Sloan,  and  preached  in  ''  the  meeting- 
house "  on  the  second  Sabbath  of  January,  the  11th  day,  in  com- 
pany with  Mr.  Miller,  the  Baptist  minister,  from  Jersey,  of  whom 
as  a  Christian  man  he  speaks  favorably. 

On  Tuesday,  January  13th,  1756,  he  set  out  on  a  journey  down 
the  Cape  Fear  river,  to  Wihnington,  in  company  with  a  Mr.  Van 
Clave,  and  reached  Huary,  thirty  miles,  and  preached  the  next 
day,  Wednesday.  The  next  day  he  reached  Smith's,  at  the  Sand 
HUls,  and  remained  till  Sabbath  ;  in  public  worship  he  could  find 
no  one  to  join  in  singing  a  part  of  a  psalm.  On  Monday,  the  19th, 
set  off  in  company  with  Mr.  Smith,  who  was  going  to  court,  and 
rode  fifty  miles  to  McKay's.  Next  day  rode  thirty  miles  to  Anson 
court-house.  Here  he  met  with  an  old  acquaintance,  James 
Stewart,  and  went  home  with  him  and  remained  till  Saturday,  and 
preached  at  the  court-house,  and  rode  to  the  New  Store.  On 
Sabbath,  the  25th,  he  rode  to  Hector  McNeill's,  "  and  preached  to^ 
a  number  of  Highlanders, — some  of  them  scarcely  knew  one 
word  that  I  said, — the  poorest  singers  I  ever  heard  in  all  my  hfe./ 
Next  day  rode  to  David  Smith's,  on  the  other  side  of  Little  River, 
fourteen  miles  ;  on  Tuesday,  preached  to  a  considerable  nimiber 
of  people  who  came  to  hear  me  at  Smith's.  Wednesday,  rode  up 
to  Alexander  McKay's,  upon  the  Yadkin  road,  thirty  miles ; 
Thursday,  preached  to  a  small  congregation,  mostly  of  Highland-^ 
ers,  who  were  very  much  obliged  to  me  for  coming,  and  highly  \ 
pleased  with  my  discourse.  Though,  alas,  I  am  afiraid  it  was  all 
but  feigned  and  hypocritical."  His  reason  for  this  fear  was,  some 
stayed  around  the  house  all  night  and  indulged  in  drinking  and 
profane  language,  in  spite  of  his  remonstrances,  and  ahnost  entirely 
prevented  his  rest.  ^ 

On  Friday  he  "  set  off  down  the  river,  thirty  miles,  to  Neill 
Beard's ;"  then  he  preached  on  Sabbath,  1st  of  February,  to  a 
'*  mixed  multitude,  some  Presbyterians,  some  church  pe(^le,  some 
Baptists,  and  don't  know  but  some  Quakers."    However,  they  ex- 

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pressed  themselves  highly  pleased  with  his  visit.  On  Monday, 
the  2d,  l^  rode  to  a  Mr.  James  Semes's,  about  five  miles,  a  sick 
family  whom  he  visited,  and  preached  in  their  house  to  the  neigh- 
bors assembled ;  and  in  the  evening  rode  on  to  Mr.  Robinson's,  **  a 
very  aflfable  gentleman,"  with  whom  he  tarried  till  Wednesday, 
and  then  accompanied  to  the  court-house  in  Bladen  county, 
where  he  preached  to  a  considerable  congregation  ;  and  "  in  the 
evening  went  home  with  old  Justice  Randle,  about  two  miles." 
On  Thursday  he  preached  at  George  Brown's,  three  miles  off,  and 
went  on  three  miles  further  to  Neal  Shaw's,  and  the  next  day  to 
Duncan  McCoulsky's  ;  and  on  Sabbath,  the  8th,  rode  to  Esquire 
McNeill's,  where  he  preached  to  a  small  congregation,  the  day 
being  wet.  "  After  the  sermon  a  proposal  was  made  to  get  me  to 
come  and  settle  among  them ;  and  I  think  I  never  saw  people 
more  engaged,  or  subscribe  with  greater  freedom  and  cheerfulness 
in  my  life.  May  the  Lord,  in  much  mercy,  prepare  me  for  some 
usefulness  in  the  world,  and  direct  me  to  what  will  be  most  for 
his  own  glory,  and  the  good  of  precious  souls  !" 

"  On  Monday,  9th,  crossed  tbe  swamp  and  came  to  Baldwin's, 
on  the  Whitemarsh,  about  five  miles,  where  I  tarried  all  night,  and 
preached  the  next  day  to  a  very  few  irregular  sort  of  people,  who,  I 
believe,  know  but  little  about  the  principles  of  any  religion."  In  the 
evening  he  rode  home  with  Mr.  Kerr,  four  miles.  On  Wednes- 
day he  set  out  for  Wilmington,  and  rode  thirty  miles  to  young  Mr. 
Granger's,  "  a  very  discreet  gentleman,  who  entertained  me  with  a 
great  deal  of  courtesy ;"  on  Thursday  he  rode  fifteen  miles  to  Pre- 
sident Roan's ;  and  on  the  next  day  fifteen  miles  further  to  the 
ferry,  and  then  crossed  by  water,  four  miles,  to  Wilmington. 

Here  he  preached.  Sabbath,  the  15th, "  in  the  A.M.,  to  a  large  and 
'^  splendid  audience,  but  was  surprised  when  I  came  again  in  the 
P.M.,  to  see  about  a  dozen  met  to  hear  me."  This  small  number 
\^eatly  depressed  his  spirits,  and  probably  hastened  his  departure 
from  the  place  on  the  Tuesday  following.  On  that  day  he  rode 
twenty-five  miles,  to  Cowen's,  up  the  Northeast  Cape  Fear,  and  on 
the  next  day  to  old  Mr.  Evans's,  in  the  Welch  Tract. 

There  he  preached  on  Sabbath,  22d,  designing  to  move  on 
homeward,  "  but  I  was  detained  by  the  affection  and  entreaties  of 
this  people,  who  earnestly  pressed  upon  me  to  tarry  with  them 
another  Sabbath  ;  their  design  herein  was  that  they  might  have 
time  to  get  a  subscription  drawn  up,  that  they  might  put  in  a  call 
for  me."     On  Sabbath,  the  29th,  he  preached  again  to  the  same 

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HUGH  m'aden.  173 

people,  who  expressed  great  desire  for  his  return,  and  made  out  a 
call  for  him  as  their  pastor. 

On  Tuesday,  March  2d,  he  rode  to  Mr.  Bowen's,  about  ten 
miles,  on  Black  River  ;  and  on  the  next  day  six  miles  further,  and 
preached,  then  crossed  the  river  and  rode  about  five  miles  to  South 
River,  where  he  lodged  with  Mr.  Anderson.  On  Thursday  crossed 
Collie's  Swamp,  then  in  a  bad  condition — "  lodged  at  old  Mr.  Grife 
Jones's  ;"  on  the  next  day  crossed  the  Northwest,  and  lodged  at 
George  Brown's,  where  he  preached  on  Sabbath,  March  7th. 
While  in  this  neighborhood,  he  was  grieved  to  find  some,  who  had 
been  brought  up  under  the  influence  of  the  gospel  in  other  parts, 
become  dissolute  and  indulging  infidel  notions,  since  their  abode 
in  this  region  where  the  gospel  was  not  regularly  preached,  and  in 
fact  scarcely  heard. 

On  Monday,  the  8th,  crossed  the  Northwest,  and  being  de- 
tained by  the  rain,  and  some  other  business,  he  rode  but  about  ten 
miles,  to  Mr.  Isaac  Jones's,  **a  good  honest  Quaker,  and  an 
assemblyman."  The  next  day,  crossed  Colhe's  Swamp  again, 
which  was  now  overflowed,  and  caused  much  trouble  by  swim- 
ming the  horses — "  and  got  to  Mr.  Anderson's  again  about  12 
o'clock  ;"  that  same  day,  he  rode  on  to  Mr.  Lewis's,  on  Black 
River,  about  twenty-five  miles.  On  Wednesday,  he  went  fifteen 
miles,  to  John  James's,  and  preached.  By  the  high  waters  he  was 
detained  in  the  Welch  Tract  till  after  the  second  Sabbath  of  March. 
On  Thursday,  18th,  he  rode  to  Jeremiah  Holden's,  about  twenty 
miles ;  and  on  the  next  morning,  about  three  miles,  to  Mr.  Dick- 
son's, the  clerk  of  Duplin  county,  where  he  preached  on  Sab- 
bath, the  21st,  to  a  considerable  congregation,  most  of  whom  were 

"  The  people  here  being  very  desirous  to  join  with  the  Welch 
Tract,  in  putting  in  a  call  for  me,  and  many  of  their  best  friends 
being  abroad  upon  business,  they  insisted  so  strongly  upon  me,  that 
I  was  forced  to  consent  to  stay  with  them  another  day.  Tuesday, 
rode  up  to  Goshen  in  company  with  Mr.  Dickson,  and  several 
more.  Came  to  Mr.  Gaven's,  twelve  miles,  where  we  tarried  all 
night ;  next  day  preached,  and  returned  to  Mr.  Dickson's."  On 
Sabbath,  28th,  he  preached  at  John  Miller's,  about  two  miles 
distant.  The  people  seemed  all  very  hearty  in  giving  him  a  call, 
and  making  a  proper  support  for  him. 

On  Monday,  the  29th,  he  set  out  from  Mr.  Dickson's  home- 
ward ;  tarried  that  night  at  Mr.  Gaven's,  twelve  miles  ;  next  day 
crossed  Neuse,  and  tarried  with  Joshua  Herring,  about  thirty 

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miles.  This  man  was  out  early  in  the  morning,  and  assembled 
his  neighbors,  and  detained  him  to  preach  to  them  at  noon.  In 
the  evening,  rode  to  Mr.  Herring's,  senior,  about  twelve  miles. 
"  The  next  morning,  set  out  upon  my  journey  for  Pamlico,  and 
rode  about  ten  miles,  to  Major  McWain's,  where  I  had  opportunity 
of  seeing  and  conversing  with  Governor  Dobbs,  who  is  a  very  so- 
ciable gentleman."  That  night  he  lodged  at  Peter's  Ferry,  on 
Cuttentony,  about  twenty  miles,  it  being  too  late  to  go  fiarther. 
The  next  day,  he  rode  about  forty  miles,  to  Salter's  Ferry,  on 
Pamlico.  The  next  day,  being  Saturday,  he  came  to  Thomas 
Little's,  where  he  remained  over  Sabbath,  April  4th. '  This  man 
had  not  heard  a  Presbyterian  minister  in  the  twenty-eight  years  he 
had  lived  in  Carolina,  and  took  the  opportunity  of  sending  round 
for  his  neighbors,  and  collected  a  congregation ;  and  kept  Mr. 
McAden  till  Wednesday,  to  preach  again.  "  I  found  some  few 
amongst  them,  that  I  trust  are  God's  dear  children,  who  seemed 
much  refreshed  by  my  coming." 

On  the  7th  day  of  April,  Wednesday,  after  sermon,  he  rode  to 
Mr.  Barrow's,  about  five  miles  ;  and  the  next  day,  about  five  or 
six  miles,  to  the  Red  Banks,  "  where  I  preached  to  a  pretty  large 
company  of  various  sorts  of  people,  but  fewer  Presbyterians.  In 
the  evening,  rode  up  the  river,  ten  miles,  to  Mr.  Mace's,  who  is  a 
man  of  considerable  note,  and  a  Presbyterian."  Here  he  remained 
till  Sabbath,  the  11th,  and  preached  in  the  neighborhood. 

On  Tuesday,  April  13th,  he  set  out  homeward,  and  rode  twenty 
miles,  to  Mr.  Toole's,  on  Tar  River ;  this  man  he  describes  as 
unhappy  in  his  notions  of  unbelief.  On  Wednesday,  he  rode 
thirty  miles,  to  Edgecomb  court-house  ;  the  next  day  he  reached 
Fishing  Creek,  about  twenty-five  miles ;  and  on  Friday,  he  rode 
about  ten  miles  up  the  creek,  and  was  kindly  received  by  the 
Baptist  friends  he  made  on  his  journey  through  the  country  the 
last  fall.  On  Sabbath,  18th,  he  preached  at  their  meeting-house. 
Here  many  came  to  converse  with  him  about  their  experience. 
On  the  next  day,  he  went  home  with  Joseph  Linsey,  who  had 
heard  him  preach. 

"  He  insisted  very  hard  upon  me  to  stay  at  Nut  Bush,  and  give 
them  a  sermon,  as  they  were  very  destitute  and  out  of  the  way.  I 
went  home  with  him,  about  twenty-two  miles,  it  being  pretty  much 
in  my  way,  and  preached."  He  found  them  a  cheerful  people, 
without  the  regular  preaching  of  the  gospel,  and  in  a  situation  as 
might  be  expected,  vrith  abundance  of  wealth,  and  full  leisure  for 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

nuoH  m'aden.  175 

On  Wednesday  he  reached  Captain  Hampton's,  about  35 
miles  ;  and  on  Thursday  got  to  John  Anderson's, — "  who  seemed 
Tcry  joyful  to  see  me  returned  so  far  back  again ;  "  tarried  till  Sab- 
bath, and  preached.  On  Tuesday,  27th,  he  preached  at  Hawfields ; 
on  Wednesday  at  Eno :  on  Thursday  rode  down  to  Aaron  Van- 
hook's  ;  and  next  day  to  John  McFarland's,  on  Hico ;  and  there 
preached,  Sabbath,  the  2d  of  May. 

"  Got  ready  to  take  my  journey  from  Carolina,  Thursday,  the 
6th  of  May,  1756 ;  that  day  rode  in  company  with  Solomon  De- 
bow,  who  came  to  conduct  me  as  far  as  John  Baird's,  on  Dan 
River,  twenty  miles  from  Hico."  From  thence  he  set  off  alone. 
Passing  through  Amelia,  we  find  him,  on  Sabbath,  the  9th  of  May, 
at  the  house  of  Mr.  Messauz,  on  James'  River.  Here  the  journal 
abruptly  closes. 

It  is  interesting  to  follow  the  track  of  this  early  missionary. 
Many  of  the  neighborhoods  he  mentions  have  at  this  day  regular 
preaching ;  in  some  there  are  large  congregations  and  flourishing 
churches ;  and  some  few  have  passed  from  the  list  of  Presbyte- 
riai4  congregations. 

The  time,  and  distances  from  place  to  place,  have  been  given 
for  the  purpose  of  enabling  those  in  the  region  of  his  route  to  trace 
his  track.  A  comparison  of  the  state  of  things  as  they  appeared 
ninety  years  ago,  vnth  the  present,  may  lead  to  profitable  reflec- 
tions. These  data  are  left  with  those  who  may  feel  interested  in 
seaicjiing  out  the  '*  beginning  of  things." 

m'aDEN's  labors  as  a  pastor  in  north  CAROLINA. 

Mr.  McAden  returned  to  Carolina,  and  became  the  settled  minis- 
ter of  the  congregations  in  Duplin  and  New  Hanover.  He  was 
ordained  by  the  Presbytery  of  New  Castle,  in  1757 ;  and  in  1759 
was  dismissed  to  join  Hanover  Presbytery,  which  then  included 
a  greater  part  of  Virginia,  and  extended  indefinitely  south.  He 
presented  his  credentials  at  a  meeting  of  the  Presbytery  on  Rock- 
fish,  July  18th,  1759,  having  previously  sat  as  a  corresponding 

With  these  people  he  remained  about  ten  years  ;  when,  believ- 
ing that  the  influence  of  the  climate  upon  his  health  was  too  un- 
favorable to  justify  his  remaining  longer  in  the  lower  part  of  the 
State,  he  removed  to  Caswell  county,  and  there  finished  his  days. 
At  a  meeting  of  Hanover  Presbytery,  at  Buffalo,  March  2d,  1768, 
for  the  purpose  of  ordaining  Messrs.  David  Caldwell  and  Joseph 
Alexander,  *'  a  call  from  thd  churches  of  Hico,  Dan  River,  and 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


County  Line  Creek,"  was  put  in  for  his  pastoral  services.  At  the 
same  meeting  he  presided  at  the  installation  of  the  Rev.  David 
Caldwell  over  the  congregations  of  Buffalo  and  Alamance.  This 
year,  if  not  earlier,  he  became  a  resident  of  Caswell.  An  intima- 
cy had  existed  between  him  and  this  people  for  years,  and  he  had 
laid  their  destitute  condition  before  the  Presbytery  in  1759,  "  giving 
a  moving  representation  of  their  difficulties."  The  names  of  these 
churches  wera changed;  and  also  the  place  of  his  labors  in  part. 
At  the  lime  of  his  death  he  was  preaching  at  Red  House  (Middle 
Hyco),  Greer's  (Upper  Hyco),  and  to  a  church  in  Pittsylvania, 
"  about  half  a  day's  ride  "  from  his  dwelling,  near  the  Red  House. 

Mr.  McAden  was  united  in  marriage  with  a  Miss  Scott,  of 
Lunenburg  county,  Virginia,  whose  family  name  was  given  to  the 
neighborhood,  formed  by  a  company  of  emigrants  from  the  North 
of  Ireland,  and  called  Scott's  Settlement.  A  number  of  children 
were  born  to  him  in  DupUn,  the  eldest  of  whom  died  in  Caswell, 
in  the  year  1845. 

The  following  extract  from  a  letter  dictated  by  Dr.  John  Mc- 
Aden, the  eldest  son  of  the  preacher,  in  his  8^  year,  contains  all 
we  know  of  the  habits  of  this  pioneer  of  Carolina.  The  letter 
bears  date — "  Hyco  Hills,  Caswell  county,  Jan.  5th,  1845.  My 
father  was  a  very  systematic  man, — and  he  always  spent  one  or 
two  days  every  week  in  private  study, — and  if  he  walked  into  the 
fields  he  always  carried  his  Bible  with  him.  He  visited  with  his 
elders  once  a  year,  all  the  famiUes  within  the  bounds  of  his  con- 
gregations,— and  he  would  exhort  and  pray  with  them  during  his 
stay.  He  would  collect  all  of  his  congregations  once  a  year  at 
his  churches,  and  hold  an  examination  of  those  present.  He 
administered  the  sacrament  at  each  of  his  churches  twice  every 
year.  He  spent  his  life  in  attempting  to  convince  all  of  their  sins, 
and  in  rendering  happy  those  who  were  members  of  his  congrega- 
tions,— ^respected  and  beloved  by  all  who  knew  him.  During  the 
Revolution,  tlie  Lord  God  Almighty  thought  proper  to  remove  this 
venerable  man,  whose  influence  will  always  be  acknowledged  with 
pleasure ;  and  he  departed  this  life  January  20th,  1781,  leaving  a 
wife  and  seven  children.  Two  weeks  after  his  death,  the  British 
encamped  in  the  yard  of  the  Red  House  church.  They  remained 
there  some  time,  going  about  over  the  country,  committing  many 
depredations  upon  all  the  neighbors.  And  my  father's  long  minis- 
terial services  did  not  free  him  from  their  ravages,  but  tliey  came 
to  his  kouse  and  searched  it  throughout,  destroying  nftiny  things, 
and  ibo  many  of  his  most  valuable  papers,  on  accomit  of  which, 

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HUGH  m'adsn.  1T7 

the  knowledge  of  my  father  is  00  limited,  having  been  absent  a 
greater  part  of  my  life  at  school  in  Guilford,  !$»  C,  under  the  late 
Dr.  Caldwell,  and  having  arrived  at  home  a  few  days  before  the 
death  of  my  father.  During  the  end||npment  of  the  British  in 
the  yard  of  de  Red  House,  they  committed  many  depredations 
upon  the  chureh  which  were  not  repaired  for  many  yeaj*." 

The  visit  df  tbfi  British  referred  to  in  this  letter,  took  place, 
after  Green  had  crossed  the  Dan,  in  the  memorabh  retreat  before 
Comwallis,  by  which  the  march  of  Morgan  into  Virginia,  with 
the  prisoners  taken  at  the  Cowpens,  was  covered,  and  the  American 
forces  placed  beyond  the  reach  of  the  enemy,  till  reinforcements 
from  Virginia'  came  in,  and  Greene  could  venture  to  f^  the  enemy 
and  provoke  the  famous  battle  of  Guilford.  It  is  a  well-known 
iact  that  Comwallis's  army  ever  showed  a  dislike  to  Presbyterian 
ministers,  as  the  immediate  cause  of  much  of  the  stubborn  resist 
ance  which  met  them  at  every  step  in  Carolina.  McAden  had 
rested  from  his  labors  before  his  house  was  plundered,  like  Cald- 
well's ;  and  he  was  spared  the  trial  of  being  witness  of  the  miseries 
of  his  congregation,  and  flying;  like  a  criminal,  to  the  forests  and 
the  dens  of  the  earth,  like  his  brother,  of  Guilford. 

Mr.  McAden  lies  buried  in  the  grave-yard,  near  the  Red  House, 
in  Caswali  county,  about  five  miles  from  the  flourishing  town 
of  Milton,  the  Pioneer  in  Duplin,  New  Hanover,  Caswell,  and 



For  a  long  period  there  was  no  successor  to  Mr.  McAden  in 
Duplin  and  New  Hanover.  The  congregations  were  serwd  only 
by  the  precarious  and  desultory  labors  of  occasional  missionaries, 
and  were  dwindUng  away.  In  1793,  John  Robinson  was  licensed 
by  Orange  Presbytery,  and  directed  to  labor  in  Duplin.  The 
mutual  interest  resulting  from  his  first  visit,  led  to  his  settlement ; 
and  till  the  close  of  the  century,  hi0  successful  labors  were  devoted 
to  the  remains  of  the  congregations  served  by  McAden  for  about 
ten  years.  They  revived  under  his  ministry.  In  the  year  1800 
he  removed  to  Fayelteville. 

The  Rev.  Samuel  Stattford  became  a  member  of  Orange  Pres- 
bytery in  1796,  and  visited  the  low  country  before  Mr.  Robinson 
left,  and  became  his  successor.  He  extended  his  labors  over  the 
greater  part  of  Duplin  as  a  minister,  and  conducted  a  classical 
chool  with  success.    The  Aj^Aeray  at  the  Grove  has  been  J^ept 


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in  operation,  with  some  intermissions,  for  a  long  series  of  years. 
The  pastors  that  have  succeeded  Mr.  Stanford  have  been  patrons 
or  teachers  of  a  classical  school  either  at  the  Gtove,  or  near  their 
own  residence,  and  have  kept  alive  the  spirit  of  classical  education, 
without  w&ich  there  is  no  permanent  attention  to  poUte  literature, 
and  sound  philosophy,  and  true  science.  Mr.  Stanford  wore  out 
his  strength  and  days  in  the  service  of  the  people  of  Duplin,  and 
finished  his  course  in  the  year  1828. 

For  a  few  years  the  Rev.  S.  D.  Hatch  labored  with  great  suc- 
cess in  Duplin  ;  and  left  the  county  for  a  more  southern  residence 
much  against  the  desires  of  ah  afiectionate  people. 

Rev.  Alexander  Mclver  ran  a  short  race  in  Duplin,  being 
arrested  by  sudden  death,  in  the  midst  of  his  days  and  his  use- 
^  Wilmington  had  no  organized  Presbyterian  church  till  long 
/^  after  the  Revolution,  engaging  occasionally  the  services  of  well- 
educated  men,  who  acted  in  the  capacity  of  classical  teachers  and 
\  ministers  of  the  gospel.  Rev.  James  Tate,  a  Presbyterian  minis- 
ter, came  from  Ireland  to  Wilmington,  about  the  year  1760  ;  and 
,  for  his  support  opened  a  classical  school,  the  first  ever  taught  in 
the  place.  He  educated  many  of  the  yoimg  men  of  New  Hanover, 
who  took  an  active  part  in  the  Revolution.  While  residing  in 
Wilmington,  he  was  accustomed  to  take  excursions  for  preaching 
through  New  Hanover  and  the  adjoining  counties,  particularly  up 
the  Black  and  South  Rivers.  In  the  course  of  his  visits  he  bsyp- 
tized  the  children  of  the  Scotch  and  Irish  families,  that  chose  to 
jpresent  them,  without  any  particular  inquiry  into  the  Christian 
experience  of  the  parents,  which  would  perhaps  have  been  una- 
vailing of  any  good  in  the  destitute  condition  of  the  country.  It 
is  supposed,  however,  that  he  practised  upon  the  principle  of  ad- 
mitting to  the  ordinance  the  children  of  all  those  who  had  been 
themselves  baptized,  if  not  guilty  of  scandalous  lives.  He  re- 
ceived a  small  fee  for  each  baptism,  either  in  money  or  in  cotton 
yam ;  and  this  appears  to  have  been  all  his  salary  and  all  the 
remuneration  for  his  joumeyings  and  services. 

During  the  Revolutionary  war,  being  a  staunch  whig  in  his 
principles,  he  found  it  prudent  to  leave  Wilmington  and  seek  a 
residence  in  the  upper  country.  He  declined  all  ofiers  to  be  con- 
nected with  a  congregation ;  engaged  in  frequent  preachings  in 
destitute  neighborhoods  desirous  of  hearing  the  gospel.  He  made 
his  home  in  the  Hav^rfields,  in  Orange.  Courteous  in  his  manners, 
especially  to  females,  he  was  never  married.    Particularly  neat  in 

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his  dress,  and  winning  in  his  conversation,  his  company  was  prized 
by  young  people ;  and  his  influence  oyer  them  was  highly,  Anprov- 
ing  to  their  manners,  morals,  and  mental  culture. 

About  the  ye^  1T70,  the  first  church  building  was  ^t  up  on 
Black  River,  near  where  the  Black  River  Chapel  now  stands. 

About  the  year  1785,  Rev.  William  Binghani,  from  Ireland, 
conunenced  preaehing  in  Wilmington  and  the  surrounding  country. 
He  sustained  himself  by  a  classical  school,  in  the  management  of 
which  he  attained  great  excellence  and  ^clat.  He  removed  to  the 
upper  country,  and  taught  with  great  success  in  Chatham  and  in 
Orange.     His  mantle,  as  teacher,  fell  upon  his  sons. 

About  the  year  1790,  the  Rev.  Colin  Lindsey,  a  man  of  exten- 
sive education,  fine  appearance,  and  superior  talents  as  a  speaker, 
came  over  from  Scotland  on  invitation,  and  settled  on  Black  River, 
on  the  place  now  owned  by  Mr.  Sellars.  His  stay  was  shortX 
Difficulties  of  a  moral  nature  arose ;  and  in  about  two  years  he 
removed  to  Robeson.  Having  bought  a  yoke  of  oxen  on  a  Satur- 
day, at  a  sale,  he  permitted  them  to  be  driven  home  on  the  Sab- 
bath, alleging  as  a  reason,  want  of  food  at  tlie  place  of  sale ;  a 
member  of  his  church  remonstrating,  he  expressed  strong  dissatis- 
faiction  at  the  liberty  taken  by  a  private  member  to  reprove  the 
minister.  Hard  words  and  hard  feelings  succeeded ;  the  congre- 
gation enlisted,  and  divided.  To  this  grievance  was  added  a 
charge  of  too  free  use  of  spirituous  liquors,  the  distinction  of  a 
moderate  use  being  admitted  ;  in  consequence  he  removed  first  to 
Raft  Marsh  congregation,  and  from  thence  to  Bethel.  About  the 
year  1802  he  was  deprived  by  Presbytery  of  his  authority  to 
preach,  and  was  excommunicated.  He  continued,  however,  to 
preach  and  baptize  whenever  opportunity  occurred;  and  furthej^ 
rendered  himself  obnoxious  to  the  Presbytery  of  Orange,  and  the 
Synod  of  tlie  Carolinas,  by  opposing  the  great  revival  of  1802. 
Seizing  upon  the  irregularities  that  ac^mpanied  that  extensive . 
work,  he  denounced  the  whole  as  a  delusion,  and  charged  his 
former  brethren  with  fanaticism,  aad  unkind  and  unrighteous  disci- 
pline. By  his  talents  and  address  he  obtained  many  adherents, 
and  greatly  resisted  the  spread  of  religion,  as  taught  by  zealous 
ministers  of  the  day.  A  notice  of  this  man  appears  in  the  extracts 
from  the  records  of  the  Synod  of  North  Carohna  for  the  year  1810. 
His  latter  days  were  unhappy,  and  in  1832  he  died  unreconciled 
to  the  Presbytery.  Little  is  known  of  his  religious  exercises  in 
his  last  days.  * 

His  wife  was  of  the  Hamilton  family,  so  famous  in  Scotland  and 

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Ireland.  After  the  difficulties  with  her  husband  commenced,  she 
was  urged  to  return  to  Scotland,  but  refused.  She  survived  her 
husband  some  years ;  her  last  days  were  cheered  by  the  ^Eunily 
with  wh(xn  she  resided,  by  the  name  of  McGlaughlin,  whose  par- 
tiality for  the  name  and  race  of  the  Hamiltons  was  expressed  in 
unremitting  attentions  to  her  in  her  infirmities. 

Early  in  the  year  1798,  the  Rev.  Robert  Tate,  a  licentiate  of 
Orange  Presbytery,  reared  in  the  Hawfields,  about  two  miles  east 
of  the  place  of  worship,  visited  New  Hanover  and  Duplin,  and 
became  a  resident  minister.  He  was  ordained  in  1799.  His 
preaching-places  have  been  mostly  in  New  Hanoyer.  His  first 
conftnunion  was  on  Rockfish,  near  where  the  church  now  stands. 
Four  persons  united  with  him  and  his  wife,  viz. :  Timothy  Blood- 
worth  and  his  wife,  and  Timothy  Wilson  and  his  wife.  Mr.  Blood- 
worth  was  much  in  public  life, — collector  of  the  port  of  Wilming- 
ton, and  member  of  Congress  from  that  district.  In  his  old  age, 
he  prepared  for  the  ministry,  but  some  pecuniary  misfortunes  pre- 
vented his  entrance  upon  the  duties  of  the  office. 

Under  Mr.  Tate,  Rockfish,  Keith,  and  Hopewell  sprang  up 
and  opened  the  doors  of  the  sanctuary  to  a  large  region  of  coun- 
try. The  scene  of  McAden's  labors  had  become  a  desolation ; 
but  the  church  still  hves  in  New  Hanover,  and  has  hope  of  con- 
tinuance. Black  River  congregation  was  for  a  long  time  a  sharer 
of  Mr.  Tate's  ministerial  labors.  Besides  the  refireshing  influence 
enjoyed  in  common  with  his  brethren,  in  1802,  and  for  some  suc- 
ceeding years,  and  various  more  limited  manifestations  of  divine 
presence,  the  congregations  generally  in  New  Hanover,  were  vi- 
sited, in  1632,  with  a  refreshing  influence,  which  added  many  to 
the  visible  ehurch  of  Christ,  and  promoted  piety  and  the  life  of 

The  laborers  in  that  part  of  the  Lord's  vineyard  embraced  by 
New  Hanover,  and  Diqplin,  and  Sampson,  have  great  reason  to 
be  encouraged,  while  they  labor  in  the  field  trod  by  the  first  Pres- 
byterian missionaries  to  Caroliha,  and  hallowed  by  the  sepulchres 
of  the  ancient  dead.  When  another  century  shall  have  passed, 
may  there  be  found  worthy  successors  in  the  ministry,  and  flour- 
ishing churches  in  the  vast  Turp^atine  Region;  and  may  the 
blessings  of  grace  be  as  ceaseless  to  the  inhabitants  as  the  flow 
of  their  annual  temporal  wealth. 

m'aDBN'^    places     of    preaching   while   RESIDINO   in    CASWELL 


Colonel  James  Smith,  of  Tennessee,  an  emigrant  from  North 

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HUGH   m'aDEN.  181 

Carolina,  and  son  of  Colonel  Samuel  Smith,  one  of  the  fomiders 
of  Grassy  Creek  church,  in  Granville  coimty,  in  a  letter  to  Dr. 
Alexander  Wilson,  of  Caldwell  Institute,  says,  *^  some  time  be- 
tween 1755  and  1760,  Samuel  Bell,  with  his  brothers  and  son-in- 
law,  Donnell,  removed  from  Pennsylvania,  and  settled  in  the  forks 
of  Hico.  They  were  strict  Presbyterians,  and  were  soon  sup- 
plied with  preaching  by  a  Mr.  Black,  afterwards  by  Mr.  McAden, 
from  the  lower  part  of  the  State."  It  appears  that  this  gentleman 
was  not  aware  that  McAden  had  previously  visited  Hico,  and 
found  a  few  families  of  Prei^byterians  already  there,  and  that  Mr. 
Pattillo  had  been  invited  there  in  1758.  The  emigrants  he  men- 
tions formed  the  congregation  of  Upper  Hico  (now  Greers) ;  from 
other  families  Mr.  McAden  organized  Middle  Hico  (Red  House) ; 
and  from  the  emigration  of  the  Bamet  family  and  their  friend^i  he 
gathered  Bamef  s,  or  Lower  Hico. 

Mr.  Smith  states  that  about  the  time  the  Bells  settled  in  the 
forks,  Hugh  Bamet,  his  brother,  and  their  friends,  seated  them- 
selves some  fifteen  or  twenty  miles  southeast  of  that  settlement, 
and  planted  a  church,  which  was  frequently  called  Barnet's, 
sometimes  Crisweirs,  from  their  first  minister,  James  Criswell, 
who  was  Ucensed  by  Hanover  Presbytery.  This  church  was 
sometimes  also  called  Lower  Hico,  and  though  it  has  ceased  to 
have  a  place  in  the  records  of  the  church,  it  at  one  time  contained 
more  members  than  any  of  the  sister  chur(^s  in  the  State. 

There  was  another  church  in  Caswell  of  long  standing,  called 
Bethany,  or  Rattlesnake,  situated  on  the  road  from  Milton  to 
Yanceyville,  near  the  residence  of  Mr.  George  Williamson.  It 
was  never  under  the  care  of  Mr.  McAden.  For  a  long  time  it 
was  a  flourishing  church,  and  for  a  series  of  yeais  enjoyed  the 
labors  of  Rev.  Ebenezer  B.  Currie,  now  (1846)  the  oldest  mi- 
nister in  Orange  Presbytery.  This  church  has  been  divided,  and 
the  old  place  of  preaching  abandoned ;  one  part  of  the  church 
and  congregation  worshipping  in  Yanceyville,  and  the  other  form- 
ing the  church  of  Gilead,  some  five  miles  southwest  of  Milton. 

Mr.  McAden  had  another  place  of  preaching,  and  a  church  or- 
ganized near  Pittsylvania  court-house,  in  Virginia,  on  which  he 
regularly  attended  during  his  life.  May  the  church  now  rising  in 
Pittsylvania  come  up  Uke  a  phoenix  from  the  ashes  of  the  more 
ancient  and  almost  forgotten,  though  once  flourishing,  congrega- 

The  Bell  family,  says  Mr.  Smith,  early  removed  from  this  to 
Guilford,  carrying  their  attachment  to  religion  and  to  Presby- 

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terianism  aloog  wkfa  them,  and  their  descendants  are  to  be  found 
there  to  this  day.  Two  of  the  schis  of  Samuel  Bell,  and  the 
daughter,  DonneU,  removed  to  the  west,  still  carrying  their  at^ 
tachment  to  religion  and  Presbyterianism  along  with  them.  The 
two  sons  lived  to  an  advanced  age.  One  of  them,  while  on  his 
knees  at  family  prayer,  feJtered  in  his  voice,  and  said,  *^  What 
is  this  T — and  ceased  to  breathe.  But  of  this  £unily,  says  Mr. 
Smith  (many  years  since),  sprung  four  preachers  of  strong  com- 
mon sense,  fiill  of  zeal,  and  eminent  for  piety.  By  this  &mily 
much  has  been  done  for  propagating  the  gospel  in  Tennessee, 
Kentucky,  Alabama,  Mississippi,  and  the  Cherokee  nation. 

The  Covenant  of  God  stands  sure.     "  I  will  be  a  God  to  thee 
and  thy  children  after  thee.*^ 

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The  first  Presbyterian  minister  that  took  his  residence  in  Western 
Carolina,  and  die  third  in  the  State,  was  Alexander  Craighead.  In 
what  part  of  Ireland  he  was  born,  or  in  what  year  he  emigrated  to 
America,  is  not  a  matter  of  record.  The  name  of  Craighead  is  of 
frequent  occurrence  in  the  history  of  the  Church  of  Scotland  and 
of  Ireland,  tad  holds  an  honorable  place  among  the  ministry. 
The  tradition  m  the  family  of  Mr.  Craighead,  as  related  by  Mr. 
Caruthers,  was,  that  his  father  and  grandfather,  and  perhaps  his  an- 
cestors further  back,  were  ministers  of  the  gospel,  strongly  attached 
to  the  church,  and  reputed  as  truly  pious.  'A  Mr.  Thomas  Craig- 
head was  among  the  first  ministers  of  Donegal  Presbytery, — a 
native  of  Scotland,  ordained  in  Ireland, — emigrating  to  New  Eng- 
land, and  there  remaining  from  1715  to  1721, — uniting  with  the 
Presbytery  of  New  Castle  in  1724, — ^he  finished  his  course  in  1738. 

The  first  notice  we  have  of  Mr.  Alexander  Craighead,  as  member 
of  the  Synod  of  Philadelphia,  appears  in  the  record  of  the  Synod 
for  the  year  1736,  September  16th :  "  the  Presbytery  of  Donegal 
report  that  Mr.  Alexander  Craighead  was  last  winter  ordained  to 
the  work  of  the  ministry,  and  at  that  time  did  adopt  the  Westmin- 
ster Confession  of  Faitii,  &c. ;  and  also,  both  he  and  Mr.  John 
Paul,  lately  from  Ireland,  having  now  heard  the  several  resolutions 
and  acts  of  the  Synod  in  relation  to  the  adopting  said  Confession, 
&C.,  did  before  the  Synod  declare  their  agreement  thereunto."  In 
this  minute,  reference  is  made  to  the  proceedings  of  the  Synod  the 
previous  year  respecting  the  employing  of  ministers  fi-om  abroad, 
requiring  of  them  an  express  acknowledgment  of  the  Westminster 
Confession  of  Faith  and  Catechisms,  before  the  Presbytery,  as  con- 
dition of  admission. 

Being  an  exceedingly  zealous  man,  of  an  ardent  temperament, 
devoted  to  the  work  of  the  ministry,  he  was  noted  for  preaching 
sermons  peculiarly  calculated  to  awaken  careless  sinners*  Anxious 
for  the  salvation  of  men,  and  dreading  the  awful  consequences  of 
that  stupidity  on  the  subject  of  religion,  so  apparenk  around  him, 
he  favored  those  measures  for  bringing  men  to  Christ  which  were 

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not  SO  accefflaMc  to  his  brethren  in  the  Presbytery.  He  was  ac- 
cused of  irregularities  before  his  Presbytery  in  1740.  No  immoral- 
ities were  alleged  against  him,  or  false  doctrines  charged  on  him ; 
the  complaint  was  against  various  proceedings  of  his  thought  to  be 
irregular.  This  was  about  the  time  of  the  great  revival  of  religion, 
which  in  the  course  of  a  few  years  was  felt  all  over  the  Protestant 
world,  began  to  be  ^en  in  Lancaster  county,  Pennsylvania,  and 
the  neighboring  counties — an  account  of  which  from  the  pen  of 
Samuel  Blair  is  read  with  unabating  interest ;  and  the  commence- 
ment of  those  discussions  which  led  to  the  dismemberment  of  the 
Synod  of  Philadelphia  in  1745. 

The  Presbjrtery  were  unable  to  make  any  conclusion  of  the  mat- 
ter ;  for  while  the  majority  were  against  him,  his  vehonent  appeals 
to  the  public  turned  the  sympathies  of  the  community  in  his  favor. 
The  charge  of  irregularity  he  rebutted  by  the  recriminating  charge 
of  Pharisaism,  coldness  and  formality ;  and  in  the  ardor  of  his 
defence  he  was  not  very  measured  in  his  epithets  and  comparisons. 

In  the  year  1741  the' case  was  carried  up  to  the  Synod,  and  was 
debated  with  much  earnestness.  The  great  revival  in  Mr.  Blair's 
congregation  in  Fagg's  Manor  had  spread  to  many  of  the  congre- 
gations that  had  previously  been  unmoved,  and  the  whole  commu- 
nity, bioth  religious  and  irreligious,  were  agitated,  not  so  much  on  the 
subject  of  doctrines,  as  of  measures,  not  of  orthodoxy  in  the  creed, 
but  of  prudence  and  propriety  in  the  conduct  of  diurch  matters 
generally,  and  the  peculiar  manner  of  administering  the  Word  of 
Ood,  from  which  error  in  belief  and  practice  might  arise.  The 
case  of  Mr.  Craighead  was  lost  sight  of  by  the  action  consequent 
upon  the  protest  brought  in  by  Rev.  Robert  Cross,  signed  by  him- 
self and  eleven  ministers  and  eight  elders.  The  members  of  New 
Brunswick  Presbytery  withdrew,  and  Mr.  Craighead  withifrew  with 
them.  His  name  does  not  appear  on  the  list  of  either  Synod  of 
New  York  or  Philadelphia  until  the  year  1763,  when  he  appears  upon 
the  roll  of  the  Synod  of  New  York  as  an  absentee.  From  the  records 
for  1755,  he  appeal^  as  member  of  New  Castle  Presbytery.  During 
the  interval  from  1745  to  1753,  he  was  for  a  time  an  associate  with 
the  Cameronians.  He  was  a  great  admirer  of  Whitefield's  spirit 
and  action ;  and  like  the  first  minister  among  the  Presbyterians  in 
the  lower  part  of  the  State,  James  Campbell,  drank  deeply  of  the 
same  fountain  of  truth  and  love.  Like  the  man  they  admired,  both 
these  ministers  possessed  the  power  of  moving  men ;  and  both  left 
an  impress  upon  the  community  in  which  they  lived  in  Carolina, 
and  stamped  an  image  on  the  churches  they  gathered,  which  are 

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visible  to  tbis  day.  To  all  human  appearance  there  has  been  a 
great  amount  of  fervent  piety  among  the  churches  gathered  and 
watered  by  these  men,  which  has  been  bequeathed  to  their  descend- 
ants from  generation  to  generation,  as  a  precious  inheritance  of  the 
covenant  of  faitL 

Previous  to  the  time  that  Mr.  Craighead's  name  appears  upon  the 
roll  of  the  Synod  of  New  York,  1753,  he  removed  to  Virginia,  pro- 
bably about  the  year  1749,  and  took  his  residence  in  the  county  of 
Augusta,  on  the  Cow  Pasture  river,  in  the  bounds  of  the  present 
"Windy  Cove  congregation.  There  is  upon  the  minutes  of  the  Phi- 
ladelphia Synod,  in  the  year  1752,  a  mention  of  a  Mr.  Craighead, 
the  Christian  name  not  given,  and  the  Presbytery  vnth  which  he 
held  his  connection  not  mentioned. 

Mr.  Alexander  Craighead's  name  was  enrolled  among  the  mem- 
bers set  off  for  the  formation  of  the  Presbytery  of  Hanover,  as  ap- 
pears from  the  following  extract  from  minutes  of  the  Synod  of 
New  York  for  1755 :  "  A  petition  was  brought  into  the  Synod  set- 
ting forth  the  necessity  of  erecting  a  new  Presbytery  in  Virginia, 
the  Synod  therefore  appoint  the  Rev.  Samuel  Davies,  John  Todd, 
Alex^der  Craighead,  Robert  Henry,  John  Wright,  and  John 
Brown,  to  be  a  Presbytery  under  the  name  of  the  Presbytery  of 
Hanover,  and  that  their  first  meeting  shall  be  in  Hanover,  on  the 
first  Wednesday  of  December  next,  and  that  Mr.  Davies  open  said 
meeting  by  a  sermon ;  and  that  any  of  their  members  settling  to 
the  southward  and  westward  of  Mr.  Hogge's  congregation,  shall 
have  liberty  to  join  said  Presbytery  of  Hanover." 

Owing  probably  to  the  troubles  in  the  country,  Mr.  Craighead 
did  not  meet  with  the  Presbytery  for  some  two  years  after  its  form- 

The  defeat  of  Braddock  on  the  9th  of  July,  1755,  had  thrown 
the  frontiers  of  Virginia  at  the  mercy  of  the  Indians.  The  inroads 
of  the  savages  were  frequent  and  murderous.  Terror  reigned 
throughout  the  valley.  Mr.  Craighead  occupying  a  most  exposed 
situation,  his  preaching-place  being  a  short  distance  from  the 
present  Windy  Cove  church,  and  his  dwelling  on  the  farm  now 
occupied  by  Mr.  Andrew  Settlington — in  a  settlement  on  the  Vir- 
ginia frontier,  and  open  to  the  incursions  of  the  savages,  fled  with 
those  of  his  people  who  were  disposed  and  able  to  fly,  and  sought 
safety  in  less  exposed  situations,  after  having  lived  in  Virginia 
about  six  years.  Crossing  the  Blue  Ridge,  he  passed  on  to  the  more 
quiet  regions  in  Carolina,  and  found  a  location  among  the  settle- 
ments along  the  Catawba  and  its  smaller  tributaries,  in  the  bounds 

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of  what  is  now  Mecklenburg  county.  Mr.  Craighead  first  met 
with  Hanover  Presbytery  at  Cub  Creek,  Sept.  2d,  1767.  At  a 
meeting  of  the  Presbytery  in  Cumberland,  at  Capt  Anderson's,  Jan- 
uary, 1758,  Mr.  Craighead  was  directed  to  preach  at  Rocky  River, 
on  the  second  Sabbath  of  February,  and  visit  the  other  vacancies 
till  the  spring  meeting.  At  the  meeting  of  the  Presbytery  in 
April,  a  call  from  Rocky  River  was  presented  for  the  services  of 
Mr.  Craighead.  He  accepted  the  call,  and  requested  installation. 
*^  Presbytery  hereby  consent  that  Mr.  Craighead  should  accept  the 
call  of  the  people  on  Rocky  River,  in  North  Carolina,  and  settle 
with  them  as  their  minister,  and  they  appoint  Mr.  Martin  to  preside 
at  his  installation  at  such  time  as  best  suits  them  both."  This  ap- 
pointinent  Mr.  Martin  failed  to  fulfil,  and  in  September,  Mr.  William 
Richardson,  on  his  way  to  the  Cherokees,  was  appointed  to  per- 
form the  duty.  This  appointment  was  fulfilled,  though  the  day  of 
the  services  is  not  given.  From  this  record  it  appears  that  the 
name  of  the  oldest  church  in  the  upper  country  was  Rocky  River  ; 
and  it  included  Sugar  Creek  in  its  bounds.  In  1765  the  bounds  of 
all  the  congregations  were  adjusted  by  order  of  the  Synod. 

In  this  beautiful,  fertile  and  peaceful  country,  Mr.  Craighead 
passed  the  remainder  of  his  days,  in  the  active  duties  of  a  fi*ontier 
minister  of  the  gospel,  and  ended  his  successful  labors  in  bis  Mas- 
ter's vineyard  in  the  month  of  March,  1766 ;  the  solitary  minister 
between  the  Yadkin  and  Catawba. 

In  this  retired  country,  too,  he  found  full  and  undisturbed  exer- 
cise for  that  ardent  love  of  personal  liberty  and  freedom  of  opinion 
which  had  rendered  him  obnoxious  in  Pennsylvania,  and  was  in 
some  measure  restrained  in  Virginia.  He  was  ahead  of  his  minis- 
terial brethren  in  Pennsylvania  in  his  views  of  civil  governmait 
and  religious  liberty,  and  became  particularly  offensive  to  the  (jo- 
vernor  for  a  pamphlet  of  a  political  nature,  the  authorship  of  which 
was  attributed  to  him.  This  pamphlet  attracted  so  much  attention, 
that  in  1743  Thomas  Cookson,  one  of  his  Majestjr's  justices,  for  the 
county  of  Lancaster,  in  the  name  of  the  Governor,  laid  it  before  the 
Synod  of  Philadelphia.  The  Synod  disavowed  both  the  pamphlet 
and  Mr.  Craighead ;  and  agreed  with  the  Justice  that  it  was  calcu- 
lated to  foment  disloyal  and  rebellious  practices,  and  disseminate 
principles  of  disaffection. 

In  the  State  of  Virginia  to  which  he  removed,  the  disabilities 

upon  those  who  dissented  from  the  established  government,  were 

.  ill-suited  to  the  spirit  of  such  a  man  as  Mr.  Craighead.    To  fight 

r   with  savages,  to  defend  the  firontiers,  and  shield  ttie  plantations  of 

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Eastern  Virginia ;  for  men  that  codd  not  yield  to  his  congregation 
the  privilege  of  being  married  according  to  the  ceremonies  of  the 
church  to  which  they  belonged,  and  who  required  of  them  to  sup- 
port a  ministry  on  whose  ordinances,  public  and  private,  they  would 
not  attend,  could  not  be  agreeable  to  a  spirit  that  longed  for  all  the 
freedom  that  belongs  to  man,  and  in  hta  aspirations  for  what  he  had 
not  seen,  and  scarcely  knew  how  to  comprehend,  indulged  in  lati- 
tude of  thought  and  expression  alarming  even  to  emigrants  from 
Ireland,  whose  minds  had  not  been  restrained  in  their  speculations 
about  religious  and  civil  liberty. 

In  Carolina,  he  found  a  people  remote  from  the  seat  of  authority, 
among  whom  the  intolerant  laws  were  a  dead  letter,  so  far  divided 
from  other  congregations,  even  of  his  own  faith,  that  there  could  be 
no  coUbion  with  him,  on  account  of  faith  or  practice ;  so  united  in 
their  general  principles  of  religion  and  church  government,  that  he 
was  the  teacher  of  the  whole  population,  and  here  his  spirit  rested. 
Here  he  passed  his  days;  here  he  poured  forth  his  principles  of 
religious  and  civil  government,  undisturbed  by  the  jealousy  of  the 
government,  too  distant  to  be  aware  of  his  doings,  or  too  careless  to 
be  interested  in  the  poor  and  distant  emigrants  on  the  Catawba. 

Mr.  Craighead  had  the  privilege  of  forming  the  principles,  both 
civil  and  religious,  in  no  measured  degree,  of  a  race  of  men  that 
feared  God,  and  feared  not  labor  and  hardship,  or  the  face  of  man ; 
a  race  that  sought  for  freedom  and  property  in  the  wilderness, 
and  having  found  them,  rejoiced, — a  race  capable  of  great  excel- 
lence, mental  and  physical,  whose  minds  could  conceive  the  glorious 
idea  of  Independence,  and  whose  convention  announced  it  to  the 
world,  in  May,  1775,  and  whose  hands  sustained  it  in  the  trying 
scenes  of  the  Revolution. 

About  the  time  the  emigration  from  Ireland,  through  Pennsylva- 
nia, began  to  occupy  the  beautiful  valley  of  Virginia,  and  the 
waters  of  the  Roanoke,  some  scattered  families  were  found  follow- 
ing the  Indian  traders'  path  to  the  wide  prairies  on  the  east  of  the 
Catawba,  and  west  of  the  Yadkin.  From  the  similarity  of  names, 
in  the  absence  of  other  proof,  it  is  very  probable  that  these  settle- 
ments, in  the  beautiful  Mesopotamia  of  Carolina,  were  formed  from 
emigrants  from  the  same  parts  of  Ireland  that  nurtured  the  youth  of 
the  ancestors  of  the  congregation  on  Opecquon,  in  Frederick 
county,  in  Virginia,  and  the  congregation  of  the  Tripleforks  of 
Shenandoah,  in  Augusta.  These  in  Virginia  were  commenced  about 
the  year  1737 ;  those  in  Carolina  must  have  been  soon  after.  By 
means  of  the  memoranda  preserved  by  the  Claik  family,  that  have 

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lived  more  than  a  century  along  the  Cape  Fear  river,  it  is  ascer* 
tained  that  a  family,  if  not  a  company,  of  emigrants  went  to  the 
west  of  Yadkin,  as  all  the  upper  country  was  then  called,  as  early 
as  the  year  1746,  to  join  some  families  that  were  living  sequestered 
in  that  fertile  region.  This,  the  oldest  positive  date  that  is  now 
known,  indicates  a  previous  settlement,  the  time  of  whose  arrival 
cannot  be  found  out,  as  the  records  of  courts  are  all  silent,  and  the 
offices  of  ike  foreign  landowners  were  not  then  opened  for  the  sale 
of  these  remote  fields  and  forests. 

The  emigrants  from  Ireland,  holding  the  Protestant  faith,  the  first 
to  leave  the  place  of  their  birth,  for  the  enjoyment  of  fireedom,  in 
companies  sufficient  to  form  settlements,  sought  the  wilds  of  Ame- 
rica by  two  avenues,  the  one,  by  the  Delaware  River,  whose  chief 
port  was  Philadelphia,  and  the  other,  by  a  more  southern  landing, 
the  port  of  Charleston,  South  Carolina.  Those  landing  at  the 
southern  port,  immediately  sought  the  fertile  forests  of  the  upper 
country,  approaching  North  Carolina  on  one  side,  and  Georgia  on 
the  other ;  and  not  being  very  particular  about  boundaries,  extended 
southward  at  pleasure,  while,  on  the  north,  they  were  checked  by  a 
counter  tide  of  emigration.  Those  who  landed  on  the  Delaware, 
after  the  desirable  lands  east  of  the  Alleghanies,  in  Pennsylvania, 
were  occupied,  turned  their  course  southward,  and  were  speedily  on 
the  Catawba :  passing  on,  they  met  the  southern  tide,  and  the 
stream  turned  westward,  to  the  wilderness  long  known  as  ^  Beyond 
the  Mountaifis  /'  now,  as  Tennessee.  These  two  streams,  fr(»n  the 
same  original  fountain,  Ireland,  meeting  and  intermingling  in  this 
new  soil,  preserve  the  characteristic  difference,  the  one,  possessing 
some  of  the  air  and  manner  of  Pennsylvania,  and  the  other,  of 
Charleston.  These  are  the  Puritans,  the  Roundheads  of  the  South, 
the  Blue-stockings  of  all  countries ;  men  that  settled  the  wilderness 
on  principle,  and  for  principle's  sake ;  that  built  churches  from  prin- 
ciple, and  fought  for  liberty  of  person  and  conscience  as  their 
acquisition,  and  the  birthright  of  their  children. 

Passing  along  the  upper  stage  route  firom  South  Carolina,  through 
the  "  Old  North  State,""  to  the  **  0«  Dominion;'  the  traveller  is 
conducted  through  the  pleasant  villages  of  Charlotte,  Concord, 
Salisbury,  Lexington,  Greensborough,  and  then  either  through 
Hillsborough  to  the  capital  of  North  Carolina,  Raleigh,  or  through 
Danville  or  Milton,  on  to  the  River  of  Powhatan.  This  is  the  line  of 
settlements  of  the  emigrants  from  Ireland,  as  they  sought  a  residence 
in  this  beautiful  upper  country.  After  passing  Qiarlotte,  the  first  ob- 
ject of  importance  that  meets  the  eye  of  one  searching  for  localities, 
is  the  plain  brick  meeting-house,  of  the  Sugar  Creek  congregation. 

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about  ibree  miles  north  of  the  village.  This  is  the  present  place 
of  worship  of  part  of  the  oldest  Presbyterian  congregation  in  the 
upper  country,  in  some  measure  the  Parent  of  the  Seven 
C(»(GREOATiONS  that  formed  the  Convention  in  Gkarlotte,  in  1775. 
The  Indian  name  of  the  creek,  which  gave  name  to  the  congrega- 
tion, was  pronounced  Sugaw  or  Soogawy  and  in  the  early  records 
of  the  Church,  was  written  Sugaw ;  but  for  many  years  it  has  been 
written  according  to  the  common  pronunciation,  ending  the  word 
with  the  letter  r,  instead  of  ti7.  This  brick  church  is  the  third 
hoffaee  of  worship  used  by  the  congregation ;  the  first  stood  about  half 
a  mile  west  jGrom  this,  and  the  second,  aibw  steps  south,  the  pulpit 
being  over  the  place  now  occupied  by  the  pastor's  grave. 

Previous  to  the  year  1750,  the  emigration  to  this  beautiful  but 
distant  frontier  was  slow,  and  the  solitary  cabins  were  found  upon 
the  borders  of  pndries,  and  in  the  vicinity  of  canebrakes,  the 
immense  ranges  abounding  with  wild  game,  and  affording  suste- 
nance the  whole  year,  for  herds  of  tame  cattle.  Extensive  tracts 
of  country  between  the  Yadkin  and  the  Catawba,  now  waving  with 
thrifty  forests,  then  were  covered  with  tall  grass,  with  scarce  a 
bush  or  shrub,  looking  at  first  view  as  if  immense  grazing  farms 
had  been  at  once  abandoned,  the  houses  disappearing,  and  the 
abundant  grass  luxuriating  in  its  native  wildness  and  beauty,  the 
wild  herds  wandering  at  pleasure,  and  nature  rqoicing  in  undis- 
turbed quietness. 

From  about  the  year  1760,  family  after  family,  group  after  group, 
succeeded  in  rapid  progression,  led  on  by  reports  sent  back  by  the 
adventurous  pioneers  of  the  fertility  and  beauty  of  those  solitudes, 
where  conscience  was  free,  and  labor  all  voluntary.  By  the  time 
that  Mr.  McAden  visited  the  settlements  in  1755  and  1756,  they 
were  in  sufficient  numba^  to  form  a  congregation  in  the  centre 
spot  Many  of  the  early  settlers  were  truly  pious,  many  others  had 
been  accustomed  to  attend  upon  and  support  the  ordinances  of  God's 
house.  Intermingled  were  some  that  delighted,  in  these  solitudes,  to 
throw  off  all  restraint,  and  live  in  open  disregard  of  the  ordinances 
of  God,  and  as  far  as  was  safe,  in  defiance  of  the  laws  of  man. 
The  pious  and  the  moral  united  in  the  worship  of  Grod,  and  formed 
the  congregation  of  Sugaw  Creek,  which  knew  no  other  bounds  than 
the  distance  men  and  women  could  walk  or  ride  to  church,  which 
was  often  as  much  as  fifteen  miles,  as  a  regular  thing,  and  twenty 
for  an  occasional  meeting. 

At  the  time  of  the  settlement  of  Mr.  Craighead,  the  county  of 
Anson  extended  from  Bladen  indefinitely  west,  having  been  set  off 

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in  1749,  as  a  separate  county.  In  the  year  1762,  the  county  of 
Mecklenburg  was  set  off  from  Anson,  and  took  its  name  in  honor 
of  the  reigning  house  of  Hanover ;  and  the  county  seat,  in  the 
bounds  of  Sugaw  Creek  congregation,  and  about  three  miles  from 
the  church,  was  called  Charlotte,  in  honor  of  the  Princess  Charlotte 
of  Mecklenburg. 

About  the  year  1765,  by  order  of  the  Synod  of  New  York  and 
Philadelphia,  the  congregations  that  surround  Sugar  Creek  were 
organized  by  the  Rev.  Messrs.  Spencer  and  M'Whorter,  as  appears 
from  the  Records  of  Synod  as  follows : — ^viz.,  Elizabethtown,  Mspf 
23d,  1764, — ^^  Synod  more  particularly  considering  the  state  of 
many  congregations  to  the  southward,  and  particularly  North  Caro- 
lina, and  the  great  importance  of  having  those  congregations  pro- 
perly organized,  appoint  the  Rev.  Messrs.  Elihu  Spencer  and 
Alexander  M'Whorter,  to  go  as  our  missionaries  for  that  purpose  ; 
that  they  form  societies,  help  them  in  adjusting  their  bounds,  to 
ordain  elders,  administer  sealing  ordinances,  instruct  the  people  in 
discipline,  and  finally  direct  them  in  their  after  conduct,"  &c.  On 
the  16th  of  May,  1765,  this  committee  reported  to  the  Synod  that 
they  had  performed  their  mission;  this  report,  however,  has  not 
been  preserved.  But  we  are  not  left  at  a  loss  for  the  names  of  part 
of  the  congregations  whose  bounds  they  adjusted,  as,  in  that  and  the 
succeeding  year,  calls  were  sent  in  for  pastors  from  Steel  Creek, 
Providence,  Hopewell,  Centre,  Rocky  River,  and  Poplar  Tent,  which 
entirely  surrounded  Sugar  Creek,  besides  those  in  Rowan  and  Ire- 

These  seven  congregations  were  in  Mecklenburg,  except  a  part 
of  Centre  which  lay  in  Rowan  (now  Iredell), — and  in  their  exten- 
sive bounds  comprehended  almost  the  entire  county.  From  these 
came  the  delegates  that  formed  the  celebrated  convention  in  Char- 

A  visit  to  the  localities  of  this  congregation  will  reward  the  tra- 

Turning  westward  from  this  brick  church,  about  half  a  mile 
through  the  woods,  you  find  on  a  gentle  ascent,  the  first  burying 
ground  of  this  congregation,  and  probably  the  oldest  in  Mecklen- 
burg county.  A  few  rods  to  the  east  of  the  stone  waif  that  surrounds 
it,  stood  a  log  church  where  Craighead  preached,  and  where  were 
congregated  from  Sabbath  to  Sabbath  many  choice  spirits,  that 
having  worshipped  the  God  of  their  fatherSi  in  this  wilderness,  far 
from  their  native  land,  now  sleep  in  this  yard.  The  house,  to  its 
very  foundation,  has  passed  away,  and  with  it  the  generation  that 

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CHtJRCH   OF    SUGAR   CAEEK.  191 

gathered  in  it,  upon  the  first  settlement  of  the  land  Their  deeds 
remain.  The  children  of  that  race  are  passing  away  too ;  scarce  a 
man  or  woman  lingers  in  the  flesh ;  and  with  them  is  passing,  fast 
passing  to  oblivion,  the  knowledge  of  things,  and  men,  and  deeds, 
which  posterity  will  fain  dig  from  the  rubbish  of  antiquity,  and 
shall  dig  for  in  vain.  The  generation  has  passed,  without  a  history, 
and  almost  without  an  epitaph. 

These  little  breaches  you  see  in  the  time  defyisig  wall,  feared  by 
the  emigrants  around  the  burial  place  of  their  dead,  were  made  by 
gold  diggers,  when  the  excitement  first  spread  over  the  land  upon 
the  discovery,  that  these  adventurous  people  had  lived,  and  died, 
and  were  buried  here,  ignorant  that  there  was,  or  could  be,  in  their 
place  of  worship  and  sepulture,  any  deposit  more  dear  to  posterity 
than  the  ashes  of  their  ancestors.  Entering  by  the  gateway  at  the 
north-western  comer  through  which  the  emigrants  carried  their 
dead,  a  multitude  of  graves  closely  congregated,  with  a  few  scattered 
monuments,  meet  the  eye.  You  cannot  avoid  the  impression,  as  you 
move  on,  that  you  are  walking  upon  the  ashes  of  the  dead ;  and  as 
you  read  some  of  the  scanty  memorials,  reared  by  affection  to  mark 
the  burial-places  of  firiends,  that  you  are  among  the  tombs  of  the 
first  settlers  who  lie  in  crowds  beneath  your  feet,  without  a  stone  to 
tell  whose  body  is  resting  there  in  expectation  of  the  resurrection. 

The  first  head-stone,  a  little  distance  from  the  gate,  on  the  right, 
is  inscribed, — ^^  Mrs.  Jeboma  Alexander  Sharpe  ;  bom  Jan,  9thy 
1727;  died  Sept.  Ist^  1797 ;  a  widdow  38  years.'^  An  elder  sister 
of  the  secretary  of  the  convention,  one  of  the  earliest  emigrants  to 
this  country,  she  used  to  say,  that  in  the  early  days  of  her  residence 
here,  her  nearest  neighbor  northward  was  eight  miles,  and  south- 
ward and  eastward,  fifteen ;  that  the  awming  of  a  neighbor  was  a 
matter  of  rejoicing ;  and  that  her  heart  was  sustained  in  her  solitude 
by  the  Doctrines  of  the  Grospel  and  the  Creed  of  her  Church. 

In  the  southwest  corner  is  an  inscription  to — Jane  Wallis,  who 
died  July  31st,  1792,  in  the  eightifeth  year  of  her  age, — the  honored 
mother  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Wallis,  minister  of  Providence,  some  fifteen 
miles  south  of  this  place, — ^the  able  defender  of  Christianity  against 
infidelity  spreading  over  the  country  at  the  close  of  the  Revolution, 
like  a  flood.     His  grave  is  with  his  people. 

Near  the  middle  of  the  yard  is  the  stone  inscribed  to  the  memory 
of  David  Robinson,  who  died  October  12th,  1808,  aged  eighty-two, 
— an  emigrant,  and  the  ftt&er  of  the  late  Dr.  Robinson,  who  served 
the  congregation  of  Poplar  Tent  about  f(wty  years,  and  ended  his 
course  in  December,  1843.    It  was  at  a  spring  on  this  man's  land, 

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and  near  his  house,  Aat  the  congregation  of  Sugar  'Credc  and 
Hopewell  used  to  meet  and  spend  days  of  fasting  and  prayor  to- 
gether,  during  the  troublesome  times  of  the  early  stages  of  the 
French  Revolution.  From-  the  peculiar  formation  of  the  ravine 
around  the  spring,  the  pious  people  were  willing  to  believe  that  it 
was  a  place  designed  of  God  for  his  people  to  meet  and  sedc  hi^ 

The  oldest  monument,  but  not  the  monument  of  the  oldest  grave, 
is  a  small  stone  thus  inscribed. 

Here  Lys  the 

Body  of  Robert 

McKsc,  who  deceased 

October  the  19th,  1775, 

Aged  73  years. 

Around  lie  many  that  were  distinguished  in  the  Revolution,  without 
a  stone  to  their  graves,  and  not  one  with  an  epits^h  that  should 
tell  the  fact  of  ti^at  honorable  distinction.  Perhaps  the  omission 
may  haye  arisen  from  the  circumstance  honorable  to  the  country, 
that,  with  few  exceptions,  the  whole  neighborhood  were  noted  for 
privations  and  suffering,  and  brave  exploits  in  i  cause  sacred  in 
their  eyes. 

The  most  interesting  grave  is  at  the  southeast  comer,  without 
an  inscription  or  even  a  stone  or  mound  to  signify  that  the  bones 
of  any  mortal  are  there.  It  is  the  grave  of  the  Reverend  Alex- 
jlSuer  Craighead,  the  first  minister  of  the  congregation,  and  of  the 
six  succeeding  ones  whose  members  composed  the  entire  conven- 
tion in  Charlotte,  in  May,  1775.  Tradition  says  that  these  two 
sassafras  trees,  standing,  the  one  at  the  head,  and  the  other  at  the 
foot  of  the  grave,  sprung  from  the  two  sticks  on  which,  as  a  bier, 
the  coffin  of  this  memorable  man  was  borne  to  the  grave  in  March, 
1766.  Being  thrust  into  the  ground  to  mark  the  spot  temporarily, 
the  green  sticks,  fresh  from  the  mother  stock,  took  root  and  grew. 
Was  it  an  emblem  1  Were  we  as  superstitious  as  the  people  of 
Europe  a  hundred  years  ago,  we  might  read  in  this  and  the  sur- 
rounding congregations,  the  fulfilment  of  this  mute  prophecy. 
The  aspirations  for  liberty,  which  were  too  warm  for  the  province 
of  Pennsylvania  or  even  Virginia,  were  congenial  to  the  spirits 
here.  When  the  hearts  around  him  beat  with  his,  Craighead 
ceased  to  be  ^*  tinged  with  an  uncharitable  and  party  spirit''  charged 
on  him  in  Pennsylvania ;  and  the  community  which  assumed  its 
ibrm  under  his  guiding  hand,  had  the  image  of  democratic  republi- 
can liberty  iiore  fair  than  any  sister  settlement  in  all  the  south, 

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CHURCH    OF   8UOAR   CRBBK.  '  193 

perhaps  in  all  the  United  States.  And  hh  religious  creed  as  to 
doctrines,  and  also  as  to  experience,  has  been  the  oreed  of  the 
Presbyterians  of  Meddenburg.  Soundness  of  doctrine,  according  to 
Ae  Confession  of  Faith,  has  been  maintauied  by  his  congregation  at 
all  hazards — and  a  standard  of  warm-hearted  piety  and  ardent  de- 
votion has  been  handed  down  as  a  legacy  from  their  fathesl  to  suc- 
ceeding generations  to  which  the  churdi  has  always  looked  with 
kindling  desire.  Mr.  Caruthers  tells  us,  Mr.  Omghead  was  sub- 
ject, in  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  to  dejection  of  i^its.  This  of 
course  lessened  his  capability  to  labor ;  and  may  account  for  the 
application  from  Rocky  River  for  supplies  in  1761,  as  he  was  the 
only  minister  in  the  country. 

Besides  this  double  influence  of  the  man,  living  and  speaking 
after  him,  much  of  his  spirit  has  been  inherited  by  his  descendants, 
and  with  it  the  affections  of  the  people.  He  left  two  sons,  and 
several  daughters.  One  son,  Thomas,  licensed  in  1778,  supplied 
the  congregation  of  his  father  for  some  time  ;  but  declining  a  set- 
tlement in  North  Carolina,  he  ultimately  r^noved  to  Tennessee ; — 
an  eloquent  preacher  and  warm-hearted  man.  He  died  a  few 
years  since  near  Kashville ;  the  latter  part  of  his  life  rendered  less 
us^iil  by  his  difference  with  his  brethren  on  the  subject  of  the 
agency  of  the  Word  in  the  conversion  of  men.  His  thiid  daughter, 
SLachel,  was  married  to  the  Reverend  David  Caldwell  of  Guilford, 
whose  life  has  been  given  lo  the  public  by  his  successor,  the  Reve- 
rend Eli  W.  Caruthers,  and  became  the  mother  of  Samuel  C.  Cald- 
well, whose  whole  ministerial  life,  with  small  exception,  was  devot- 
ed to  this,  his  grandfather's  charge.  His  memorial,  testifying  to 
his  service  for  thirty-five  years,  is  near  the  new  brick  meeting-house. 

After  the  removal  of  Dr.  Morrison  to  Davidson  College,  a  great 
grandson  of  Craighead  succeeded  to  his  pulpit,  John  Madison  Mc- 
Knitt  Caldwell,  the  son  of  S.  C.  Caldwell,  and  served  them  till  the 
year  1845. 

^'  Let  me  die  the  death  of  the  righteous,  and  let  my  last  end  be  like 
his.  Blessed  are  the  dead  who  die  in  the  Lord,  from  henceforth, 
yea,  saith  the  spirit,  that  they  may  rest  from  their  labors,  and  thdr 
works  do  follow  them." 

The  immediate  successor  of  Mr.  Craighead  was  Joseph  Alexai^- 
der,  a  connexion  of  the  McKnitt  branch  qf  Alexander^  a  man  of 
education  and  talents,  of  small  stature,  and  exceedingly  animated  in 
his  pulpit  exercises.  Licensed  by  New  Castle  Presbytery  in  1767, 
in  October  of  that  year  he  presented  his  credentials  to  Handvet 
Presbyt^  at  the  Bird  church,  in  Gh>ochland,  and  accepteci  a  call  from 


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Sugar  Creek.  His  ordination  took  place  with  that  of  Mr.  David 
Caldwell  on  March  4th,  1768,  at  Buffalo.  He  read  his  lecture  on 
John,  3d  Chapter,  3d  to  5th  verse,  on  the  third  of  March,  and  also 
his  trial  sermon  on  the  word»*— *^  There  is  one  mediator  between  Gh)d 
and  man,  the  man  Christ  Jesus."  Mr.  Pattello  presided  at  the  in- 
stallation. On  'the  third  Friday  in  May,  Mr.  Caldwell  performed 
the  services  of  his  installation  as  pastor  of  Sugar  Creek. 

A  fine  scholar,  he,  in  connection  with  Mr.  Benedict,  taught  a  clas- 
sical school  of  high  excellence  and  usefulness.  From  Sugar  Creek 
he  removed  to  Bullock's  Creek,  South  Carolina,  and  was  long 
known  in  the  church  as  a  minister  and  teacher  of  youth  for  profes- 
sional life.  A  volume  of  his  sermons  was  given  to  the  public  after 
his  death. 

While  the  Presbyterians  were  laboring  in  vain  to  get  a  charter 
for  a  college,  in  Qiarlotte,  confirmed  by  the  king,  the  notorious 
Fanning  offered  to  get  a  university  of  which  he  himself  should  be 
chancellor,  and  Mr.  Joseph  Alexander,  who  was  noted  as  a  teacher, 
should  be  first  professor.  But  much  as  the  people'  desired  a  col- 
lege -and  loved  Alexander,  they  could  not  take  one  with  sudi  a 

Resuming  to  the  Brick  church,  we  enter  the  grave-yard  by  the 
roadside  on  the  south.  The  first  white  stone  that  meets  the  eye, 
marks  the  grave  of  S.  C.  Caldwell,  directly  beneath  the  communion 
table  of  the  log  church  he  long  occupied  as  minister,  the  spot  where 
he  stood  when  he  took  his  ordination  vows,  and  where  he  chose  to 
be  buried  when  he  should  have  finished  his  course.  Around  the 
preacher  sleeps  the  congregation  who  worshipped  in  the  house 
that  stood  here  during  the  Revolution.  The  pastor  and  people  and 
building  are  passed  away.  The  children  that  assembled  here,  in 
Revolutionary  times,  have  grown  old,  and  scarcely  here  and  there 
one  remains  to  tell  the  history  of  the  exploits  and  sufferings  of  the 
war,  and  the  traditions  of  the  settlement  The  man  that  sleeps  in 
that  grave  led  the  flock  of  his  grandfather  through  the  troublesome 
times  that  succeeded  the  Revolution,  when  the  infidelity  of  France 
rolled  its  burning  waves  with  fury  across  the  whole  continent 

Samuel  C.  Caldwell,  the  son  of  David  Caldwell  of  Guilford,  and 
grandson  of  Alexander  Craighead,  was  licensed  to  preach  the  gos- 
pel, when  but  nineteen  years  of  age,  by  the  -Presbytery  of  Orange. 
Dr.  Hall,  of  Iredell,  used  his  influence,  and  none  knew  how  to  exer- 
cise it  better  with  young  men,  in  persuading  him  to  accept  the  call 
made  by  his  grandfather's  congregation ;  and  preached  Uie  ordina- 
tion sermon  on  February  21st,  1792,  at  which  time  Mr.  Caldwell 

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CHURCH   OP   8UQAR   CREBK.  195 


became  Pastor  of  Sugar  Creek  and  Hopewell  churches.  The  five 
years  that  elapsect  between  his  licensure  and  ordination  had  much 
of  it  been  spent  in  these  congregations ;  and  the  success  attending 
his  ministry  led  the  people  earnestly  to  desire  his  settlement  Dr. 
Hall,  in  a  note  to  the  sermon  delivered  on  the  occasion  of  his  ordi* 
nation,  says, — ^*  Under  Mr.  Caldwell's  first  ministration?  in  those 
congregations,  it  pleased  Grod  to  send  a  reviving  time,  in  conse- 
quence of  which,  there  were  upwards  of  seventy  young  communi- 
cants admitted  to  the  Lord's  table  in  one  day." 

He  resided  fcr  a  time  with  David  Robinson  by  the  famous  Spring ; 
and  John  Robinson,  the  son,  afterwards  pastor  of  Poplar  Tent,  pur- 
sued his  studies  for  the  ministry  in  the  same  room  with  him. 

Being  united  in  marriage  with  Abigail  Bane,  the  daughter  of 
John  M'Knitt  Alexander,  he  took  his  residence  in  Hopewell.  After 
her  death,  which  occurred  in  1802,  leaving  him  with  two  motherless 
children,  circumstances  occurred  which  led  to  his  giving  up  the 
chaise  of  Hopewell  in  1805,  and  he  removed  to  Sugar  Creek,  giving 
three^fourths  of  his  time  to  Sugar  Creek ;  the  other  fourth  of  his 
labors  he  expended  at  Charlottetown  for  a  time ;  then  at  Paw  Creek 
till  a  church  was  organized,  which  he  relinquished  to  Mr.  William- 
son ;  and  then  at  Mallard  Creek  till  a  church  was  organized  there. 
In  1805  he  opened  a  classical  school,  which  he  carried  on  for  years 
with  the  approbation  of  Presbytery,  as  expressed  on  their  minutes. 

His  second  wife  was  a  daughter  of  Robert  Lindsay,  of  Guilford, 
who  bore  him  nine  children. 

Of  great  self-command,  clear  in  his  conception  of  truth,  and  plain 
in  his  enunciation  both  in  style  and  manner,  amiable  in  his  dispo- 
sition and  manners,  kind  from  his  natural  feelings,  and  firom  the 
benevolence  of  the  gospel  he  loved  and  preached,  a  lover  of  the 
truth,  he  passed  his  whole  ministerial  life,  after  his  ordination,  in 
connection  with  the  prominent  congregation  that  had  called  him  to 
be  pastor.  His  modesty  and  mildness  might  have  led  an  inexperi- 
enced or  hasty  enemy  to  suppose  that  he  might  be  easily  turned 
from  his  purpose,  or  driven  to  silence  by  vehement,  clamorous  oppo- 
nents. But  the  manner  in  which  he  met  opposition,  so  kind  and 
yet  so  entirely  unflinching,  so  willing  to  do  justice  to  his  opponents, 
and  so  devoted  to  the  cause  of  truth  and  righteousness,  made  all 
friends  feel  that  any  cause  was  safe  in  his  handsj  and  his 
enemies,  that  it  was  easier  to  attack  him  than  to  drive  him  from  his 
position,  or  come  off  honorably  from  the  contest. 

In  the  infidel  controversy  which  came  upon  him  soon  after  his 
settlement,  men  learned  to  love  him,  even  if  unconvinced  by  his  ar- 

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gmnenfti.  And  idien  he  was  hanUychaiged,  because  he  would  not 
yield  his  own  pulpit  and  his  l<nig  accostomed  hov  of  preaching  to 
his  people,  for  the  purpose  of  pennitting  efforts  to  be  made  to  diyide 
his  congregation,  the  perfect  coolness  and  unwavering  resdntion 
with  which  he  met  the  assault,  tempered  the  stonn  to  a  hannksB 
breeze.  He  had  enough  of  the  cool  and  calm  resolution  of  his 
fiither,  David  Caldwell,  of  Guilford,  the  sixth  miiMster  in  Carolina, 
to  make  him  immoveable,  when  he  felt  ocmvinced ;  and  enough  of 
the  warm  heart  and  ardent  piety  of  hi3  mother,  the  danghtor  of 
Craighead,  to  make  him  both  lovely  and  beloved     « 

Hall  of  IredeU  came  down  like  a  torrent,  a  storm,  a  tempest; 
his  friend  Wilson,  of  Rocky  River,  poured  out  his  common  sense 
viewsof  gospel  truth  like  a  steady  day's  rain;  his  neighbor  and  inti- 
mate Robinson,  of  Poplar  Tent,  was  like  a  summer  day  with  a  stonn 
of  lightning  and  thunder  rending  the  oaks;  Wallis,  of  Proyidence, 
like  a  hot  sun  that  melted  by  its  direct  rays ;  ^^diile  Caldwell,  of 
Sugar  Creek,  was  like  the  sunshine  and  showers  of  ApriL  His 
people  loved  him;  and  felt  they  could  do  nothing  dse.  The 
memory  of  the  righteous  is  blessed. 

His  epitaph  was  drawn  up  by  his  friend  Wilson,  of  Rocky  River. 


to  the  memory  of  the  late 

RxT.  Samuel  C.  Caldwell, 

who  deputed  this  life 

Oct  3d,  1826. 

in  the  59th  year  of  his  age, 

and  the  35th  of  his  pastoral 

office  of  Sugar  Creek  Congregation. 

His  long  and  harmonious  continuance 

in  that  relation 

is  his  beet  Eulogium. 

The  Rev.  Hall  Morris(m,  his  successor,  became  the  pastor  of  flie 
church  in  1827,  and  continued  for  ten  years,  preaching  a  fourth  part 
of  his  time  in  Cbarlotte-town.  In  1837,  he  was  removed  to  &e 
Presidential  chair  of  Davidson  College. 

His  successor  was  John  M.  M.  Caldwell,  the  son  of  S.  C.  CaldweU 
and  Abigail  Bane  Alexander,  who  resigned  his  office  in  1845,  and 
removed  to  Georgia.  A  younger  son  is  a  minister  of  the  gospel  in 
South  Carolina.  Who  dball  say  that  ihe  covenant  of  God  is  not  vi- 
sited from  the  fathers  to  ihe  children,  in  &e  infinite  mercy  of  God  ? 

Step  a  little  further  into  the  middle  of  the  yard,  under  the  shade 
of  these  old  oaks,  and  you  may  read  on  an  humble  stone,  the  name 
of  one  that  will  never  be  forgotten  in  Carolina,  the  Chairman  of 

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CHUECH   or    SUGAR   CRBIK.  197 

the  Conyention  of  1776,  and  of  the  Committee  of  Public  Safety 
that  succeeded,  and  an  elder  of  the  church. 

Abraham  Ax*cxAin>E&» 

died  April  23d,  1786, 

Aged  68  yetra. 

''Let  me  die  the  death  of  the 

Righteoof ,  and  let  my  Itit 

end  be  like  hif  .** 

That  he  was  a  leading  magistrate  of  the  county,  will  be  seen,  by 
inspecting  the  records  of  the  court  of  Mecklenburg,  now  in  the 
clerk's  office  in  Charlotte,  &e  county  seat. 

As  you  look  round  upon  &e  numerous  headstones,  you  perceive 
Hat  the  Alexander  family  must  have  been  very  numerous  in  the 
time  of  the  Revolution,  and  ^ce,  in  Mecklenburg.  Of  the  same 
ooginal  stock,  they  were  of  different  degrees  of  consanguinity. 
The  tradition  of  their  emigration  from  Ireland  to  America  is  sin- 
gular. Among  &e  emigrations  fit)m  Scotland  to  Ireland,  and  from 
Ireland  to  Scotland,  during  &e  period  intervening  1610  and  1688, 
to  whidi  the  Presbyterians  were  driven  as  the  means  of  escape 
from  persecution  for  conscience  sake,  there  was  one  to  Ireland,  in 
which  seven  brothers  of  the  name  of  Alexander  formed  part  Un- 
aUe  to  endure  the  harassing  interference  which  became  more  and 
more  grievous  the  few  years  preceding^  the  Revolution  in  1688, 
many  of  the  ministers  being  put  in  prison  for  holding  a  fast,  and 
the  private  members  of  the  church  differing  oppressions  equaUy 
intolerable,  they  turned  their  eyes  to  America.  A  plan  was 
formed  for  their  transportation  to  the  New  World.  On  the  eve 
of  their  departure,  they  sent  to  Scotland  for  their  old  preacher,  to 
baptize  their  children,  and  administer  the  consolations  of  the  gospeL 
The  minister,  a  faithM  and  fearless  man,  came ;  the  families  and 
their  effects  were  embarked,  the  ordinances  of  the  gospel  were  ad- 
ministered in  quietness,  on  board  the  vessel,  and  with  a  solemnity 
becoming  the  occasion.  An  armed  company,  that  had  been  prowling 
about,  came  on  board,  broke  up  the  company,  and  lodged  the  minis- 
ter in  gaol.  Towards  night,  the  old  matron,  who  had  been  piously 
covenanting  for  her  grand-children,  addressed  the  alarmed  com- 
pany, ^'  Moi,  gang  ye  awa',  tak  our  minister  out  o'  the  jail,  and 
tak  him,  good  soule,  with  us  to  Ameriky."  Her  voice  had  never 
been  disobeyed.  Before  morning,  the  minister  was  on  board,  and 
the  vessel  out  of  the  harbor.  Having  no  family,  the  minister 
cheerfully  proceeded  on  the  voyage,  and  with  many  prayers  and 

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thanksgivings,  they  were  landed  on  the  island  of  Manhattan,  '^^lere 
the  city  of  New  York  now  stands.  Part  of  the  company  remained 
on  Manhattan,  and  one  of  their  descendants,  William  Alexand^, 
was  known  in  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  a  Major-General  in  Ae 
American  service,  and  commonly  called  Lord  Sterling,  having  suc- 
ceeded to  an  estate  and  the  title.  The  others  took  up  their  abode 
for  a  time  in  Jersey,  and  then  removed  to  Pennsylvania.  There  they 
intermarried,  and  mingled  with  their  countrymen,  and  their  de- 
scendants, in  great  numbers,  emigrated  to  the  Catawba. 

Families  by  the  name  of  Alexander  were  the  most  numerous  in 
Mecklenbvrg  at  the  time  of  the  Revolution ;  next  to  them  was  the 
Harris  connexion ;  these  two,  with  their  kindred,  embraced  at  that 
time  about  one-third  of  the  county. 

The  log  meeting-house  that  stood  here,  whose  foundations  you 
may  in  part  see,  the  second  occupied  by  the  congregation  that  now 
worship  in  that  brick  house,  was  the  place  of  worship  while  lite. 
Jackson,  and  her  son,  Andrew,  made  Sugar  Creek  their  refuge. 
The  widow,  an  emigrant  from  Ireland,  had  buried  her  husband  on 
the  Waxhaw,  then  claimed  by  North  Carolina,  but  now  within  the 
settled  bounds  of  South  Carolina,  and,  compelled  by  the  sufierings  of 
war,  had  fled  for  refuge  to  Mecklenburg. 

After  Ae  fall  of  Charleston,  the  British  army  spread  out  over 
the  country.  Col.  Buford,  from  Bedford,  Virginia,  moving  along 
the  Waxhaw,  as  he  suppoied,  out  of  danger,  was  suddenly  set  upon 
by  Tarleton,  who  had  been  upon  his  trail.  The  soldiers  were  pre- 
paring their  breakfast,  and  as  the  British  came  in  sight,  there  was 
much  discussion  whether  they  should  fight  a  superior  force,  or 
abandon  the  field  to  the  enemy.  It  was  finally  resolved  to  fight  it 
out  to  the  last,  by  the  determined  course  of  Capt  Wallace,  from 
Rockbridge,  Virginia.  Twleton,  in  his  account  of  Ae  battle,  says, 
that  he  sent  a  flag,  and  proposed  a  surrender ;  that,  finally,  the  ne- 
gotiation was  broken  ofi*  by  the  two  following  communications : 

1st  From  Tarleton  to  Buford.    May  29th,  1780. 

{After  making  preparations  for  Buford^s  surrmder  in  five 
articles^  whichy  he  said,  could  not  be  repeated.)  "  If  you  are  rash 
^ough  to  reject  them,  the  blood  be  upon  your  head.'* 

2d.  The  laconic  reply  of  Buford.    Waxhaw,  May  29th,  1780. 

"  Sir, — ^I  reject  your  proposals,  and  shall  dciend  myself  to  the 
last  extremity. 

"  I  have  the  honor  to  be, 

"  Alex.  Buford,  Col." 

The  event  of  the  battle  is  well  known.    Before  night,  the  Wax- 
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CHUECH   or   SUGAR   CREEK.  199 

haw  meeting-house  was  a  hospital,  and  Buford's  regiment  killed, 
wounded,  or  dispersed.  The  females  and  children  fled  to  escape 
the  ravaging  track  of  the  relentless  enemy.  Mrs.  Jackson  took  up 
her  abode  with  her  two  chiMren,  in  Sugar  Credc  congregation, 
with  widow  Wilson,  and  remained  a  part  of  the  summer. 

This  brave  woman,  and  two  of  her  sons,  perished  in  the  war,  and 
left  her  youngest  son  a  solitary  member  of  the  family.  Her  death 
was  occasioned  by  a  fever,  brought  on  by  a  visit  to  Charleston,  to 
carry  necessaries  to  some  friends  and  relations  on  board  the  prison- 
E^p,  i^ose  deplorable  sufferings,  she,  with  four  or  five  other  ladies, 
was  permitted  to  reUeve.  On  her  way  home,  she  was  seized  with 
the  prison  fever,  and  soon  ended  her  days.  Somewhere  between 
what  was  then  called  "  Quarter-house"  and  Ae  city  of  Charleston 
is  her  unknown  grave. 

Men  have  often  wondered  how  her  son  Andrew,  in  his  most 
Jkpughtless  days,  always  treated  a  faithful  minister  of  the  gospel  so 
respectfully ;  and  why,  after  encouraging  his  wife  in  a  religious  life, 
he  himself  should,  in  his  age,  become  a  member  of  the  Presbyterian 
church.  The  cause  is  found  laid  deep  in  his  childhood.  His  mother 
was  a  member  of  the  Waxhaw  congregation,  and  he  had  seen  and 
felt  the  influence  of  faithful  ministers  when  a  child. 

Turning  towards  the  middle  of  the  yard,  you  may  read  the  simple 
memorial  of  Mrs.  Flinn,  the  widowed  mother  of  the  Rev.  Andrew 
Flinn,  D.D.,  who  held  an  eminent  place  among  the  clergy  of  North 
and  South  Carolina,  whose  childhood  wad  passed  in^ugar  Creek. 

Along  this  great  road  that  passes  this  yard  and  house,  the  British 
forces  pursued  the  armed  band  that  had  been  collected  for  the  tem- 
porary defence  of  Charlotte ;  and  a  little  beyond  that  hill,  fell 
Major  Locke,  and  a  little  further  on,  Graham  was  wounded.  Near 
by,  lives  Aunt  Susy,  who,  with  her  mother,  watched  and  trembled 
over  him  the  night  he  lay  exhausted  afler  that  sad  day's  encounter, 
when,  as  the  British  historian  says,  ^^  that  company  of  horsemen  be- 
hind the  Court-house,  kept  in  check  the  whole  British  army." 

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Ten  miles  west  from  Davidson  College,  and  two  east  from  the 
Catawba  BJMrer,  in  Mecklenburg  county,  stands  Hopewell  church. 
Entering  near  the  northwest  comer,  on  the  north  side  of  the  bury- 
ing ground  which  Ues  a  little  south  of  the  church,  and  going 
diagonally  to  the  middle  of  the  yard,  you  will  find  a  low  grave- 
stone, on  the  top  of  which  are  sculptured  two  dravni  swords,  and 
beneath  them  the  motto,  Arma  LibertcUis.    The  inscription  is — 





A  frieDd  of  h»  country, 

and  privately  slain 

by  the  enemies  of  his 

country,  Nov.  14th, 

1780,  aged  37  years^ 

Tradition  says*  that  this  man  was  the  largest  and  stoutest  man  in 
the  country — Abated  by  the  few  tones — and  much  desired  as  a 
prisoner  by  the  British  officers,  for  the  activity  and  energy  with 
which  he  harassed  their  scouts  and  foraging  parties,  and  the  fatal 
aim  of  hii  gun  in  taking  off  their  sentries,  particularly  while  the 
army  lay  at  Charlotte. 

On  the  day  of  his  death,  seeing  four  tories  lurking  near  his 
house,  he  took  his  gun  and  went  to  capture  them,  or  drive  them 
from  his  neighborhood.  A  scuffle  ensued,  in  which  one  of  the 
tories  succeeded  in  vnresting  his  gun  from  his  hand*  and  with  it 
gave  him  a  fatal  wound.  ^ 

Near  by  this  stqpe  yoo  may  observe  a  brick  wall  about  six  feet 
long,  and  two  feet  high,  without  any  inscription  :  that  is  upon  the 
grave  of  General  Davidson,  who  fell  by  the  rifle-shot  of  a  tory, 
af  Cowan's  Forry,  a  few  miles  distant  firom  this  place,  as  he  was 
resisting  the  crossing  of  ifae  British  army,  in  1781,  when  Morgan 
ludd  Ccredn  were  conveying  the  prisoners,  taken  at  the  Cowpens, 
to  Virginia,  fS^  saft  keeping.    After  the  arm^of  Ae  enemy  had 

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passed  on,  his  firiend  Captain  Wilson,  whose  grave  is  near  by, 
found  him  plundered  and  stripped  of  every  garment ;  laying  him 
across  his  horse,  ha  brought  him  hastily  by  night  to  this  place  of 

Congress  voted  a  monument  to  this  man — ^most  beloved  in  his 
county — a  sacrifice  to  the  public  welfare.  But  the  resolution  has 
slept  on  the  records  of  the  Congress, — and  the  grave  of  the 
general  is  without  an  inscription. 

The  college,  patronized  by  his  children  and  friends,  bears  his 
name,  and  is  rising  in  usefulness  and  reputation. 

By  the  east  wall  is  a  row  of  marble  slabs,  all  bearing  the  name 
of  AJexander.     On  one  is  this  short  inscription  :— 

John  McKnitt  Alexander, 

who  departed  this  life  July  10th,  1817. 

Aged  84. 

This  is  upon  the  grave  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Convention  in 
Charlotte,  in  1T75.     By  his  side  rests  hit  wife,  Jaj^b  Bane. 

At  a  little  distance  southwardly  is  the  grave  of  the  late  pastor 
of  this  congregation,  John  Williamson. 

Ephraim  Brevard,  the  penman  of  the  Declaration,  and  Hezekiah 
Alexander,  the  dbarest-headed  magistrate  of  the  county,  sleep  in 
this  yard  in  unknown  graves. 

Hopewell  and  Sugar  Creek  are  cotemporaries  in  point  of  settle- 
ment, though,  in  church  organization.  Sugar  Creek  has  the  pre- 
eminence. The  families  were  from  the  same  original  stock  in 
the  North  of  Ireland ;  some  were  bom  in  Pennsylvania,  and  some 
only  sojourned  there  for  a  time ;  they  were  connected  by  affinity 
and  consanguinity ;  and  more  closely  united  by  mutual  exposures 
'  in  the  wilderness,  and  the  ordinances  of  the  gospel,  which  were 
highly  prized. 

Scattered  settlements  were  made  along  the  Catawba,  frogi 
Beattie's  to  Mason's  Ford,  some  time  before  the  country  became 
the  object  of  emigration  to  any  considerable  extent,  probably  about 
the  year  1740.  As  the  extent  and  fertility  of  the  beautiful  pi^iries 
became  known,  the  Scotch-Irish,  seeking  for  settlements,  b^an 
to  follow  the  traders'  path,  and  join'th&  adventurers  in  this  soutW 
em  and  westem  frontier.  By  1745,  the  settlements,  in  wiuht  is 
now  Mecklenburg  and  Cabarrus  countiea,  were  numerous ;  and 
about  1750,  and  onward  for  a  |bw  years,  the  settlea^ents  grew- 
dense  for  a  firoptier^i  and  were  unitiig  then^elnres  irto.congrega- 

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tions,  for  the  purpose  of  enjoying  the  ministrations  of  the  gospel 
in  the  Presbyterial  form.  The  foundations  for  Sugar  Creek, 
Hopewell,  Steel  Creek,  New  Providence,  P<^lar  Tent,  Rocky- 
River  Centre,  and  Thyatira,  were  ■  laid  almost  simultaneously  : 
Rocky  River  was  most  successful  in  obtaining  a  settled  pastor. 
The  others  received  the  church  organization  and  bounds  during 
the  visit  of  Rev.  Messrs.  McWhorter  and  Spencer,  sent  by  the 
S3aiod  of  Philadelphia  for  that  purpose,  in  the  year  1764.  Mis- 
sionaries began  to  traverse  the  country  very  early,  sent  out  by 
the  Synod  of  Philadelphia,  and  the  different  Presbyteries  of  New- 
Brunswick,  New  CasUe,  and  Donegal. 

The  enterprising  settlers,  inureif  to  toil,  were  hardy  and  long 
lived.  The  constitutions  that  grew  up  in  Irelard  and  Pennsylva- 
nia seemed  to  gather  strength  and  suppleness  from  the  warm  cli- 
mate and  fertile  soil  of  their  new  abodes.  Most  of  the  settlers 
lived  long  enough  to  witness  the  dawning  of  that  prosperity  that 
awaited  their  children.  They  sought  the  union  of  Uberty,  and 
property,  and  religious  privilege  for  their  posterity.  Year  after 
year  were  "  supplications  "  sent  to  Pennsylvania  and  Jersey  for 
ministers,  or  missionaries,  and  effort  after  effort  was  made  to  re- 
tain these  visitors  as  settled  pastors^  but  all  in  vain,  previously  to 
1756 ;  when  the  troubles  from  the  Indian  war,  called  Braddock's 
war,  united  with  the  wishes  of  the  people,  and  three  Presbyterian 
ministers  were  settled  in  Carolina  in  that  year,  or  preparations 
were  made  for  their  settlement — Craighead,  and  M'Aden,  and 
Campbell.  Those  were  days  of  log  cabins  and  plain  fare,  when 
carriages  were  unknown,  and  the  sight  of  wheels  was  an  era  in  the 
settlements.  "  That  man  was  the  first  that  crossed  the  Yadkin 
with  wheels,"  designated  the  man  in  whose  house  the  first  court  in 
Mecklenburg  was  held. 

"Times  are  greatly  altered,"  said  old  Mr.  Alexander  some 
thirty  years  ago,  on  a  summer  evening,  to  the  Rev.  Alexander 
Flinn,  D.D.,  of  Charleston,  South  Carolina,  who  came  to  visit  his 
venerated  benefactor,  in  his  carriage,  with  his  wife  and  servants, 
"  times  are  greatly  altered,  Andy,  since  you  went  to  college  in 
your  tow  doth  pwitaloons,"  said  the  old  man,  with  a  welcome  of 
gladness  mingled  with  fear,  lest  the  simplicity  of  his  youth  had 
been  perverted  in  that  flourishing  city. 

And  times  were  greatly  altered  with  both,  since  their  youth, 
when  the  one  came  to  Mecklenburg  just  "  out  of  his  time,"  and 
the  crther  left  his  widowed  mother  imder  the  patronage  of  his 
friend,  to  enter  upon  a  college  life.     Both  commenced  life  in  hon 

I  b 

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RECORDS  OF  THE  OONYENTION.      '      203 

orable  poverty, — ^both  were  enterprising  in  a  young  country, — and 
both  were  eminently  successful  in  that  course  of  hfe  in  which 
choice,  and  providential  circumstances,  had  led  them  to  put  forth 
their  strength. 

John  McEnitt  Alexander,  descended  firom  Scotch-Irish  ances- 
tors, was  bom  in  Pennsylvania,  near  the  Maryland  line,  in  1733. 
Having  served  his  apprenticeship  to  the  tailor's  trade,  he  followed 
the  tide  of  his  kinsmen  and  countrymen,  who  were  then  seeking 
an  abode  beyond  the  Yadkin,  in  the  pastures  of  the  deer  and  buf- 
falo. The  emigrants,  a  church-going  and  church-loving  people 
in  the  "  green  isle,"  carried  to  their  new  home  all  the  habits  and 
manners  of  their  mother,  the  %ild  and  strange  residence  in  Caro- 
lina permitted.  A  church-going  people  are  a  dress-loving  people. 
The  sanctity  and  decorum  of  the  house  of  God  are  inseparably 
associated  with  a  decent  exterior ;  and  the  spiritual,  heavenly  ex- 
ercises of  the  inner  man  are  incompatible  with  a  defiled  and  tat- 
tered, or  slovenly  mein.  All  regular  Christian  assemblies  culti- 
vate a  taste  for  dress,  and  none  more  so  than  the  hardy  pioneer 
settlers  of  Upper  Carolina,  and  the  vallefy  and  mountains  of  Vir- 
ginia. In  their  approach  to  the  King  of  Kings,  in  company  with 
their  neighbors,  the  men,  resting  from  their  labors,  washed  their 
hands  and  shaved  their  faces,  and  put  on  their  best  and  carefully 
preserved  dress.  Their  wives  and  daughters,  attired  in  their  best, 
as  they  assembled  at  the  place  of  worship,  were  the  more  lovely 
in  the  sight  of  their  friends.  The  privations  of  the  new  settle- 
ment were  for  a  time  forgotten  ;  and  the  greetings  at  the  place  of 
assemblage,  from  Sabbath  to  Sabbath,  or  whenever  they  could 
assemble  to  hear  the  gospel,  spoke  the  commingled  feelings  of 
friendship  and  religion. 

The  young  tailor  knew  the  spirit  of  his  countrymen,  and  came 
to  seek  his  fortune  with  the  poor,  but  spirited  and  enterprising  peo- 
ple. Few  of  them  had  much  money,  and  many  of  them  had  none. 
In  paying  for  their  lands,  the  skins,  of  the  deer  and  buffalo  that 
had  fed  them,  were  taken  on  pack-horses  to  Charleston  and  Phila- 
delphia, as  the  most  ready  means  of  obtaining  the  necessary  funds. 
Years  necessarily  passed  before  the  cattle  and  horses  they  took 
with  them  to  the  wild  pastures  were  multiplied  sufficiency  for 
home  consumption  or  for  traffic ;  about  the  time  of  the  Revolution- 
ary war,  they  constituted  the  available  means,  the  wealth  of  the 
country,  as  cotton  has  been  in  years  past. 

The  young  man  brought  his  ready  made  clothes,  and  cloths  to 
be  made  to  order,  and  trafficked  wilb  his  countrymen,  iransporting 

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his  peltry  on  horseback  to  the  city,  and  returning  with  a  fresh  sup- 
ply of  goods,  till  the  droves  of  cattle  and  horses  taken  to  the  mar- 
kets, supplied  the  inhabitants  with  silver  and  gold  for  their  neces- 
sary uses.  In  about  five  years,  in  the  year  1759,  he  married  Janb 
Bane,  from  Pennsylvania,  of  the  same  race  with  himself,  and 
settled  in  Hopewell  congregation.  His  permanent  abode  has  been 
known  by  the  name  of  Alexandriana.  Prospered  in  his  business, 
he  soon  became  wealthy,  and  an  extensive  landholder,  and  rising 
in  the  estimation  of  his  fellow  citizens,  v^ras  promoted  to  the  ma- 
gistracy, and  the  eldership  of  the  Presbyterian  church,  the  only 
church  between  the  two  rivers.  Shrewd,  enterprising,  and  suc- 
cessfril,  a  man  of  principle  and  inspiring  respect, — ^in  less  than 
twenty  years  from  his  first  crossing  the  Yadkin,  he  was  agitating 
with  his  fellow  citizens  of  Mecklenburg,  the  rights  of  persons,  of 
property,  and  conscience, — and  resisting  the  encroachments  of  the 
king,  through  his  unprincipled  and  tyrannical  officers,  that  oppress- 
ed, without  fear  and  without  restraint,  the  inhabitants  of  Upper 
North  Carolina. 

In  less  than  one  quarter  of  a  century  after  the  first  permanent 
settlement  was  formed  in  Mecklenburg,  men  talked  of  defending 
their  rights,  not  against  the  Indians,  but  the  officers  of  the  crovni ; 
and  took  those  measures  that  eventuated  in  the  Convention  of 
May  20th,  1775,  to  deUberate  on  the  crisis  of  their  a£fairs.  Of  the 
persons  chosen  to  meet  in  that  assembly,  one  was  a  Presbyterian 
minister,  Hezekiah  James  Balch,  of  Poplar  Tent;  seven  were 
known  to  be  Elders  of  the  Church — Abraham  Alexander,  of  Su- 
gar Creek,  John  McKnitt  Alexander  and  Hezekiah  Alexander,  of 
Hopewell,  David  Reese,  of  Poplar  Tent,  Adam  Alexander  and 
Robert  Queary,  of  Rocky  River  (now  in  the  bounds  of  Philadel- 
phia), and  Robert  Irwin,  of  Steel  Creek  ;  two  others  were  elders, 
but  in  the  deficiency  of  church  records,  their  names  not  knovm 
with  certainty,  but  the  report  of  tradition  is,  without  variation, 
that  nine  of  die  members  were  elders,  and  the  other  two  are  sup- 
posed to  have  been  Ephraim  Brevard  and  John  Pfifer.  T}ius  ten 
out  of  the  twenty-seven  were  office-bearers  in  the  church ;  and 
all  were  connected  vrith  the  congregations  of  the  Presbyteries  in 

The  Declaration  issued  by  this  Convention  is  the  admiration  of 
the  present  generation,  and  will  be  of  generations  to  the  end  of 
time, — THE  FIRST  Declaration  of  Independence  in  North 
America.  At  a  hasty  view,  this  declaration  made  by  a  colony  on 
the  western  frontier  of  an  American  province,  may  seem  rash  and 

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unreasonable  ;  but  when  the  race  and  the  creed  of  the  people,  and 
their  habits,  are  taken  into  consideration,  we  wonder  at  their  for- 
bearance ;  this  classic  declaration  expressed  a  deep  settled  pur- 
pose, which  the  ravages  of  the  British  army,  in  succeeding  years, 
could  not  shake. 

Neither  the  Congress  of  the  United  Provinces,  then  in  session, 
nor  the  Congress  of  the  Province  of  North  Carolina,  which  assem- 
bled in  August  of  the  same  year,  were  prepared  to  second  the  de- 
claration of  Mecklenburg ;  though  the  latter  appointed  committees 
of  safety  in  all  the  counties,  similar  to  the  committee  in  Mecklen- 
burg. The  papers  of  the  Convention  were  preserved  by  the 
secretary,  John  McKnitt  Alexander,  till  the  year  1800,  when  they 
were  destroyed,  with  his  dwelUng,  by  fire.  But  the  Rev.  Hum- 
phrey Himter  and  General  Graham,  who  both  had  heard  the  Decla- 
ration read  on  the  20th  of  May,  1775,  had  obtained  copies,  which 
have  been  preserved,  and  Mr.  -Mexander  gave  one  himself  to  Ge- 
neral Davie  some  time  previously  to  the  fire. 

Judge  Cameron,  of  Raleigh,  President  of  the  State  Bank,  who 
was  for  many  years  a  practising  lawyer  in  the  Salisbury  District, 
and  afterwards  a  judge,  says  that  he  was  well  acquainted  with 
Mr.  Alexander,  who  was  frequently  brought  to  court  as  a  witness 
in  land  cases,  having  been  for  many  years  a  crown  surveyor  in 
Mecklenburg.  There  was  little  regularity  in  taking  up  lands ;  and 
claims  were  found  to  clash,  and  frequent  lawsuits  were  the  conse- 
quence, and  Mr.  Alexander  was  appealed  to  for  bounds  and  lines. 
Being  a  sensible  and  social,  dignified  man,  an  acquaintance  com- 
menced which  was  ended  only  by  the  death  of  Mr.  Alexander. 
The  Judge  says  that  the  matters  of  a  revolutionary  nature  were 
firequently  the  subject  of  conversation ;  and  among  others,  the  cir- 
cumstances of  the  Declaration.  Some  time  after  the  fire  that  con- 
sumed Mr.  Alexander's  dwelling  and  many  of  his  valuable  papers, 
he  met  tlie  old  man  in  Sahsbury.  Referring  to  the  fire,  Mr.  Alex- 
ander lamented  the  loss  of  the  original  copy  of  that  document,  but 
consoled  himself  by  saying,  that  he  had  himself  given  a  copy  to 
General  Davie  some  time  before,  which  he  knew  to  be  correct ; 
so,  says  he,  "  the  document  is  safe.^^  That  copy  is  in  the  hands  of 
the  present  governor  of  North  Carolina ;  and  is  in  part  the  author- 
ity for  the  copy  given  in  the  first  chapter  of  this  work.  The 
copies  of  Hunter  and  Graham  rest  upon  the  honor  of  those  two 
unimpeachable  men.  Happily,  they  entirely  agree  with  the  copy 
given  to  General  Davie,  as  far  as  that  has  been  preserved. 

The  last  interview  the  Judge  had  with  Mr.  Alexander  was  in 

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Salisbury.  Nearly  blind  with  age  and  infirm,  he  was  brought  down 
to  the  court  as  an  evidence  in  a  land  case.  The  venerable  old 
man  sat  in  the  bar-room,  listening  to  the  voices  of  the  company^ 
as  they  came  in.  "  Is  that  you,  Cameron  V^  said  he,  as  the  sound 
of  his  voice  fell  upon  his  ear,  "  I  know  that  voice,  though  I  cannot 
well  see  the  man."  Infirm,  he  was  dignified :  with  white  hair 
and  almost  sightless  eyes,  his  mental  powers  remained.  The 
past  and  the  future  were  to  him  more  than  the  present;  in  the  one 
he  had  acted  his  part  well,  in  the  other  he  had  hope  ;  but  the  pre- 
sent had  lost  its  beauty.  He  recounted,  in  the  course  of  the  inter- 
views he  had  with  the  Judge,  during  the  intervals  of  court,  the 
events  of  the  Revolution,  particularly  those  in  which  Mecklenburg 
took  the  lead,  and  referred  to  the  copy  of  the  Declaration  he  had 
given  to  Davie  as  being  certainly  correct. 

Mr.  Alexander,  as  an  elder  in  the  Presbyterian  church,  was 
firequently  appointed  by  the  Synod  of  the  Carolinas,  during  the 
twenty-four  years  the  two  States  were  associated  ecclesiastically, 
on  important  business  for  the  Synod,  and  for  a  number  of  years 
was  its  treasurer.  Of  imdoubted  honesty,  and  unquestioned  reli- 
gion, he  finished  his  earthly  existence  at  the  advanced  age  of  four- 
score and  one  years. 

The  reason  for  the  obscurity  in  which  the  proceedmgs  of  the 
Convention  in  Charlotte  were  for  a  time  buried  may  be  found  in 
the  facts, — ^first,  the  county  in  which  they  took  place  was  far 
removed  firom  any  large  seaport,  or  trading  city ;  was  a  fi-ontier, 
rich  in  soil,  and  prpductions,  and  men,  but  poor  in  money, — ^with 
no  person  that  had  attracted  public  notice,  like  the  Lees  and  Henry, 
of  Virginia,  for  eloquence, — or  like  Ashe,  of  their  owa  distant  sea- 
board, for  bravery, — or  like  Hancock,  of  Massachusetts,  for  dignity 
in  a  public  assembly, — or  Jefierson,  for  pohtical  acumen :  and, 
second,  the  National  Declaration  in  1T76,  with  the  war  that 
followed,  so  completely  absorbed  the  minds  of  the  whole  nation, 
that  efibrts  of  the  few,  however  patriotic,  were  cast  into  the  shade. 
In  the  joy  of  National  Independence,  the  particular  part  any  man, 
or  body  of  men,  may  have  acted,  was  overlooked ;  and  in  the 
bright  scenes  spread  out  before  a  young  Republic,  the  Colonial 
politics  shared  the  fate  of  the  soldiers  and  officere  that  bore  the 
fatigues  and  endured  the  miseries  of  the  seven  years'  war.  Men 
were  too  eager  to  enjoy  Liberty,  and  push  their  speculations  to 
become  rich,  to  estimate  the  worth  of  those  patriots,  whose  history 
will  be  better  knovm  by  the  next  generation,  and  whose  honors 
will  be  duly  appreciated. 

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Some  publications  were  made  on  this  subject  in  the  Raleigh 
Register  in  1819,  and  for  a  time  public  attention  was  drawn  to  the 
subject  in  diflerent  parts  of  the  country.  About  the  year  1830, 
some  publications  were  made,  calling  in  question  the  authenticity 
of  the  document,  as  being  neither  a  true  paper,  nor  a  paper  of  a  true 
convention.  Dr.  Joseph  McKnitt  Alexander,  inheriting  the  resi- 
dence, and  much  of  the  spirit  of  his  father,  the  secretary,  felt 
himself  moved  to  defend  the  honor  of  his  parent,  and  the  noble 
men  that  were  associated  in  the  coimty  of  Mecklenburg.  Letters 
were  addressed  to  diflferent  individuals  who  either  had  taken  a  part 
in  the  spirited  transactions  of  1775,  or  had  been  spectators  of  those 
scenes  that  far  outstripped  in  patriotic  daring  the  State  at  large, 
or  even  the  Congress  assembled  in  Philadelphia.  The  attention 
of  all  the  survivors  of  Revolutionary  times  was  awaked ;  their 
/eelings  were  aroused ;  and  they  came  on  all  sides  to  the  rescue 
of  those  men  who  had  pledged  "  their  lives,  their  fortunes,  and 
their  most  sacred  honor" 

The  Rev.  Humphrey  Hunter,  who  had  preached  in  Steel  Creek 
many  years,  within  a  few  miles  of  Charlotte,  and  for  a  number  of 
years  in  Unity  and  Goshen,  in  Lincoln,  a  short  distance  from  the 
residence  of  Mr.  Alexander,  sent  to  the  son  a  copy  of  the  Decla- 
ration, together  with  a  history  of  the  Convention,  of  which  he  was 
an  eye-witness.  General  Graham,  who  had  grown  up  near 
Charlotte,  had  been  high-sheriflf  of  the  county,  and  was  an  actor  in 
the  Revolution,  and  an  eye-witness  of  the  Convention,  did  the 
same.  From  their  accounts,  the  historical  relation  in  the  first 
chapter  of  this  volume  was  taken.  Captain  Jack,  who  carried  the 
declaration  to  Philadelphia,  gave  his  solemn  asservation  of  the 
facts,  as  an  eye-witness  of  the  Convention,  and  as  its  messenger  to 
Congress.  John  Davidson,  a  member  of  the  Convention,  gave  his 
solemn  testimony,  vinriting  from  memory,  and  not  presenting  any  , 
copy  of  the  doings,  but  asserting  the  facts  and  general  principles 
of  the  Convention.  The  Rev.  Dr.  Cummins,  who  had  been 
educated  at  Queen's  Museum,  in  Charlotte,  and  was  a  student  at 
the  time  of  the  Convention,  affirmed,  that  repeated  meetings  were 
held  in  the  hall  of  Queen's  Museum,  by  the  leading  men  in  Meck- 
lenburg, discussing  the  business  to  be  brought  before  the  conven- 
tion when  assembled.  Colonel  Polk,  of  Raleigh,  who  was  a 
youth  at  the  time,  and  who  repeatedly  read  over  the  paper  to 
different  circles  on  that  interesting  occasion,  affirmed  and  defended 
the  doings  of  his  father,  at  whose  call,  by  unanimous  consent,  the 
delegates  assembled.    Many,  less  known  to  the  public,  sent  their 

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recollections  of  the  events  of  19th  and  20th  of  May.  A  file  of 
New  York  papers,  published  during  the  Revolution,  gives  the 
declaration  and  doings  of  May  30th,  in  virhich  independence  is 
asserted  in  language  as  strtmg  as  in  the  paper  of  the  20th,  and  the 
civil  government  of  Mecklenburg  was  arraigned,  a  government 
that  was  paramount  till  after  the  meeting  of  the  first  North  Caro- 
lina Provincial  Congress.  A  file  of  Massachusetts  papers,  printed 
at  the  same  time,  gives  the  same  documents.  Relying  on  these 
affirmations  and  documents,  the  son  rested  securely  for  his  father's 
honor,  and  the  honest  fame  of  his  compeers.  By  the  order  of  the 
legislature  of  North  Carolina,  these  facts  and  assertions  were  made 
a  public  document,  ^ere  remains  not  a  man  at  this  day,  who 
Aw  the  assembly  of  delegates  in  Mecklenburg.  Happily,  the 
son  collected  the  evidences  of  his  father's  political  honor,  before 
the  viritnesses  had  all  passed  to  the  land  where  the  truth  needs  no^ 
such  evidence,  and  had  joined  the  band  of  inunortal  patriots. 

The  names  of  the  persons  composing  the  convention,  as  given 
in  the  State  documents  collected  by  Dr.  J.  McKnitt  Alexander, 
are  as  follows  : 

Abraham  Alexander — Chairman, 
John  McICnitt  Alexander — Secretary. 
Ephraim  Brevard — Secretary. 
Rev.  Hezekiah  J.  Balch,  Charles  Alexander, 

John  Pfifer,  Zaccheus  Wilson,  jim., 

James  Harris,  Waightstill  Avery, 

William  Kemion,  Benjamin  Patton, 

John  Ford,  Matthew  McClure, 

Richard  Barry,  Neill  Morrison, 

Henry  Downe,  Robert  Irwin, 

Ezra  Alexander,  John  Flenniken, 

William  Graham,  David  Reese, 

John  Queary,  John  Davidson, 

Hezekiah  Alexander,    '  Richard  Harris,  jun., 

Adam  Alexander,  Thomas  Polk. 

In  searching  his  father's  papers  that  escaped  the  fire,  he  came 
across  another  document  of  exceeding  value,  in  the  handwriting 
of  Ephraim  Brevard,  the  draughtsman  of  the  Declaration,  giving, 
under  the  name  of  Instructions  to  the  Members  of  the  Provincial 
Congress  in  1T75,  the  ideas  of  oivil  and  religious  liberty  heU  by 
these  patriotic  men.  This  paper  is  given  in  full  in  the  third  chap- 
ter, and  gives  an  opportunity  of  judging  whether  the  views  of 

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liberty  held  by  these  have  or  have  not  had  the  sanction  of  the 
people  of  the  United  States. 

A  friend  that  knew  the  son,  gives  the  foUov^ring  obituary  notice  : 
"  Died,  on  the  17th  ultimo  (Nov.,  1841X  at  Alexandria,  the  time- 
honored  seat  of  his  ancestors,  in  Mecklenburg  county,  N.  C,  Dr. 
J.  McKnitt  Alexander,  in  the  67th  year  of  his  age. 

"  Dr.  Alexander  was  an  alumnus  of  Princeton  College  in  its 
palmiest  days.  He  had  early  developed  indications  of  not  only 
genius  and  talents,  but  the  highest  attributes  of  intellect,  sound 
judgment  and  profound  thinking.  One  of  the  usages  of  the  enlight- 
ened, estimable,  and  Christian  community  in  which  he  was  reared, 
was,  that  each  family  should  educate  one  wm  and  devote  him  to 
the  service  of  the  Church.  In  accordance  with  this  excellent 
usage,  it  was  determined  by  his  parents  that  the  natural  endow- 
ments of  Joseph  should  receive  the  culture  and  finish  of  a  thorough 
collegiate  education,  and  the  school  at  Princeton  was  selected  for 
the  purpose.  Here  erudition  and  science  matured  the  germ»  of 
usefulness  and  distinction,which  had  in  his  boyhood  given  such  high 
promise  of  a  fruitful  harvest.  He  graduated  with  6clat,  and  re- 
turned to  his  native  home — ^not,  as  had  been  fondly  hoped  by  his  pious 
parents,  to  engage  in  the  study  of  divinity,  and  to  consecrate  him- 
self to  the  holy  ministry.  This,  their  cherished  expectation,  to 
'  their  bitter  disappointment,  was  never  realized.  He  studied 
medicine  under  a  distinguished  preceptor,  and  after  becoming 
thoroughly  indoctrinated  in  the  ^^jEsculapian  mysteries,^^  engaged 
in  the  practice  of  physic,  from  which  he  acquired  not  only  profes- 
sional reputation  but  WGgJth  and  even  affluence.  The  pure  duties 
of  humanity  imposed  upon  him  by  his  profession,  were  ever  per- 
formed with  punctuality  and  cheerfulness,  and  throughout  his  long 
life,  no  citizen  had  a  more  enviable  character  for  integrity,  public 
spirit,  and  private  virtue.  He  was  distinguiaked  for  his  practical 
judgment  and  plain  conunon  sense— ^  trait  the  more  remarkable  as 
it  was  accompanied  in  him  with  the  scintillations  of  genius  and  the 
sprightliness  of  a  vigorous  imagination.  He  thought  quick,^  yet 
deep  and  accurately.  What  others  found  by  pains-taking,  search 
and  tedious  investigation,  he  obtained  intuitively.  To  look  at  a 
subject  at  all,  was  to  penetrate  it  with  an  eagle's  glance,  to  touch 
was  to  dissect,  to  handle  was  to  unravel.  He  wrote  well,  yet 
his  productions  possessed  few  of  the  embellishments  of  art  and 
none  of  the  ornaments  of  style,  though  always  enlivened  and  bril- 
liant from  the  flashes  of  a  true  and  innate  eloquence." 

"Doctor  Alexander,  though  a  child  of  the  church,  and  tlie  son  of 


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the  most  exemplary  and  pious  parents,  had  passed  the  meridian 
of  life  before  he  became  a  professor  of  religion.    Doe«  the  pride 
of  intellect  or  the  glitter  of  human  leming  lead"  U9  to  doubt  the 
truth  of  divine  revelation !    The  avalanche  of  infidelity,  put  in 
motion  about  the  period  of  the  Doctor*!  Maturity  by  Montesquieu, 
Voltaire,  Diderot,  D'Alembert,  Buffon,  and  Rousseau,  threatened  to 
extinguish  the  best  hopes  of  man,  and  deluge  our  sin  ruined 
world  with  a  cold  and  cheerless  scepticism.     The  infection  of 
this  poison  may  have  temporarily  obliterated  the  lessons  of  his 
youth,  or  weakened  their  influence  upon  his  principles ;  it  was 
never  able,  however,  to  seduce  him  from  the  paths  of  virtue.     His 
purity,  his  probity,  his  honor  remained  unscathed  by  the  lightning 
of  the  French  philosophy.     It  may  for  a  time  have  diverted  his 
attention  from  spiritual  things,  but  when  ambition  became  chas- 
tened by  age,  in  the  maturity  of  his  intellect,  and  at  a  period  of 
life  most  favorable  for  a  calm  and  deliberate  examination  of  the 
gre^t  truths  of  the   Christian's  Bible,  and  the  Christian's  faith, 
and  the  Christian's  hope,  he  believed  that  Bible,  he  exercised  that 
faith,  he  was  animated  by  that  hope.     He  became  a  worshipper 
of  the  God  of  his  fathers,  connected  himself  with  the  Presbyterian 
church,  and  continued  through  life,  until  the  infirmities  of  old  age 
prevented,  to  be  active  in  the  promotion  of  its  interests,  in  alle- 
viating and  ameliorating  the  condition  of  men." 

'*  Beyond  the  fligfit  «f  time. 
Beyond  the  vale  of  death, 
There  surely  is  some  blessed  clime 
Where  life  is  not  a  breath." 

Aftar  its  organization,  in  1765,  Hopewell  was  for  a  time  asso- 
<ciated  with  Centre  in  maintaining  the  ordinances  of  the  gospel. 
But  at  the  time  that  Rev.  S.  C.  Caldwell  wtis  called  to  the  church 
and  obngregation  of  Sugar  Creek,  this  church  united  in  the  call, 
and  aftempwds  engaged  the  pastoral  services  of  that  fitithful  man, 
tin  1805,  wjbeafae  removed  from  tb^ir  boun4s,  and  gave  up  the 
care  of  the  church. 

During  the  time  of  Mr.  Caldwell's  ministry,  the  two  sessions 
of  the  churches  under  his  care,  feeling  the  pressure  that  was 
upon  them,  formed  a  union  for  mutual  help.  The  ibUowing  pa- 
per reveals  the  spirit. 

"  May  15th,  1793.  The  Sessions  of  Sugar  Creek  and  Hope* 
well  had  a  full  meeting  on  the  ogntral  ground,  id  Mr.  Mons.  Aob- 
moi/fe^  and  entered  into  a  number  of  resolutions,  as  laws  for  the 
government  of  both  churches." 

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"  North  Carolina,  Mecklbnburo-Cotjntx,  \ 
May  5th,  1793.  f 

**  We,  Ihe  Sessions  of  &agar  Creek  and  Hopewell  congrega- 
tioQSy   having  two  separate  and  distinct  churches,   sessions  and 
other  officers  for  the  peace,  conrenience,  and  well»<»dering  of 
each  society,  and  aB  happily  united  under  their  present  pastor, 
Samuel   C.   Caldwell,  yet  need  much   mutual  help  from  each 
other  in  regard  of  our  own  weakness  and  mutual  dependence,  and 
also  in  regard  to  our  enemies  fix>m  without.    Therefore,  in  order 
to  make  our  union  the  more  permanent,  and  to  strengthen  each 
other's  hands  in  the  bonds  of  unity  and  Christian  friendship,  have, 
this  15th  day  of  May,  1793,  met  in  a  social  manner,  at  the  house 
of  Mons.  Robinson,    Present,  Robert  Robinson,  Sen.,  He^eteah 
Alexander,  Wm,  Alexander,  James  Robinson,  Isaac  Alexander, 
Thomas  Alexander,  and  Elijah  Alexander,  elders  in  Sugar  Creek. 
John  M'Knitt  Alexander,  Robert  Crocket,  James  Meek,  James 
Henry,   Wm.    Henderson,    and    Ezekiel  Alexander,  elders  in 
Hopewell^  who,  after  discussing  generally  several  topics,  proceeded 
to  choose  Hezekiah  Alexander  chairman,  and  J.'  M'Knitt  Alexan- 
der, clerk,  and  do  agree  to  the  following  resolves  and  rules,  which 
we,  each  for  himself,  promise  tO'  observe."    (Then  fcllow  five 
resolutions  respecting  the  management  of  the  congregations,  as  it 
regards  .the  support  of  their  ministers,  inculcating  punctuality  and 
precision;  and  also  respecting  a  division  of  the  Presbytery  of 
Ortnge  into  two  Presbyteries.) 

Then  follow  eight  perifianent  laws  and  general  rules  for  each 
Session.  The  1st  concerns  the  manner  of  bringing  ^laiges 
against  a  member  of  the  church,  that  it  **  shall  be  written  and 
signed  by  die  complainant,"  and  that  previous  to  trial,  all  mild 
means  shall  be  used  to  settle  the  matter. 

''  2d.  As  a  church  judicature  we  will  not  intermeddLi  with  what 
belongs  to  the  civil  magistrate,  either  as  an  officer  o£  State,  or  a 
minister  of  justice  among  the  oitizens.  The  Um  between  the 
church  and  state  being  so  fine,  we  know  not  how  to  draw  it,  there- 
fore we  leave  it  to  Christian  prudence  and  longer  experience  to  de- 

The  othlr  resolutions  are  all  found  in  the  Confession  of  Faith, 
in  thear  spirit,  in  the  rules  given  for  the  management  of  a  single 
session,  with  this  exception,  that  it  was  determined  that  in  X\m 
joinl  session,  ''  A  ^piorum  to  da  business  shall  not  be  less  than 
a  Moderator  and  three  Elders  ;"  and  that  in  matters  of  diMq)line 
there  shall  bf  **  no  non  liquet  votes  permitted." 

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This  unioA  of  the  tsssions  was  productiTe  of  most  happy  con- 
sequences to  the  two  congregations,  particularly  during  the  strug- 
gle with  French  infidelity,  and  had  the  effect  to  preserve  the  spirit 
of  Presbyterianism,  and  of  sound  principles,  and  free  religion. 

The  elders  were  jealous  of  any  intermingling  of  Church  and 
State,  eyen  in  Uie  inroceedings  of  sessions,  and  endeaTored  to  keep 
both  civil  and  religious  freedom,  entirely  separating  political  and 
ecclesiastical  proceedings  as  completely  as  possible.  All  the  dif- 
ficulty probably  arose  from  the  fact  that  some  of  the  elders  were 
magistrates,  and  they  feared  lest,  in  the  public  estimation,  or  their 
own  actions,  the  two  ofiices  might  be  blended  in  their  exercise. 

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bf  the  year  1751,  the  Rev.  Samuel  Davies,  then  residing  in  Hano- 
▼er,  Virgmia,  made  an  excursion  for  preaching,  to  the  Roanoke. 
In  the  course  of  his  joumeyings,  he  became  acquainted  with  Henry 
Pattillo,  then  a  young  man  desirous  of  commencing  his  studies  in 
preparation  for  the  gospel  ministry,  and  invited  him  to  come  and 
commence  his  course  with  him  in  Hanover.  This  invitation  Mr. 
Pattillo  at  first  declined,  as  he  had  engaged  to  go  to  Pennsylvania 
with  another  young  man,  and  commence  his  studies  under  ttie  care 
and  tuition  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  John  Thomson,  who  was  at  this  time 
in  Carolina  on  a  mission  to  the  new  settlements. 

In  the  year  1744,  in  compliance  with  a  "  representation  from 
many  people  in  North  Carolina — showing  their  desolate  condition, 
and  requesting  the  Synod  to  take  their  condition  into  consideration, 
and  petitioning  that  we  would  appoint  one  of  our  number  to  corres- 
pond with  them, — Mr.  Thomson,  of  Donegal  Presbytery,  was  ap- 
pointed by  the  Synod  to  correspond  with  them.  He  was  at  this 
time  on  a  visit  to  these  petitioners,  and  others  in  Carolina.  Mr. 
Pfittillo  had  once  set  out  for  Pennsylvania  in  the  year  1750,  but  was 
seized  by  a  pleurisy  before  he  had.  proceeded  half  a  day^s  journey, 
under  the  influence  of  which  he  labored  the  greater  part  of  the 
winter  following.  Of  course  his  journey  to  Pennsylvania  was 
given  up.  While  waiting  in  the  summer  of  1751  for  Mr.  Thom- 
son's return  from  Carolina,  the  young  man  who  had  engaged  to  go 
on  with  him  to  Pennsylvania,  abandoned  the  design  of  preparing 
for  the  ministry.  Mr.  Pattillo  then  determined  to  accept  the  invita- 
tion of  Mr.  Davies,  and  on  the  first  of  August,  1751,  arrived  at  his 
house  in  Hanover,  and  "  had  a  kind  welcome." 

On  the  IQtb  of  August,  1754,  while  residing  with  Mr.  Davies,  he 
commenced  a  journal,  a  part  of  which  remains,  the  last  date  being 
June  13th,  1757.  He  gives  the  following  reasons  for  commencing 
the  journal :  1st  {the  beginning  of  the  sentence  is  wanting) — **  My 
growth  or  decay  in  the  divine  life,  and  thus  the  blessing  of  God  be 
actuated  accordingly.    2dly,  I  shall  thereby  more  accurately  observe 

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the  workings  of  my  own  heart,  and  t^e  methods  the  Lord  may  take 
for  my  reclamation  in  my  str^yings  from  him.  3dly,  This  may, 
through  the  divine  blessing,  have  a  tendency  to  promote  my  watch- 
fuhiess  and  diligence,  seeing  I  shall  have  a  daily  sentence  against 
myself  constantly  before  me,  tehich  I  hope  may  tend  to  pronoote 
my  humiliation.  4thly,  By  observing  the  dealings  of  God  with  my- 
self, I  may  be  the  better  enabled  to  deal  with  others,  especially  if 
the  Lord  shall  carry  me  through  learning,  and  call  me  to  the  work 
of  the  ministry.  5thly,  To  mention  no  more,  it  may  be  of  service 
to  me  in  giving  an  account  of  my  state  godward,  if  ever  I  should 
come  on  trial  for  the  ministry.'^  He  then  proceeds  to  give  some 
account  of  himself  from  his  birth  up  to  that  time.  From  the  frag- 
ments which  remain,  the  following  facts  are  gathered. 

Bom  in  Scotland,  of  pious  parents,  who  were  well  situated  in 
point  of  religious  privileges,  he  was  early  placed  with  a  merchant 
to  learn  the  duties  of  the  coxmting-house.  Providentially  removed 
from  the  situation  in  which  he  was  placed,  he  was  induced  to  seek 
for  better  things  in  the  Province  of  Virginia,  a  region  to  which 
many  young  Scotchmen  turned  their  eyes  with  empty  pockets,  and 
hearts  full  of  hope.  Here  he  engaged  with  a  merchant  for  a  time, 
and  felt  in  his  absence  from  religious  instructions  and  restraints  the 
overcoming  power  of  temptation,  which  for  a  time  prevailed  over 
his  early  instructions  and  pious  resolutions.  Leaving  the  counting- 
house,  he  commenced  the  employment  of  a  teacher  of  children  ; 
and  while  thus  engaged  his  own  reflections  led  him  to  painful  and 
alarming  convictions  of  sin.  He  describes  his  state  of  mind  thus : 
"  On  the  conmiission  of  sin,  after  I  conceived  the  Almighty  had 
partly  forgot  it,  or  his  anger  son\ewhat  abated,!  would  go  and  con- 
fess it  with  many  tears,  and  thu^  got  ease — encompassing  myself 
with  sparks  of  my  own  kindling.  But  I  was  taught  by  a  book  I  got 
about  this  time,  that  I  must  go  farther  yet,  and  enter  into  special 
covenant  w  ith  God.  Well,  after  this  I  felt  pretty  secure,  till,  by  the 
kind  providence  of  God,  I  was  brought  to  a  congregation  of  Pres- 
byterians, where  I  had  good  books  and  preaching  pretty  fre- 
quently.'^ The  effect  of  preaching,  however,  was  not  to  human 
appearance  of  much  effect,  except  to  make  him  see  the  inconsistency 
of  his  course.  Ailer  remaining  a  year  in  this  congr^ation,  he  re- 
moved to  another  and  opened  his  school.  Of  his  exercises  of  mind 
and  heart  he  thus  writes :  ^^  Here,  by  what  means  I  cannot  tellj  it 
being  so  gradual,  I  got  such  astonishing  views  of  the  method  of 
salvation,  and  of  the  glorious  Mediator;  such  sweetness  in  the 
duties  of  religion ;  such  a  love  to  the  ways  of  God ;  such  an  entire 

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resignation  to  and  acquiesceaee  in  the  divine  will ;  such  a  sincere 
desire  to  see  men  religious,  and  endeavor  to  make  those  so  with 
T^hom  I  conversed,  that  after  all  my  base  ingratitude,  dreadiiil  back- 
slidings,  broken  vows,  frequent  commission  of  sin,  loss  of  fervor, 
and  frequently  lifeless  duties  since  that  time,  I  must,  to  the  eternal 
praise  of  boundless  free  grace,  esteem  it  a  work  of  the  Holy  Spirit, 
and  the  iSnger  of  God." 

Prayer  became  ^^  his  very  breath,"  and  he  engaged  in  it  as  oft^ 
as  three  or  four  times  a  day ;  meditations  on  divine  things  filled  his 
heart  with  joy.  **  I  used,  when  alone,  to  speak  out  in  meditation, 
and  do  esteem  it  an  excellent  medium  to  fix  the  heart  on  the  work." 
He  goes  on  to  say  about  the  continuance  of  his  exercises :  ^^Thus  I 
went  on  my  way  rejoicing  and  serving  Qod  for  the  space  of  a  year 
and  a  half;  I  was  generally  full  of  warmth,  nor  could  I  take  the 
Bible  or  any  religious  book  into  my  hand  but  I  would  find  some- 
thing suited  to  the  present  state  of  my  soul,  and  in  my  prosperity  I 
thought  I  should  never  be  moved." 

He  notices  an  error  he  fell  into  about  this  time,-— judging  others' 
experience  too  much  by  its  agreement  or  disagreement  with  his 
own — ^his  intercourse  with  men  led  him  to  judge  more  favorably 
of  his  fellow  professors,  ^^  having  learned  not  to  make  my  own  ex- 
perience a  standard  for  others,  nor  confine  the  Almighty  to  one  par- 
ticular way  of  bringing  his  children  to  himself." 

His  desire  to  bring  men  to  Christ  led  him  to  frequent  efiforts  in 
private  to  convince  and  persuade ;  and  from  being  thus  engaged  in 
private,  he  desired  to  be  able  to  preach  the  everlasting  gospel  to  all 
men.  ^  I  can  boast  of  but  little  success  in  these  endeavors,  yet  my 
feeble  attempts  produced  in  me  an  indesoribable  desire  of  declaring 
the  same  to  all  mankind  to  whom  I  had  access ;  and  as  I  could  not 
do  this  in  a  private  station,  I  was  powerfully  influenced  to  apply  to 
learning  in  order  to  be  qualified  to  do  it  publicly." 

In  consequence  of  this  desire  he  prepared  to  go  to  Pennsylvania 
to  commence  his  studies,  but  was  prevented  by  sickness;  and, 
eventually,  in  the  year  1751,  went  to  reside  with  the  Rev.  Samuel 
Davies  in  Hanover.  With  that  eminent  man  he  pursued  his  studies 
till  his  voyage  to  England  in  the  service  of  Princeton  College ;  and 
after  his  return,  till  the  time  of  his  licensure,  which  took  place  at 
Cub  Creek,  then  in  Lunenburg  county,  Sept.  29th,  1768.  The  cer- 
tificate signed  by  Samuel  Davies,  Moderator,  and  John  Todd,  Clerk, 
is  preserved,  though  in  a  mutilated  condition ;  its  wording  is  some- 
what different  from  the  form  now  used,  as  for  instance — ^^  he  having 
declared  his  assent  to,  and  approbation  of,  the  Westminster  Con- 

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fession  of  Faith  and  Directory,  as  tkiy  have  been  adopted  by  the 
Synod  «f  New  York,  agreeably  to  the  practice  of  the  Church  of 
Scotland/'  &c. 

During  his  residence  in  HanoTer,  he  was  sustained  m  part  by  tbe 
kindness  of  friends,  and  in  part  by  spending  some  hours  each  day 
in  teaching,  till  the  time  of  his  marriage  to  a  Miss  Anderson,  whicli 
event  took  place  in  1755.  From  that  time  till  his  course  of  studies 
was  completed  he  was  sustained  by  teaching  children,  and  by  the 
resources  of  his  wife,  living,  as  he  says  in  the  last  entry  in  the  jour- 
nal, June  13th,  1757,  in  a  ^^  house  16  by  12  and  an  outside  cbimney, 
wiUi  an  8  feet  shed— a  little  chimney  to  if  On  the  day  of  this 
last  date  the  chimney  of  the  shed  was  shatt^ed  by  lightning,  the 
rest  of  the  house  and  the  other  chimney,  which  was  much  higher, 
together  with  the  eleven  persons  in  the  house,  himself,  wife,  and 
infant  child,  his  wife's  sister,  six  scholars  and  a  negro  boy, — all 
escaped  unhurt 

In  the  absence  of  data  from  his  own  hand,  the  following  extracts 
from  the  Records  of  Hanover  Presbytery  will  afford  information 
respecting  this  interesting  man, — 

"  Hanover,  28th  April,  1757.  The  Presbjrtery  appointed  Mr. 
Pattillo  as  piece  of  trial,  to  be  delivered  next  June,  a  sermon  on 
Acts  xvi.,  43,  first  part — ^^  To  him  give  all  the  prophets  witness  :'^ 
and  an  Exegesis — ^^  Num  Poena  Inferorum  sit  aetema."  On  the  ap- 
pointed day  these  were  considered  and  approved. 

Cub  Creek,  Sept  28th,  1757,  Mr.  Pattillo  opened  Presbytery 
with  a  Lecture  on  Daniel,  7th  chapter,  19th  to  27th  verses :  and  a 
Sermon  on  the  27th  verse  of  the  same  chapter.  He  was  then  ex- 
amined on  Divinity,  on  his  religious  experience,  "  and  on  review 
of  sundry  trials  he  has  passed  through,  they  judge  him  qualified  to 
preach  the  gospel ;  and  having  declared  his  assent  to,  and  appro- 
bation of,  the  Westminster  Confession  of  Faith  and  Catechism,  and 
Directory,  as  they  have  been  adopted  by  the  Synod  of  New  York, 
the  Presbytery  doth  authorize  him  to  preach  as  a  candidate  for  the 
Ministry  of  the  Gospel,  and  recommend  him  to  the  acceptance  of 
the  Churches ;  and  they  order  Messrs.  Davies  and  Todd  to  draw  up 
a  certificate  according  to  the  purport  of  this  minute ;  and  i^point 
(Alexander  Craighead)  the  Moderator  to  give  him  solemn  instruc- 
tion and  admonition  with  respect  to  the  discharge  of  his  office, 
which  was  done  accordingly." 

Providence,  26th  April,  1758.  Petitions  for  supplies  were  con»- 
sidered.  One  from  Hico — ^^  formerly  under  the  care  of  the  Hiila* 
delphia  Synod — ^particularly  for  Mr.  Pattillo."    Calls  came  in  for 

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him  also  from  Albemarle,  Orange  and  Cumberland.    The  Presbytery 
agreed  to  give  him  till  the  next  meeting  to  consider  them.     «» 

Cumberland,  12th  July,  1758.  ''  Rev.  Henry  Pattillo  and  Wm. 
Richardson  have  been  set  apart  to  the  work  of  ^e  holy  ministry,  by 
fiBfiting,  prayer,  and  imposition  of  hands,'' — a  certificate  ordered. 
At  the  same  meeting  he  was  appointed  Stated  Clerk. 

Hanover,  Sept  27th,  1768.  Mr.  Pattillo  accepted  a  call  from 
Willis,  Bird  and  Buck  Island.  With  these  congregations  he  re* 
mained  about  four  years.  At  a  meeting  of  Presbytery,  Providence, 
Oct.  7,  1762,  he  was  dismissed  from  this  charge,  the  people  **  being 
unable  to  give  him  a  sufficient  support."  In  1763,  May  4th,  at 
Tinkling  Spring,  he  agreed  to  supply  Cumberland,  Harris  Creek 
and  Deep  Creek.  With  these  congregations  he  continued  about 
two  years.  At  a  meeting  of  Presbytery,  Hico,  2d  October,  1765, 
a  call  for  his  services  was  presented  from  Hawfields,  Eno  and  Little 
River.  This  call  he  accepted,  and  removed  to  the  State  of  North 
Carolina,  and  there  served  the  church  about  thirty-five  years  in 
Orange  and  Granville  counties. 

At  a  meeting  of  Presbytery,  Buffalo,  Rowan  county,  N.  C, 
March  8th,  1770,  Messrs.  David  Caldwell,  Hugh  M'Aden,  Joseph 
Alexander  and  Henry  Pattillo,  and  Hezekiah  Balch  and  James 
Criswell,  united  in  a  petition  to  Synod  to  be  set  off*  as  a  Presbytery 
by  the  name  of  Orange, — ^^  where  two  of  our  ministers  reside,"  is 
given  as  the  reason  for  the  name.  This  year  the  counties  of  Guil- 
ford, Wake,  Chatham  and  Surrey,  were  set  off*  to  counteract  the  in- 
fluence of  the  regulators. 

Mr.  Pattillo  continued  with  the  congregation  of  Hawfields,  Eno 
and  Little  River,  till  the  year  1774,  when  he  removed. 

In  the  year  1775  he  was  selected  for  one  of  the  delegates  for  the 
county  of  Bute  (now  Warren  and  Franklin)  4o  attend  the  first  Pro- 
vincial Congress  of  North  Carolina.  Its  sessions  commenced  August 
20th,  in  Hillsborough.  There  were  two  other  ministers  in  the  Con- 
gress, Green  Hill,  a  Methodist,  from  Bute,  and  William  Hill,  the 
father  of  the  present  Secretary  of  State  of  North  Carolina,  a 
Baptist  from  Surrey. 

The  last  resolution  on  the  first  day  was,  "  that  the  Rev.  Henry 
Pattillo  be  requested  to  read  prayers  to  the  Congress  every  morning ; 
and  the  Rev.  Charles  Edward  Taylor  every  evening  during  his' 

On  the  29th  of  that  month  Rev.  Mr.  Boyd  presented  to  the  (km- 
gress  200  copies  of  the  Pastoral  lettor  of  the  Synod  of  Philadelphia 
on  the  subject  of  the  war.    They  were  distributed  among  the  mem^ 

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berS)  and  a  sum  of  money  appropritted  to  the  use  of  Mr.  Boyd,  by 
an  order  on  the  treasurers,  from  the  public  fimds.  Dr.  Witherspoon 
of  New  Jersey  was  Chairman  of  the  Conmiittee  that  prepared  the 
letter,  which  was  unexceptionable  in  its  principles,  except  in  one 
point,  in  which  it  is  behind  the  movements  in  Mecklenburg, — it 
speaks  of  reconciliation  with  the  mother  country  as  possible,  but  as 
a  consequent  of  a  vehement  struggle.  It  however  exactly  suited 
the  prevailing  feeling  in  the  Provincial  Congress  of  Carolina,  the 
majority  of  whose  members  were  not  prepared  to  declare  Independ- 
ence at  that  time,  as  appears  from  their  proceedings  on  Monday, 
September  4th,  on  the  subject  of  the  Confederation  of  the  United 

^^  The  Congress,  resolved  into  a  committee  of  the  whole,  have  ac- 
cordingly and  Unanimously  chosen  the  Rev.  Mr.  Pattillo,  chairman; 
and  after  some  time  spent  therein  came  a  resolution  thereon." 

^^  On  motion,  Mr.  President  resumed  the  chair,  and  Mr.  Chairman 
reported  as  follows,  to  wit :" 

^^  That  the  Committee  have  taken  into  conaderation  the  plan  of 
General  Confederation  between  the  United  Colonies,  and  are  of 
opinion  that  the  same  is  not  at  presait  eligible.  And  it  is  also  the 
opinion  of  the  Committee  that  die  Delegates  for  this  province  ought 
to  be  instructed  not  to  consent  to  any  plan  of  Confederation  which 
may  be  offered  in  an  ensuing  Congress,  until  the  same  shall  be  laid 
before,  and  approved  by,  the  Provincial  Congress. 

"  That  the  present  association  ought  to  be  further  relied  on  for 
bringing  about  a  reconciliation  with  the  parent  state,  and  a  further 
confederacy  ought  only  to  be  adopted  in  case  of  the  last  necessity. 

"  Then  on  motion  resolved, — ^The  Congress  do  approve  of  the 
above  resolutions."  . 

At  their  meeting  aext  spiing  in  Halifax*  1776,  the  Congress  took 
the  ground  of  Independence  some  two  months  before  the  action  of 
the  Continental  Congress,  as  related  in  the  chapter  on  the  Declara- 
tion of  Independence. 

It  will  be  borne  in  mind  that  Mr.  Pattillo  lived  in  the  midst  of  the 
Regulators;  that  some  of  their  largest  assemblages  were  in  the 
bounds  of  his  lai^e  field  of  labor.  And  while  there  was  more  igno- 
rance, than  he  wished  to  see,  among  his  charge,  could  they  be  an 
ignorant  uninformed  people  ? 

In  the  year  1780,  Mr.  Pattillo  became  the  pastor  of  Nutbush  and 
Grassy  Creek,  in  Granville  county,  and  gave  to  them  hb  last  labors, 
ripened  by  age  and  experience.  These  two  congregations  were 
composed  at  first  of  emigrants  firom  Hanover,  New  Kent,  and  King 

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and  Queen,  in  Virginia,  converts  under  the  preaching  of  Rev. 
Samuel  Davies  and  his  coadjutors.  Howel  Lewis,  Daniel  Grant, 
and  Samuel  Smith,  were  the  leading  persons  in- Grassy  Creek.  Mr. 
Lindsey,  Mr.  Simms  and  Mrs.  Gilliam,  the  leading  ones  in  Nut- 

It  is  the  tradition  that  the  first  sacramental  occasion  held  by  Pres- 
byterians in  Granville  was  in  1763,  by  William  Tennant,  Jun.  By 
CHrder  of  the  Sjmod  of  New  York  and  Philadelphia  the  Presbytery 
of  New  Brunswick  ordained  him  for  a  southern  mission  in  1763^ 
His  reasons  for  not  going  that  year  were  sustained.  He  madd  a 
visit  the  next  year,  1763,  in  obedience  to  the  direction  of  Synod — 
**  to  go  and  supply  in  the  bounds,  and  under  the  direction  of  Hano- 
ver Presbytery  six  months  at  least."  The  place  in  which  the  ordi- 
nance was  administered  was  an  unoccupied  house  belonging  to 
Howel  Lewis,  about  one  mile  and  a  half  from  where  Grassy  Creek 
Church  now  stands.  The  congregations  were,  it  is  said,  regularly 
organized  by  Mr.  James  Criswell,  who  was  licensed  by  Hanover 
Presbytery  in  1765,  and  supplied  these  congregations  for  some  years. 
Mr.  Pattillo  was  his  successor. 

Mr.  Tennant  is  represented  as  being  of  a  cheerful  disposition. 
Finding  Mr.  Lewis  in  a  state  of  mental  depression  to  which  he  was 
subject,  and  desponding  on  the  subject  of  religion,  he  made  no  di- 
rect effort  to  dispel  the  gloom,  but  entered  into  cheerful  conversa- 
tion on  the  subject  of  salvation.  Hearing  Mr.  Lewis  order  the  ser- 
vant to  take  Mr.  Tennant's  horse  and  give  him  some  sorry  fodder 
(that  is  com  blades)—"  you  give  my  horse  sorry  fodder,"  exclaimed 
Mr.  Tennant,  as  if  he  took  the  word  sorry  in  its  usual  signification, 
"  a  pretty  fellow  indeed  !"  The  suddenness  of  the  retort  changed 
the  whole  course  of  feeling  in  Mr.  Lewis :  he  burst  into  a  hearty 
laugh,  and  his  depression  was  gone ;  and  in  bis  attendance  on  the 
ministrations  of  the  gospel  from  Mr.  Tennant,  received  great  com- 
fort and  advantage. 

Like  Mr.  Tennant,  Mr.  Pattillo  was  a  cheerfid,  man,  but  far  re- 
moved from  all  levity.  He  says  he  had  a  touch  of  melancholy  in 
his  constitution.  His  circumstances  were  always  narrow,  and  his 
generous  feelings  and  numerous  family  prevented  much  increase  of 
his  worldly  possessions.  His  numerous  calls  as  a  faithful  and  popu- 
lar preacher,  added  to  his  vocation  as  a  classical  teacher,  hindered 
his  pursuit  of  knowledge,  of  which  he  had  an  unquenchable  thirst 
His  health  frequently  became  very  delicate  under  his  continued  and 
exhausting  services ;  and  in  1782  under  the  influence  of  ill  health, 
he  made  a  will  which  is  yet  preserved,  from  which  we  extract  the 

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following  :  **  I  adore  the  blessed  Providence  that  more  especially 
watched  over  me  and  wonderfully  governed  my  steps ;  that  at  the 
commencement  of  my  manhood  rescued  me  from  the  ways  of  sin 
and  the  paths  of  the  destroyer ;  that  made  it  good  for  me  to  bear 
the  yoke  in  my  youth  ;  that  after  many  discouraging  disappoint- 
ments which  I  afterwards  found  were  marciful  interpositions  of  di- 
vine goodness,  my  way  was  opened  to  an  education,  and  I  was 
carried  through  it,  though  poverty  and  a  melancholy  constitution 
darkened  my  prospects,  and  threatened  to  stop  me  at  every  turn. 
The  same  divine  goodness  and  free  mercy  that  had  thus  far  indulged 
my  ardent  wish  and  daily  prayer,  that  I  might  be  qualified  both  by 
lieaven's  grace  and  human  learning  to  preach  the  everlasting  gos- 
pel, was  graciously  pleased  to  call  me  thereto,  and  set  me  apart  by 
the  laying  on  of  the  hands  of  the  Presbytery.    Having,  therefore, 
obtained  help  of  Grod,  I  continue  to  this  day,  having  nothing  to 
complain  of  my  adorable  Master,  for  goodness  and  mercy  have 
followed  me  alL  my  life  long ;  but  have  to  accuse  myself  that 
in  ten  thousand  instances  I  have  come  short  of  the  glory  of  Ood, 
and  have  been  a  very  unprofitable  servant,  in  not  promoting  to  thct 
utmost  my  own  salvation  and  that  of  others.    And  a  great  aggra- 
vation of  this  guilt  is,  that  wherever  I  have  preached  the  gospel 
Ood  has  honored  me  with  such  a  share  of  popularity  and  the  favor 
of  mankind,  as  have  opened  a  door  for  much  more  usefulness  than 
I  have  had  zeal  and  diligence  to  improve.    Look,  gracious  God,  on 
a  creature  all  over  guilt  and  imperfection,  through  the  all-perfect 
righteousness,  wondrous  sufferings  and  glorious  resurrection  of  my 
Lord  Jeeus  Christ,  on  whom  I  cast  myself  for  time  «nd  eternity. 

^^  As  to  my  mortal  part,  let  it  return,  when  He  that  built  it  pleaseth, 
to  the  dust  from  whence  it  was  taken,  and  in  the  next  burying-place 
to  which  I  may  die.  t  commit  it  to  him  who  perfumed  the  grave 
for  his  people's  calm  repose;  who  acknowledges  his  relation  to 
them  even  in  the  dust,  and  I  am  sure  will  new  create  it  by  his 
power  divine." 

By  a  short  will  which  he  made  Dec  19th,  1800,  not  long  before 
his  death,  it  appean  that  in  1784,  the  ^^  united  Presbyterian  con- 
gregations of  Grassy  Creek  and  Nutbush,  by  their  ruling  eldars, 
purchased  of  Mr.  Thomas  Williamson  and  others,  a  tract  of  three 
hundred  acres  of  land,  on  Spicemarrow  Creek,  whereon  I  now  live; 
said  as  the  said  elders  commissioned  and  empowered  the  late  Colo- 
nel Samuel  Smith  as  their  agent  to  make  a  deed  in  fee  simple  for 
the  said  land,  to  the  said  Henry  Pattillo,  which  deed  was  proved  and 
admitted  to  record  by  the  court  of  Granville  county,  at  their  May 

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term,  1784,  on  the  express  condition  of  my  continuing  till  death  or 
disability,  the  minister  of  said  congregation.''  This  condition  was 
fulfilled,  and  a  small  patrimony  was  thus  secured  to  the  family  of  a 
laborious  and  successful  minister  of  the  gospel,  who  had  neither 
disposition  nor  opportunity  to  accumulate  wealth. 

Mr.  Pattillo  pursued  and  finished  bis  classical  and  theological 
course  with  Mr.  Davies  in  Hanover.  Mr.  Davies  contemplated  his 
spending  some  time  in  college.  From  the  short  journal  of  Mr. 
Pattillo,  we  learn  the  cause  why  he  never  followed  out  the  design  of 
his  much  loved  instructor.  At  the  time  he  drew  up  his  short  ac- 
count of  his  experience,  August  10th,  1754,  while  Mr.  Davies  was 
absent  on  a  voyage  to  England,  he  says — ^^  I  have  thus  been  sup* 
ported  by  the  mere  bounty  of  others,  which,  to  the  praise  of  God 
be  it  spoken,  has  always  been  sufficient,  though  on  the  receipt  of  one 
supply,  my  faith  has  been  frequently  baffled  to  see  where  the  next 
should  come  from.  My  discouragements  are  chiefly  these.  The 
difficulties  of  learning ;  the  loss  of  at  least  one-third  of  my  time, 
and  Mr.  Davies's  voyage  to  Europe,  which  has  left  me  without  a 
teacher  this  year  past ;  together  with  the  weakness  of  my  faith  in 
Grod's  providence  respecting  my  support.'^  Mr.  John  Blair  was  then 
on  a  visit  to  Mr.  Davies's  congregation,  as  a  temporary  supply  in 
his  absence.  Of  him  Mr.  Pattillo  makes  this  short  remark — *^  what 
a  burning  light  he  is !''  In  the  few  leaves  oS  the  journal  left,  which 
gives  here  and  there  a  notice  up  to  June  18th,  1767,  which  day 
the  remarkable  thunder  shower  took  place,  as  mentioned  above ;  he 
dwells  mostly  on  his  own  Christian  experience.  He  makes  no  par-  . 
ticular  mention  of  Mr.  Davies's  presence,  or  family,  or  pr^ching ; 
mentions  Mr.  Todd's  meeting,  but  says  nothing  of  him — ^neither 
names  the  persons  with  whom  he  was  pursuing  his  studies  in  com- 

Chi  Monday,  May  30th,  1755,  he  makes  the  following  entry : 
^  Agreeable  to  a  plan  agreed  on  among  us  who  are  studying  with 
a  view  to  the  nunistry,  this  day  is  set  apart  for  fasting  and  prayer. 
Though  my  wants  be  so  numerous  that  I  could  not  name  them  in  a 
whole  day — the  principal  blessings  I  am  this  day  in  pursuit  of  are — 
1st,  Quickening  and  vivacity  in  religion ;  2d,  That  I  may  pursue 
my  studies  assiduously,  and  that  the  great  end  of  them  may  be  4ie 
glory  of  God,  and  the  salvation  of  men ;  3d,  That  religion  may 
revive  where  it  is  professed,  and  spread  where  not  yet  known." 

Some  time  in  the  summer  of  1755,  he  entered  the  married  state. 
He  had  written  to  Mr.  Davies  on  the  subject,  and  received  an  an- 
swer stating  objections  to  the  prudence  of  the  step  at  that  time* 

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222  SKETCHES   OF    IfmiTH    CAROLINA. 

The  leae?©s  of  the  journal  cm  which  the  date  of  these  events,  and 
the  principal  objections  of  Davies  were  recorded,  are  lost.  The 
opinion  of  his  instructor  overcame  him,  and  he  determined  to  aban- 
don the  project,  till  he  came  to  consider  the  situation  of  the  young 
lady  he  had  addressed,  and  whose  affection  he  had  won  ;  upon  re- 
flection he  determined  to  proceed  in  the  business,  and  consummate 
thq  marriage  ;  believing  it  would  not  involve  him  in  pecuniary  dif- 
ficulty ;  that  it  would  not  hinder  his  further  study ;  and  lastly, 
"  That  Mr.  Davies  was  so  well  known  in  the  learned  world  that  a 
person  finished  by  his  hand,  would  not  come  under  contempt  any 
more  than  many  shining  lights  now  in  the  Church,  who  were  edu- 
^cated  before  the  college  was  erected." 

That  he  pursued  his  studies  with  success  after  he.  was  ordained 
to  the  full  work  of  the  gospel  ministry  and  li^d  a  high  rank  as  a 
dasmcal  teacher,  is  inferred  from  the  fact  that  the  college  of  Hamp- 
den Sydney,  Prince  Edward  county,  Virginia,  in  the  year  1787, 
April  jJ5th,  while  under  the  presidency  of  John  B.  Smitli,  conferred 
upon  him  the  Degree  of  Master  of  Arts.  The  parchment  is  ftiU 
preserved,  and  bears,  in  their  own  handwriting,  the  signatures  of 
the  President, — and  John  Nash,  Arch'd  McRoberts,  James  Allen, 
F.  Watkins,  Thomas  Scott,  Richard  Foster,  Richard  Sankey,  and 
Charles  Alton,  Curators. 

In  the  year  1787,  Mr.  Pattillo  issued  from  the  pr^s  in  Wilming- 
ton, a  volume  containing  three  sermons,  viz.,  on  Divisions  among 
Christians,  on  the  Necessity  of  Regeneration,  and  the  Scripture 
Doctrine  of  Election.  To  these,  were  added  an  Address  to  the 
Deists,  and  an  extract  of  a  letter  from  Mr.  Whitefield  to  Mr. 
Wesley.  He  appears  to  have  been  fond  of  the  use  of  his  pen,  as 
fer  as  his  few  hours  of  leisure  would  permit.  A  few  manuscripts 
remain :  some  Essays  on  Baptism ;  on  Universalism ;  a  Cate- 
chism of  Doctrine  for  Youth  ;  and  a  Catechism  or  Compend  in 
Question  and  Answer, 'for  the  us^  of  Adultc  He  also  prepared  a 
Geography  for  Youth,  by  way  of  Question  and  Answer,  which 
must  have  been  superior  to  any  printed  voliune  then  in  use.  He 
also  pubUshed  a  ftennon  on  the  death  of  General  Washington. 
Bw  about  twelve  years  he  taught  a  classical  school  in  Granville  ; 
pat  of  the  time  on  the  place  now  occupied  by  M.  J.  Hunt,  and 
palt  of  thft  time  at  Williamsburgh. 

He  continued  to  serve  the  congregation  of  Nutbush  and  Grassy 
Creek,  till  his  death  in  1801,  having  nearly  completed  his  seventy- 
fifth  year.  He  finished  his  course  at  a  distance  from  home,  in 
Dinvriddie  county,  Virginia,  whither  he  had  gone  as  a  minister  of 

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the  gosgel.  The  Rev.  Drury  Lacy,"  in*  the  sermon  he  pitched  on 
the  occasion  of  his  death,  says — '*  I  was  assured  by  the  gentleman, 
at  whose  house  he  finished  his  course,  that  he  exhibited  the 
greatest  example  of  resignation  and  tranquillity  of  mind  Be  had 
ever  seen." 

The  text  chosen  by  Mr.  Lacy  was  Romans  xiv.,  7  and  8 ;  "  For 
none  of  us  liveth  to  himself ,  and  no  mtan  dieth  to  himself.  For 
whether  we  live,  we  live  unto  the  Lord ;  or  whether  we  die,  we 
die  unto  the  Lord ;  whether  we  live,  therefore,  or  die,  we  are  the 
Lord's J*^  In  giving  the  character  of  Mr.  Pattillo,  he  says — "  Pos- 
sessed of  an  originality  of  genius,  and  endowed  by  natufi  with 
powers  of  mind  superior  to  tlie  conmion  lot  of  men,  he  cheerftjly-*' 
determined  to  consecrate  them  all  to  the  service  of  the  Saviour  in 
the  gospel  ministry^  That  the  Scriptures  were  his  delight,  and 
that  he  meditated  on  them  day  and  night,  so  as  to  become  weU- 
versed  in  their  doctrines  and  precepts,  all  who  had  the  pleasure  of 
his  acquaintance,  all  who  ever  heard  him  preach,  and  all  whff  have 
read  his  printed  works,  cannot  be  ignorant.  That  he  devoted  his 
time  and  talents  to  the  service  of  God,  his  works  of  faith  and 
labors  of  love  among  you,  and,  as  far  as  he  had  an  opportunity,  of 
travelling  to  preach,  abundantly  testify.  His  zeal  was  so  ftur  from 
being  diminished  by  age,  that  it  evidently  appeared  to  increase  ;  as 
if  the  near  prospect  of  obtaining  the  crown  anlbnated  him  to  greater 
exertions  to  be  found  worthy  of  it.  My  hearers !  can  you  have 
forgotten  the  ardor  ajad  pertinacity  of  his  prayers,  the  weight  of 
his  arguments,  the  fervor  of  his  exhortations,  and  the  persuasive- 
ness of  his  counsels  ?  Did  he  not  visit  your  bedside  when  you 
were  sick,  and  there  communicate  heavenly  instructions  to  revive 
your  fainting  spirits,  and  pour  forth  the  fervent  prayer  to  God  that 
your  affliction  might  be  sanctified  ?  And  in  the  social  intercourse 
of  friendship,  you  mual  remember  how  readily  he  improved  every 
occurrence  to  communicate  useful  and  religious  knowledge. 
That  his  life  was  a  pattern  of  resignation  and  thankfulness, 
has  been  remarked  even  by  tliose  who  had  but  a  slight  acquaint- 
ance with  him.  Always  cheerful,  he  seemed'  more  disposed  to 
bless  the  hand  of  providence  for  the  favors  he  enjoyed,  than  to 
think  hardly  of  any  afflictive  dispensation  he  suffered.  When  iww 
r  the  tenor  of  his  soul  so  lost  and  discomposed  as  to  unfil  him  for 
the  discharge  of  the  sacred  duties  of  his  office  ?" 

The  following  extract  from  a  letter  respecting  his  last  hours, 
shows  the  spirit  of  the  man  : — "  He  had  lain  for  several  hours 
with  his  eyes  closed,  speechless,  and  apparently  insensible.     One 

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of  his  friends  requested  to  ask  a  question.  Although  it  would 
have  seemed  hopeless  to  expect  any  remaining  intelligence,  be  had 
a  curiosity  and  desire  to  make  A  last  effort  to  arouse  him.  Placiug 
his  mftuth  near  his  ear,  he  asked,  in  a  loud  tone  of  voice — '  Where 
is  your  hope  none  ?'  The  dying  man  opened  his  eyes,  and  raising 
both  hands,  extended  his  arms  upwards,  as  if  pointing  toward  that 
heaven  which  had  been  the  object  of  hi«  fervent  piayer»,  and  to 
wliich  he  had  constantly  looked  forward  as  the  place  of  his  ever- 
lasting rest."    In  a  short  time  he  entered  into  that  rest. 

Rev.  John  Matthews,  a  member  of  the  Hawfields  church,  who, 
like  Pattillo,commenced  preparations  for  the  ministry  later  in  life 
than^  is  usual,  became  iHtb  Pastor  of  Nutbosh  tad  Graasy  Creek, 
having  received  a  call  April,  1803.  His  preparatory  studies  ,had 
all  been  under  the  direction  of  Dr.  Caldwell,  of  Guilford,  and  his 
license  given  him  by  the  Presbyteiy  of  Oiuge,  at  Barbacue,  in 
the  month  of  March,  1801,  in  company  with  Duncan  Brown, 
Hugh  Shaw,  Murdoch  Murphy,  Murdoch  McMillan,  Malcolm 
McNair,  and  E.  B.  Currie,  all  like  himself  pupils  of  Dr.  Cald- 
well.   The  twe  first  are  still  Uving  in  Tennessee. 

Mr.  Matthews  left  these  congregations  in  1806,  and  removed  to 
Berkeley  county,  Virginia.  From  thence  to  Jeffeison  county ; 
and  is  now  Professor  in  the  Theological  Steminary  at  New  Albany. 

Leonard  Prather  anppUed  them  for  a  short  time  :  but  was  soon 
deposed  for  intemperance. 

His  successor  was  the  Rev.  E.  B.  Currie,  who  left  Bethesda 
and  Greers  in  1809.  He  v^ras  also  a  pupil  of  Dr.  Caldwell.  He 
served  them  till  about  the  year  1819,  when  he  removed  to  Haw- 
fields, and  served  that  congregation  and  Crossroads  till  about  the 
year  1843,  when  hie  infirmities  induced  him  to  give  up  his  charge. 

In  1822,  Rev.  S.  M.  Graham  entered  upon  the  duties  of  pastor  to 
these  congregations,  and  served  them  a  number  of  years  ;  he  now 
holds  the  chair  of  a  Professor  in  the  Union  Theological  Seminary. 


Settlements  of  the  Scotch-Irish  Presbyterians  began  along  fhe 
£no  and  the  Haw  rivers,  about  the  time  that  the  colonies  settled 
in  that  part  of  Lunenburg  county,  Virginia,  now  called  Charlotte, 
on  Cub  Creek  and  the  adjacent  streams,  which  was  about  the 
years  1738  and  1739.  It  is  supposed  that  these  settlements,  and 
those  in  Duplin  and  New  Hanover,  were  the  places  visited  by 
Robinson,  who  is  supposed  to  be  the  first  Presbyterian  missionary 

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seBt  from  Pennsylvania  and  New  Jersey,  that  visited  Iforth  Caro- 
lina, No  other  notice  remains  of'  his  visit,  but  the  fact  that  he 
did  visit  these  ptots,  and  underwent  great  hardships,  from  virhich 
his  constitution  scarcely  recovered.  In  all  probability  the  **  mip- 
plications  "  for  ministerial  vifits  that  were  laid  before  the  Synod 
of  Philadelphia,  then  the  onljr  Synod  of  Presbyterian  clergy  in 
the  Unitid  States,  canK,  in  l»art,  from  the  bounds  of  Orange 
eoonty.  North  Carolina.  The  troubles  and  distractions  that  4it- 
tended  the  difisions  of  the  "^Synod  soon  after,  prevented,  or  in- 
ter>iq)ted  for  a  time,  missionary  operations  to  any  extent,  and  then 
increased  their  number  and  tlwSr  energy. 

Mr.  John  Thomson,  who  was 'Appointed  to  correspond  with  the 
suppUoants,  a  member  of  Donegal  Presbytery,  visited  them  in 
person  in  175U  On  his  journey-;^  CaroUna,  the  arrangement 
"WdLS .  made  with  Mr.  PattiHo  and  dfnother  young  man,  to  return 
\with  hiiXL  to  Pennsylvania,  and  conunence  their  studies  in  prepara- 
tion for  the  ministry.  Mr.  Thomson  made  a  long  stay,  and  in 
the  meantime  the  young  man  relinquishing  his  design  of  study, 
and  Mr  Pavies  giving  Mr.  Pattillo  an  invitation  to  his  house,  the 
design  of  going  to  PenEBBylvania  was  abandoned.  There  remain 
no  memoranda  either  of  the  correspondence  of  Mr.  Thomson  with 
those  desirovi  of  miniilerial  labor^  or  of  his  visit  to  them. 
Neither  is  there  any  document  that  may  give  any  particular  ac- 
count of  the  visits  that  were  made  by  the  various  missionaries 
sent  out  by  the  two  Synods  of  New  York  and  Philadelphia,  till 
the  years  1755  and  1756,  when  Hugh  M'Aden,  a  licentiate  of 
New  Brunswick  Presbytery,  made  a  tour  of  a  year,  a  concise 
journal  of  whose  joumeyings  and  preaching  is  still  preserved,  and 
Miakes  part  of^ another  chapter.  He  visited  the  settlements  on  the 
Eno,  and  preached  for  them  the  second  Sabbath  of  August,  1755, 
lodging  at  the  house  of  Mr.  John  Anderson,  whose  grandchildren, 
som^  of  them,  still  hve  on  the  Eno.  After  a  visit  to  Tar  River, 
he  returned  to  Mr.  Anderson's,  and  on  the  fourth  Sabbath  of  Au- 
gust preached  at  the  Havdields.  Of  the  Eno  settlement  he  says, 
.  they  were  "  a  set  of  pretty  re|plar  Presbyterians,"  who  appeared 
at  that  time  in  a  cold  state  of  rehgious  feeling.  Of  the  Hawfields 
settlement,  he  says,  '^  the  congregation  was  <sluefly  made  up  of 
Presbyterians,  who  seemed  highly  pleased,  and  very  desirous  t0 
hear  the  woid."  The  next  year  they  appUed  to  Hanover  Pres- 
kjrtery  for  supplies. 

These  congregations  on  the  Eno  and  the  Haw  appear  to  have 
been  not  altogether  regular  in  their  ecclesiastical  matters,  for, 


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according  "to  the  st$MKent  of  on  old  elder  of  the  Eno  church, 
Mr.  James  Clark,  who  died  a  few  years  since,  Mr.  Spencer  and 
McWharter,  in  their  mission  to  Carolina  to  organize  and  regulate 
the  congregations,  attended  to  the  organization  of  Eno.  How- 
ever, this  might  refer  only  to  their  boundaries  and  separate  action. 
The  first  elders  were  Thomas  Clark,  John  Tinnier,  and  Cams 
Tinnier.  The  names  of  the  first  elders  in  Hawfields  have  not 
be§n  preserved.  Mr.  Pattillo  was  the  first  settled  minister  of 
these  two  congregations,  which  have  been  the  mothers  of  those 
mm  surrounding  them.  Little  River,  New  Hope,  Fairfield,  and 
Cross  Roads.     He  came  in  1765,  and  left  them  in  1T74. 

The  second  pastor,  the  Rev.  John  Debow,  from  the  Presbytery 
of  New  Brunswick,  began  to  preach  in  these  two  congregations, 
as  a  licentiate,  about  the  year  1775,  and  was  ordained  about  the 
year  1776.  His  remains  were  interred  in  the  grave-yard  that  sur- 
rounds the  Hawfields  meeting-house.  Under  his  ministry  there 
was  a  revival  of  religion,  and  a  goodly  number  were  added  to  the 
churches.  His  death  took  place  in  the  month  of  September, 

The  next  regular  minister  that  remained  with  these  congregations 
for  a  time,  was  Jacob  Lake,  the  brother-in-law  of  Mr.  Debow. 
During  his  ministry  the  congregation  of  Cross  Roads  was  organ- 
ized, being  made  up  of  parts  of  Hawfields,  Eno,  and  Stony 
Creek.     He  left  the  congregation  about  the  year  1790. 

His  successor  was  the  Rev.  William  Hodges,  wl^  is  said  to 
have  been  a  native  of  Hawfields.  Becoming  hopefully  rehgious 
under  the  ministry  of  Mr.  Debow,  he  commenced  preparations 
for  the  ministry.  After  the  death  of  his  spiritual  father,  he  be- 
came discouraged,  turned  his  attention  to  other  things,  and  mai^ 
ried  and  settled  in  the  congregation  of  Hawfields.  During  the 
excitement  which  prevailed  under  the  preaching  of  James 
M'Gready,  on  Stony  Creek,  and  along  the  Haw  River,  in  1789> 
1790,  and  1791,  Mr.  Hodges  felt  his  desire  to  preach  the  gospel 
revive  and  spring  up  with  greater  force  than  ever.  Being  licensed 
by  the  Presbytery  of  Orange,  he  went  heart  and  hand  with 
M'Gready  in  the  work ;  difiering,  however,  so  much  in  his  manner 
of  preaching,  that  the  people  styled  him  the  "  Son  of  Consola- 
tion," and  M'Gready,  Boanerges.  In  1792  he  was  ordained  pastor 
of  Hawfields  and  Cross  Roads,  by  Orange  Presbytery.  During 
his  ministry  many  were  gathered  to  the  church.  About  the  year 
1800  he  removed  to  Tennessee,  and  was  there  an  active  agent  in 
the  **  Great  Revival "  that  spread  over  the  South  and  West. 

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His  successor  was  William  Paisley,  ^^Oeder  whose  ministry  the 
great  revival  of  1802  commenced,  at  the  Cross  Roads,  an  account 
of  which  is  given  under  the  head  of  James  M'Gready,  and  the 
Great  Revival.  The  first  camp-meeting  in  the  South  was  held 
at  Jfowfields,  in  October,  1802,  and  grew  out  of  the  necessity  of 
the  cas«w  The  community  was  greatly  excited  on  the  subject  of 
religion,  and  multitudes,  some  from  a  great  distance,  assembled  at 
Hawfields  for  the^all  connnunion  services.  The  neighborhood 
could  not  accommodate  the  numbers  assembled,  and  theif  anxiety 
to  hear  the  gospel  wa^too  great  ta  permit  them  to  return  to  *eir 
homes ;  they  therefore  remained  on  the  ground,  camping  with 
their  wagons  for  three  or  four  days,  getting  their  necessary  supplies 
as  they  could.  So  great  was  the  interest  excited,  and  so  great  the 
enjoyment,  and  the  profit  supposed  to  be  derived  from  the  meet- 
ing, that  the  example  was  followed  extensively  throughout  the 
wtole  upper  country  of  North  CaroUna.  The  custom  of  spending 
three  or  four  days  encamped  at  the  place  of  worship,  during  com- 
munion occasions,  extensively  prevails  to  this  day.  Near  most  of 
the  churches,  that  follow  this  habit,  cabins  are  built  for  the  ac- 
commodation of  the  worshippers,  and  for  the  season  the  whole 
neighborhood  give  themselves  up  to  the  exercises  of  the  meeting. 
In  Hawfields,  the  interest  and  attendance  are  yet  unabated. 

After  serving  the  congregations  about  twenty  years,  Mr.  Paisley 
removed  to  Greensborough  ;  and  is  still  able  to  preach  occasion- 
ally, though,  through  infirmities  of  age,  he  has  declined  being  pastor 
of  a  congregation. 

His  successor,  the  Rev.  Ezekiel  B.  Currie,  passed  his  early 
life  in  several  different  congregations  in  Orange  and  Guilford 
counties,  but  chiefly  on  the  Haw  River.  His  father  lived  for  a 
time  in  Alamance  congregation,  in  Guilford ;  from  thence  removed 
to  Sandy  River,  in  the  upper  part  of  Orange,  near  Randolphs 
During  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  on  account  of  the  hostility  of 
the  tories  in  that  neighborhood,  he  was  compelled  to  leave  his 
home,  and  hide  himself.  Making  a  visit  to  his  family  he  was  dis- 
covered and  seized  by  the  tories,  wounded,  and  left  for  dead,  and 
his  property  carried  away.  The  scars  of  these  wounds,  received 
ia  this  attack,  he  carried  upon  his  head  to  his  grave.  After  being 
broken  up  on  Sandy  River,  he  removed  to  Haw  River  congrega- 
tion, whose  place  of  worship  was  about  three  miles  north  of  Gum 
Grove,  the  old  burying-ground  being  still  visible. 

A  remark  made  by  an  old  gentleman  who  had  sat  silently  by  the 
fire-side,  while  young  Currie  and  others  were  making  merry  one 

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eyening,  was  blest  to  awaken  him  to  the  danger  he  was  in  as  a 
sinner.  When  the  company  were  about  to  break  up,  the  old  gen- 
tleman turned  to  him  and  said — "  Young  man,  when  will  you  turn 
to  serious  things  ?"  This  troubled  his  mind  greatly.  His  con- 
version he  attributes,  under  God,  tp  the  ministry  of  Mr.  M'Gready, 
for  whom  he  entertained  the  highest  regard  through  his  whole  life. 
His  education  he  obtained  from  two  sources,  Dr.  Caldwell  of 
Guilford,  and  Mr.  M'Gready.  The  latter  taught  school  at  his 
residence,  between  three  and  four  miles  below  High  Rock,  about 
mid-way  between  his  two  places  of  preaching.  Haw  River  and 
Stony  Creek.  The  principal  part  of  his  instruction,  however, 
was  from  Dr.  Caldwell. 

In  the  month  of  March,  1801,  at  Barbacue  church,  Cumber- 
land coupty,  Messrs.  Ezekiel  B.  Currie,  John  Matthews,  Duncan 
Brown,  Murdock,  McMillan,  Malcolm  McNair,  Hugh  Shaw,  and 
Murdock  Murphy,  were  licensed  to  preach  the  gospel  by  Orange 
Presbytery.  These  had  all  received  their  education  principally 
under  Dr.  Caldwell,  and  were  influenced  more  or  less  by 
M'Gready,  to  seek  the  ministry.  All  were  actors  in  the  great 
revival  of  1802,  and  onwards.  Four  of  them  are  still  living ;  two 
of  whom  are  honored  with  the  title  of  D.D.,  Brown  and  Matthews. 
Two  of  them  were  particularly  useful  in  building  up  the  churches 
that  now  constitute  FayetteviUe  Presbytery,  McMillan  and" 

Soon  after  his  licensure,  Mr.  Currie  went  to  Bethany  church,  in 
Caswell ;  to  which  Greers  was  soon  united.  After  spending  about 
seven  years  in  these  congregations,  he  was  removed  to  Nutbush 
and  Grassy  Creek,  in  Granville  ;  and  from  thence,  in  the  year 
1819,  to  Hawfields  and  Cross  Roads.  About  the  year  1843  he 
withdrew  from  the  pagtoial  charge  of  these  congregations,  on  ac- 
count of  the  infirmities  of  age,  but  still  Uves  to  preach  occasion- 
ally, and  to  witness  the  successful  labors  of  his  successor  in  these 
two  congregations,  constituting  one  of  the  largest  and  most  inte- 
resting charges  in  North  Carolina,  which  has  been  blessed  with 
revivals  from  its  origin. 

After  Cross  Roads  was  united  with  Hawfields  in  the  service  of 
a  pastor,  Eno,  which  had  at  first  been  its  partner,  was  united  with 
Little  River,  which  became  a  distinct  congregation  about  this  time, 
under  the  charge  of  Rev.  James  H.  Bowman,  in  the  year  1794. 
In  the  great  revival  in  1802,  and  onwards,  he  gathered  a  goodly 
number  into  his  two  churches.     His  ministry  closed  in  1816. 

His  successor  was  Samuel  Paisley,  half-brother  of  Wm.  Pais- 

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ley,  and  son  of  an  Indian  captiye,  who  connnenced  his  labors  here 
in  1816.  In  1821  the  congregations  were  blessed  with  a  revival 
of  religion  that  brought  numbers  into  the  church.  After  some 
years  of  service,  Mr.  Paisley  left  them,  and  is  now  ministering  in 
Moore  county,  a  member  of  Fayetteville  Presbytery. 

The  Rev.  Messrs.  Professor  Philips,  of  the  University,  Elijah 
Graves,  afterwards  a  missionary,  Daniel  G.  Dock,  Thomas  Lynch, 
and  finally,  John  Paisley,  each  served  the  congregation  of  £no  for 
a  short  time.  The  last  finished  his  earthly  course  in  the  congre- 
gation. Of  him  a  member  of  the  congregation  thus  writes :  '^  His 
labors,  no  doubt,  were  blessed,  during  his  short  stay  with  us.  The 
good  seed  he  has  sown  seems  to  be  springing  up ;  and  even  some 
sheaves  ready  to  be  gathered  in ;  for  in  a  few  days  we  expect  a 
goodly  number  to  come  forward  in  that  old  church,  and  declare 
themselves  to  be  on  the  Lord's  side."  After  expressing  a  desire 
that  his  name  may  be  remembered,  he  goes  on  to  say,  "  he  was 
not  only  a  preacher  in  the  pulpit,  but  his  daily  walk  and  private 
conversation  savored  of  the  spirit  of  his  Master.  His  Bible  classes 
were  large,  and  his  examinations  extremely  interesting.  But  O, 
sir,  we  can't  tell  why  it  was  that  he  so  soon  finished  his  work. 
His  Master  called,  and  he,  v^th  his  lamp  trimmed  and  burning,  was 
ready  to  go.  His  disease,  perhaps  a  complicated  one,  baffled  the 
skill  of  some  three  or  four  eminent  physicians.  The  anxiety  mftni- 
fested  by  his  congregations,  and  all  who  knew  him,  was  great  in- 
deed. But  it  was  the  Lord's  doing,  and  we  must  submissively 
say,  *  Even  so,  Father,  for  so  it  seemed  good  in  thy  sight.' "  The 
aged  minister  goes  down  like  a  shock  of  com  fully  ripe ;  the 
youthftil  servant  leaves  us  in  amazement,  and  wonder,  and  tears. 

The  Eno  and  Hawfields  congregations,  extending  from  Hillsbo- 
rough to  the  Haw  River,  were  the  scene  of  many  of  the  doings  of 
the  Regulators.  Not  a  few  of  the  people  were  engaged  in  the 
proceedings  of  these  slandered,  yet  brave  men.  Understanding 
their  rights  of  person  and  property,  they  could  not  restrain  their 
indignation  imder  the  complicated  and  long-continued  impositions 
of  those  who,  acting  imder  the  protection  of  the  crown,  exacted 
unheard  of  taxes  from  honest,  unsuspecting  men ;  selling  the  same 
piece  of  land  to  difierent  individuals,  and  receiving  the  pay  firom  all, 
without  redress ;  exacting  pay  over  and  over  again  from  the  same 
individuals  for  the  same  tract,  under  various  pretexts ;  and  setting 
at  defiance  all  law  and  order.  If  these  people  had  not  resisted, 
they  would  have  been  unworthy  of  their  ancestors  and  the  religion 
they  professed.    That*  many  base  and  unprincipled  men  took  ad- 

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Tantage  of  the  disturbance  and  distress,  to  conunit  heinous  offences 
against  the  peace  of  society,  and  in  defiance  of  all  law,  is  a  thing 
to  be  lamented,  but  not  to  be  charged  too  severely  upon  men  who 
were  willing  to  live  peaceably,  and  would  have  been  loyal  had  not 
"  oppression  driven  them  mad." 

Tryon's  march  the  day  before  the  Regulation  battle,  was  through 
these  congregations ;  and  the  heavy  oath  of  allegiance  was  exacted 
as  the  price  of  their  property  and  hves,  after  the  governor's  victory. 
Upon  the  conscientious  part  of  the  community,  that  oath  sat  with  a 
gaUing  weight ;  although  many  felt  themselves  relieved  by  the  feet 
that  the  king  could  neither  enforce  his  laws  nor  defend  his  subjects ; 
yet  some  suffered  imder  its  influence  during  the  whole  war — not 
daring  to  take  up  arms  for  their  country,  and  not  disposed  to  enlist 
among  her  enemies.  Such  people  often  suffered  the  ill-deserved 
odium  of  being  tones,  and  felt  the  ill-effects  of  a  bad  name. 
Few  real  tories  were  found  in  the  Presbyterian  population  of 
Orange.  The  most  vehement  enemies  that  ComwaUis  met,  had 
been  under  the  instruction  of  Presbyterian  ministers.  The  first 
settled  minister  of  Hawfields  and  Hico  sat  in  the  first  Provincial 
Congress  of  Carolina,  and  on  alarms,  met  with  his  people,  to 
encourage  them  by  precept  and  example,  to  defend  their  country 
and  their  religion.  Comwallis  found  Hillsborough  and  its  neigh- 
boAood  little  less  inviting  than  Charlotte,  which  he  named  "  the 
Hornets'  Nest ;"  and  very  few  grown  men  firom  Hillsborough  to 
the  5Jaw,  were  unacquainted  with  service  in  the  camp,  and 
marches,  and  plunderings,  while  his  lordship  remained  in  Orange. 
And  in  the  fiiture  history  of  Carolina,  the  war  of  the  Regulation 
will  stand  prominent  as  the  struggle  of  liberty  and  justice  against 
oppression,  not  less  glorious  than  Lexington  and  Bunker  Hill,  for 
the  principles  displayed,  though  less  honored  for  the  immediate 

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The  congregations  of  Buffalo  and  Alamance,  the  two  eldest  and 
largest  of  the  Presbyterian  denomination,  and  probably  of  anjr 
other,  in  the  county  of  Guilford,  have  had  the  singular  privilege  of 
enjoying  the  regular  ministrations  of  the  gospel,  with  little  inter- 
mission, for  more  than  eighty  years  in  conjunction  with  each 
other,  dividing  the  Sabbaths — and  from  two  men.  The  time  of 
the  ministerial  relation  of  the  Rev.  Messrs.  David  Caldwell  and 
Eli  W.  Caruthers  with  these  congregations,  extends  from  about 
the  time  of  the  organization  of  Alamance,  in  the  year  1764,  to  the 
present  day  ;  an  incontestible  evidence  of  their  stability,  and  the 
irreproachable  lives  of  their  pastors. 

'*  A  Sketch  of  the  Life  and  Character  of  the  Rev.  David  Cald- 
well, D.D.,"  by  Mr.  Caruthers,  his  successor  in  the  ministry, 
replete  with  various  information,  gives  all  of  importance  that  can 
be  collected,  concerning  the  eariy  life  of  that  venerable  man,  who 
finished  his  course  in  the  one  hundredth  year  of  his  age,  and  the 
sixty-first  of  his  ministry. 

David  Caldwell,  born  March  22d,  1725,  in  Lancaster  county, 
Pennsylvania,  was  the  son  of  a  respectable  farmer,  in  good  worldly 
circumstances,  and  of  unblemished  Christian  character.  After 
receiving  the  rudiments  of  an  English  education,  he  was  bound 
apprentice  to  a  house  carpenter,  and  served  till  the  legal  period, 
the  age  of  twenty*one.  After  working  at  his  trade,  as  a  journey- 
man, for  about  feur  years,  at  the  age  of  twenty-five  he  was 
admitted  to  the  communion  of  the  church,  on  a  profession  of  his 
fiedth.  As  soon  as  the  hope  in  Christ  was  formed  in  his  heart,  he 
began  most  earnestly  to  desire  an  education  for  the  purpose  of 
becoming  a  minister  of  the  gospel.  His  thirst  for  information 
became  a  passion,  and  his  desire  to  be  useful  in  the  ministiy 
increased  to  intense  earnestness,  and  he  resolved  to  sacrifice  time, 
and  labor,  and  his  portion  that  might  fall  to  him  from  his  father's 
estate,  to  satisfy  these  strong  desires  of  his  heart.  With  unwea- 
ried perseverance,  he  pursued  the  object  of  his  desire,  and  received 

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his  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts,  firom  Princeton  College,  in  the 
year  1761,  the  year  that  President  Daries  died.  He  was  then 
thirty-six  years  of  age. 

Some  part  of  his  preparatory  course  was  under  the  tuition  of 
Rev.  Robert  Smith,  of  Pequa,  the  father  of  John  B.  Smith,  so  fa- 
vorably known  in  Virginia  as  President  of  Hampden  Sydney  Col- 
lege, and  of  Samuel  Stanhope  Smith,  known  both  at  Hampden 
Sydney  and  Princeton.  After  receiving  his  degree  he  resorted  to 
school-teaching,  as  he  had  often  done  before,  and  passed  a  year  in 
that  employ  at  Cape  May.  Returning  to  Princeton,  he  ¥ras  en- 
gaged in  the  duties  of  a  tutor  in  College,  and  in  the  study  of  theo- 
logy in  preparation  for  licensure.  He  was  taken  ^der  the  care  of 
New  Brunswick  Presbytery  at  its  meeting  in  Princeton,  Sept. 
28th,  1762,  having  given  the  brethren  "good  satisfaction  as  to  his 
motives  in  wishing  to  enter  the  ministry."  After  repeated  trial  of 
his  proficiency  and  aptness  to  teach,  he  was  licensed  by  that  Pres- 
b)rtery  on  the  8th  of  June,  1763. 

He  left  no  account  of  his  Christian  experience,  or  of  the  trials 
and  labors  undergone  in  the  course  of  study,  preparatory  to  his 
entrance  upon  the  work  of  the  ministry.  Some  anecdotes  which 
have  been  treasured  up  as  having  fallen  from  his  lips,  illustrate  his 
spirit.  In  order  to  obtain  some  necessary  funds,  he  sold  his  undi- 
vided patrimony  to  his  brothers ;  and  in  order  to  encourage  them 
to  make  greater  efforts  to  raise  the  money,  and  prevent  aD  objec- 
tion, he  rated  his  share  much  below  its  real  value.  The  agreement 
was  verbal,  but  at  the  settlement  of  the  estate  he  confirmed  it  in 
writing,  making  a  journey  firom  Carolina  expressly  for  that*  pur- 
pose. While  in  college  he  pursued  his  studies  in  a  manner  that 
must  have  been  ruinous  to  most  men,  often  passing  the  night  in 
the  summer  season,  without  either  undressing  or  lying  down, 
sleeping  with  his  head  upon  his  crossed  arms,  under  Uie  open  win- 
dow;  an  evidence  of  a  strong  constitution  and  untiring  persever- 
ance, rather  than  of  genius  or  prudence. 

After  supplying  various  vacancies  in  the  bounds  of  the  Presby- 
tery, from  the  time  of  his  licensure  till  the  following  summer,  Mr. 
Caldwell  visited  North  Carolina.  The  records  of  the  Synod  of 
New  York  and  New  Jersey  have  the  following  minute  at  their 
meeting  in  EUzabethtown,  May  23d,  1764  :  "  Several  supplica- 
tions firom  North  CaroUna  were  presented,  earnestly  praying  for 
suppUes,  which  were  read  and  urged  with  several  verbal  relations 
representing  the  stale  of  the  country."  After  speakiiig  of  the  aip- 
pointment  of  Mr.  Charles  Jef.  SmiUi  and  Mr.  Amos  Thompson  as 

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missionaries,  the  minute  proceeds — "  Mr.  David  Caldwell,  a  can- 
didate, of  New  Brunswick,  is  appointed  to  fD  as  soon  as  possible, 
but  not  to  defer  it  longer  than  next  fall,  and  supply  under  the 
direction  of  the  Hanover  Presbytery."  This  Presbytery  at  that 
time  was  the  only  one  south  of  the  Potomac  in  connection  with 
the  Synod,  and  its  boundaries  on  the  south  were  indefinite. 
There  was  an  independent  Presbytery  in  South  Carolina. 

While  Mr.  Caldwell  was  in  the  course  of  his  preparatory  studies 
for  college,  a  company  of  his  friends  emigrated  to  North  Carolina, 
and  took  their  residence  on  Buffalo  Creek  and  Reedy  Fork ;  and 
before  their  departure  from  Pennsylvania,  made  overtures  to  him, 
that,  upon  his  being  licensed,  he  should  visit  them  in  their  new 
abode  for  the  purpose  of  becoming  their  preacher.  In  about  a 
year  after  he  commenced  preaching,  he  was  sent  as  a  missionary 
by  the  Synod  to  the  south,  and  passed  through  the  congregations 
and  settlements  in  the  upper  part  of  Carolina,  and,  among  others, 
the  settlements  of  his  old  friends.  The  emigration  had  been  con- 
tinued, and  many  pious  people  having  come  to  the  wilderness,  the 
congregation  of  Buffalo,  whose  place  of  worship  is  about  three 
miles  from  Greensborough,  had  been  organized  according  to  the 
rules  of  the  Church.  Settlements  had  been  formed  on  the  Ala- 
mance, and  in  1764,  the  year  of  his  visit,  the  Rev.  Henry  Pattillo, 
who  was  afterwards  the  minister  of  Hawfields  and  Little  River, 
organized  a  church  called  Alamance,  whose  preaching-place  is 
about  seven  miles  frooi  Greensborough,  and  about  the  same  dis- 
tance from  Buffalo. 

These  two  congregations  united  in  desiring  Mr.  Caldwell  for 
their  minister;  though  of  different  sentiments  about  the  late 
divisions  in  the  Presbyterian  church,  both  were  orthodox  in  their 
creed,  and  firmly  attached  to  the  Presbyterian  forms ;  but  the 
Buffalo  church  was  composed  of  members  that  were  of  the  Old 
Sidcy  as  they  were  termed,  and  the  Alamance  of  those  who  sided 
with  New  Light  or  New  Side^  or  as  they  sometimes  distmguished 
themselves, /oZ/ou?ed  Whitefield,  This  division  into  Old  Side  and 
New  Side  is  by  no  means  to  be  considered  as  similar  to  the  divi- 
sions made  some  years  since  in  the  Presbyterian  church  under  the 
names  of  Old  and  New  School.  The  latter  division  was,  in  a 
great  measure,  brought  about  by  different  sentiments  on  iiqportant 
theological  subjects ;  the  former  principally  by  a  difference  about 
the  nature  of  revivals  and  proper  measures  to  be  used,  and  also 
the  propcff  qualifications  for  the  ministerial  office.    The  full  and 

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satisfactory  history  may  be  found  in  Hodge's  Constitutional  His- 
tory of  the  Presbyterian  church. 

Mr.  Caldwell^  appointment  as  a  missionary  was  renewed  next 
year  by  the  Synod.  Philadelphia,  May  20th,  1765.  "  In  conse- 
quence of  sundry  applications  from  North  Carolina  for  suppUes, 
the  Synod  appoint  Messrs.  Nathan  Kerr,  George  Duffield,  William 
Ramsay,  David  Caldwell,  James  Latta,  and  Robert  McMordie,  to 
go  there  as  soon  as  they  can  conveniently,  and  each  of  them  to 
tarry  half  a  year  in  those  vacant  congregations,  as  prudence  may 
direct."  The  Presbytery  of  New  Brunswick  held  a  meeting  in 
Philadelphia,  and  took  the  necessary  steps  preparatory  to  the  or- 
dination of  Mr.  Caldwell ;  and  received  a  call  from  the  churches 
of  Buffalo  and  Alamance  for  his  ministerial  labors.  July  5th,  1765, 
at  Trenton,  New  Jersey,  he  was  ordained  to  the  full  work  of  the 
gospel  ministry,  and  dismissed  to  join  the  Presbytery  of  Hanover ; 
and  as  the  congregations  making  the  call  were  under  the  care  of 
that  Presbytery,  he  was  directed  to  make  known  to  it  his  deter- 
mination respecting  the  acceptance.  He  proceeded  forthwith  to 
Carolina,  and  entered  upon  his  labors  as  minister  of  the  two  con- 
gregations ;  was  a  corresponding  member  of  Hanover  Presbytery 
at  its  meeting  at  the  Red  House,  Caswell  county,  June  4th,  1766. 
He  neither  joined  the  Presbytery  at  that  time,  nor  accepted  the  call 
of  the  two  churches ;  and  it  was  not  till  the  11th  of  October,  1767, 
he  was  received  as  a  member,  and  not  till  the  3d  of  March,  1768, 
that  the  installation  services  were  performed,  in  compliance  with  a 
request  made  the  preceding  fall.  The  Rev.  Hugh  McAden  of  the 
Red  House,  preached  the  installation  service,  and  performed  the 
services  prescribed  by  the  form  of  government.  In  the  latter  part 
of  the  year  1766  he  was  married  to  Rachel,  the  third  daughter  of 
Rev.  Alexander  Craighead,  the  minister  at  Sugar  Creek,  and  became 
a  housekeeper  in  that  part  of  his  congregation  then  within  the 
bounds  of  Rowan  county,  previous  to  the  formation  of  Guilford 
from  Rowan  and  Orange,  the  place  of  his  residence  till  his  death, 
in  1824. 

As  the  congregations  had  promised  him  but  two  hundred  dollars 
salary,  he  felt  the  necessity,  from  the  first,  of  making  provision  for 
his  family,  and  accordingly  purchased  a  small  farm,  on  which 
through  hfe  he  depended  in  part  for  the  comforts  of  his  household. 
He  commenced,  too,  at  his  house  a  classical  school,  which,  with 
some  few  short  interruptions,  he  continued  till  the  infirmities  of  age 
disqualified  him  for  the  duties  of  teacher.  This  was  the  second 
classical  school  of  permanence,  and  perhaps  the  first  in  usefrilness. 

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in  the  upper  part  of  Carolina ;  that  in  Sugar  Creek  being  probably 
the  first ;  and  that  of  Mr.  Pattillo,  in  Granvifle,  being  the  third. 
Delighting  in  the  employment  of  teacher,  having  a  peculiar  tact 
for  the  management  of  boys,  and  being  thorough  in  his  course  of 
instruction,  his  school  flourished,  and  was  the  means,  during  the 
long  period  of  its  continuance,  of  bringing  more  men  into  the  learn- 
ed professions  than  any  other  taught  by  a  single  individual  or  by  a  ' 
succession  of  teachers  during  the  same  period  of  time.  Five  of 
his  scholars  became  Governors  of  States;  a  number  were  promoted 
to  the  bench,  of  whom  were  Murphy  and  McCoy  ;  a  larger  num- 
ber, supposed  about  fifty,  became  ministers  of  the  gospel,  of  whom 
were  Dr.  McCorkle,  of  Thyatria,  Dr.  Matthews,  of  New  Albany, 
Indiana,  Dr.  Brown,  of  Tennessee,  and  many  others  that  were 
shining  lights ;  a  large  number  were  physicians  and  lav^ryers.  Of 
those  whose  names  have  been  mentioned  as  eminent,  most,  if  not 
all,  received  their  entire  classical  education  from  him,  and  the 
ministers  of  the  gospel,  in  addition  to  that,  their  theological  edu- 
cation ;  so  that,  for  a  time,  his  school  was  academy,  coHege,  and 
theological  seminary.  The  number  of  students  attending  was 
generally  from  fifty  to  sixty  ;  and,  assembled  from  different  parts 
of  the  State,  put  his  powers  of  government  to  the  test.  These 
must  have  been  extraordinary ;  as  it  is  not  recollected  by  any  of 
his  family,  or  any  of  his  pupils  living,  that  any  student  was  ever 
expelled,  or  sent  away  for  improper  conduct.  His  students  loved, 
reverenced,  and  obeyed  him.  And  such  was  the  impression  made 
upon  the  minds  of  those  under  his  discipline,  that  an  instance  was 
known  of  a  student,  with  whom  the  Dr.  was  compelled  to  be  very 
severe,  in  after  life  riding  more  than  two  hundred  miles,  for  the 
sole  purpose  of  revisiting  the  scenes  of  his  school  days,  and  once 
more  taking  the  Dr.  by  the  hand. 

There  were  frequent  times  of  revival  in  his  school.  An  aged 
minister  told  Mr.  Caruthers  that  himself  and  nine  of  his  schoolmates 
became  pious  while  under  his  tuition,  and  all  entered  the  ministry. 
The  influence  of  Mrs.  Caldwell  over  the  students  was  great,  and 
all  in  favor  of  religion ;  on  that  subject  she  was  their  confidant 
and  lulviser.  Intelligent,  prudent,  kind,  and  conciUating,  she  won 
their  hearts  and  directed  their  judgments,  and  the  current  saying 
through  the  country  was,  "  Dr.  Caldwell  makes  the  scholar^,  and 
Mrs.  Caldwell  makes,  the  ministers."  Multitudes  will  rise  and 
call  her  blessed.  The  Rev.  E.  B.  Currie,  still  living,  speaks  of 
her  as  a  wonderful  woman  to  counsel  and  encourage,  having  felt 
in  his  own  case  her  extraordinary  power,  while  a  member  of  tho 

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school.  A  precious  revival  took  place  under  the  ministrations  of 
Rev.  James  M'Gready,  who  visited  thft  tchool,  and  was  the  happy 
means  of  leading  many  to  Christ. 

In  addition  to  the  numerous  labors  belonging  to  his  multiplied 
callings,  the  condition  of  his  people  turned  his  attention  to  the 
practice  of  medicine.  There  being  no  physician  in  the  neighbor- 
hood, or  within  many  miles,  the  sick  turned  their  attention  to 
their  minister,  in  the  double  capacity  of  physician  for  the  soul  and 
for  the  body.  He  procured  some  books  and  read  carefully ;  a 
physician  by  the  name  of  Woodsides  came  and  resided  a  year 
in  his  family,  and  practised  in  the  congregations  ;  at  his  death  Mr. 
Caldwell  came  in  possession  of  his  books ;  Dr.  Rush,  who  was 
a  college  mate,  was  his  correspondent  through  life ;  with  these  ad- 
vantages, his  patience  and  perseverance  triumphed,  and  in  all  the 
common  diseases  of  the  country  he  became  celebrated,  and  also 
in  some  of  much  greater  difficulty.  He  continued  the  practice  of 
medicine  till  his  fourth  son  was  prepared  to  take  his  place  ;  and 
then,  except  in  very  special  cases,  he  declined  further  service. 

The  Rev.  E.  B.  Currie,  one  of  his  pupils,  says,  "  Dr.  Caldwell's 
life  was  rather  a  life  of  labor  than  of  study ;  and  when  we  con- 
sider that  he  had  a  large  school,  which  he  attended  five  days  in 
the  week ;  two  large  congregations  which  he  catechised  at  least 
twice  in  the  year  four  communions,  which  always  lasted  four 
days  each,  besides  his  visiting  the  sick,  frequently  preaching  in 
vacant  congregations,  etc.,  etc.,  we  can  see  there  was  not  much 
time  left  for  study ;  but  he  was  a  close  student  when  opportunity 
offered."  During  the  first  sixteen  or  eighteen  years  of  his  minis- 
try he  studied  closely.  Retiring  to  rest  at  ten,  and  rising  at  four, 
he  redeemed  time  for  regular  and  protracted  study.  His  library 
being  destroyed  during  the  war,  and  his  public  duties  increasing, 
as  his  strength  decayed,  he  was  of  necessity,  rather  than  inclina- 
tion, less  studious  in  the  latter  part  of  his  life.  That  he  might 
preserve  his  health,  he  was  strictly  temperate  in  eating  and  drink- 
ing, and  always  kept  some  work  of  manual  labor  of  importance 
ready,  to  exercise  himself  every  day,  when  not  called  firom  home. 

At  a  meeting  of  Hanover  Presbytery,  held  at  Buffalo  meeting- 
house, March,  1T70,  a  petition  was  prepared  for  Synod,  asking  for  a 
Presbytery  for  Carolina  and  the  South.  This  petition  was  grant- 
ed in  May,  and  the  Rev.  Messrs.  Hugh  McAden,  Henry  Pattillo, 
James  Criswell,  David  Caldwell,  Joseph  Alexander,  Hezekiah 
Balch,  and  Hezekiah  James  Balch,  were  constituted  a  Presbytery 
by  the  name  of  Orange,  to  meet  at  the  Hawfields  ;  and  the  Rev. 

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Henry  Pattillo,  the  pastor,  to  open  the  Presbjrtery  with  a  sermon. 
This  Presbytery  has  flourished  greatly,  its  congregations  are  nu- 
merous, and  at  the  present  time  there  are  three  Presbyteries  in  the 
State  of  North  Carolina,  in  the  bounds  occupied  by  this,  besides 
those  in  South  Carolina  which,  for  a  time,  were  reckoned  as  be- 
longing to  its  bounds. 

Dr.  Caldwell  and  Mr.  Pattillo  were  near  neighbors  for  a  few 
years.  Whether  Mr.  Pattillo  taught  school  during  the  five  or  six 
years  he  preached  at  the  Hawfields,  is  not  distinctly  known ; 
that  he  did  after  his  removal,  and  for  a  long  time,  is  well  known ; 
and,  also,  that  his  circumstances  required  him  to  have  a  greater 
income  than  his  ssdary.  The  probability  is  that  he  pursued  a 
course  similar  to  that  pursued  by  Dr.  Caldwell.  The  famous 
Regulation  battle,  May  16th,  1T71,  took  place  in  the  region  lying 
between  their  respective  fields  of  labor.  Both  congregations  were 
deeply  and  generally  involved  in  the  troubles  that  brought  the 
contest,  and  partook  fully  of  the  spirit  that  prompted  the  re- 
sistance, and  were  sharers  in  the  battle.  Of  the  part  that  Mr. 
Pattillo  took  we  have  no  account  left,  either  in  manuscript  or  tra- 
dition ;  but  firom  his  after  history,  which  is  well  known,  we  feel 
at  no  loss  to  conjecture.  Dr.  Caldwell  sympathized  with  his 
congregations  in  their  troubles,  and  in  their  resistance.  That 
such  men  as  Pattillo  and  Caldwell  were  the  ministers  of  four  large 
congregations,  which  embraced  the  space  of  country  in  which  the 
principal  localities  of  the  Regulation  difiSculties  are  found,  entirely 
forbids  the  idea  that  the  Regulators,  as  a  body,  were  untaught  and 
saviage,  or  unprincipled  men.  The  congregations  of  these  men 
read  their  Bibles,  heard  no  indifferent  preaching  on  the  Sabbath, 
and  had  committed  the  admirable  formulary — the  Shorter  Cate- 
chism of  the  Westminster  Assembly,  which  they  were  taught  to 
believe,  and  to  reduce  to  practice ;  and  if  they  read  few  other 
books,  and  seldom  saw  a  newspaper,  it  is  evident  they  understood 
the  laws  of  Nature  and  the  laws  of  God,  and  were  ready  to 
defend  the  privileges  and  rights  which  the  king's  oflicers  trampled 
on  then,  but  all  the  world  concedes  now. 

When  the  governor  was  marching  against  the  encampment  or 
gathering  of  the  Regulators,  with  the  evident  intention  of  giving 
them  battle,  the  cool  calculating  mind  of  Caldwell  clearly  saw  that 
the  probability  of  success  was  entirely  with  the  governor.  With 
him  were  ofi&cers  that  had  seen  service,  and  some  field  ordnance^ 
and  men  that  had  been  disciplined ;  on  the  other  side,  the  side  of 
his  friends,  was  courage,  a  sense  ti  oppression,  confidence  in  the 

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right  of  their  cause,  and  a  belief  that  the  governor  would  not 
attack  them,  and  could  not  beat  them  if  he  did, — ^but  no  discipline, 
no  field  ordnance,  no  experienced  military  officer,  not  even  a  com- 
mander-in-chief, or  a  council  of  coDMnanders,— every  man  obeyed 
whOQ)  he  chose,  and  few  chose  to  command. 

Dr.  Caldwell  visited  both  parties,  for  the  purpose  of  proposing 
terms  of  accommodation,  and  was  treated  with  respect  by  Tryon. 
On  the  morning  of  the  battle  he  had  an  interview  with  both,  still 
hoping  to  prevent  the  effusion  of  blood  ;  and  warned  by  an  old 
Scotchman,  who  understood  the  movements  in  the  governor's  line, 
he  had  left  the  ranks  of  the  Regulators  but  a  few  moments  before 
the  firing  began.  There  were  many  brave  spirits  from  the  con- 
gregations of  Buffalo  and  Alamance,  in  that  battle,  whom  no 
remonstrance  could  drive  from  the  ranks  and  fortunes  of  their 
fellow  Regulators.  That  the  loss  of  that  battle  was  not  owing  to 
want  of  courage,  may  be  argued  from  the  spirit  displayed  by  the 
people  of  these  congregations  during  the  war  which,  in  a  few 
years,  succeeded. 

The  battle  was  lost  to  the  Regulators,  and  in  the  murderous 
executions  that  followed,  there  was  evidence  that  same,  at  least, 
of  the  Regulators,  knew  how  to  die  like  men  and  Christians.  It 
is  by  no  means  improbable  that  the  proportion  of  such  in  the 
camp,  was  equally  as  great  as  in  the  prison.  That  there  were 
unprincipled  men  among  the  Regulators  is  well  known,  and  was 
regretted  then  as  much  as  criticised  now ;  but  that  the  mass  were 
men  of  principle  and  morals,  true  friends  of  their  country,  and 
lovers  of  liberty  and  law,  there  is  less  doubt  now  than  there  Was 
then.  H  living  in  log  cabins,  with  none  of  the  luxuries  of  life, 
makes  men  vulgar,  and  lawless,  and  ignorant,  then  these  men 
were  all  their  enemies  charged  upon  them,  and  merited  neither 
success  nor  sympathy.  But  if  devotion  to  principles  and  country 
makes  men  patriots,  then  the  graves  of  the  Regulators  are  the 
bed  of  the  "  Sons  of  Liberty." 

The  executions  being  finished,  and  the  oath  of  allegiance  be- 
ing administered,  the  governor  left  the  country  in  triumph,  trust- 
ing to  the  binding  force  of  an  oath  to  preserve  the  peace  and  quiet 
he  vainly  supposed  were  established  in  the  State.  His  trust  in 
the  binding  influence  of  the  oath  was  not  misplaced,  for  these 
men  had  knowledge,  and  they  had  a  conscienee ;  they  dreaded 
the  judgment  of  Him  who  has  said  that  liars  shall  not  have  a 
portion  in  the  heavenly  inheritance.  When  the  national  Dedwa- 
tion  of  Independence  was  made,  and  the  war  of  the  Revolution 

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vras  begun,  then  commenced,  in  the  counties  of  Orange  and  Rowan, 
and  those  formed  from  them  to  break  up  the  influence  of 
the  Regulators,  the  contest  in  many  a  brave  man's  mind  between 
his  love  of  liberty  and  his  sense  of  obligation.  By  his  oath  he  had 
saved  his  property,  and  perhaps  his  life  ;  by  hfs  condition  his  iieart 
was  with  his  countrymen.  Must  he  serve  his  king  or  join  with  his 
coimtrymen?  Here  the  patriotism  and  cool  calculation  of  Dr. 
Caldwell  manifested  itself.  He  argued  with  his  people  that  alle- 
giance and  protection  were  inseparable ;  that  as  the  king  had  not 
protected  them  from  the  rapacity  which  had  driven  them  to  rebel- 
lion on  a  former  occasion,  and  was  not  able  to  assert  his  authority 
over  the  country  now,  their  oath  of  allegiance,  which  had  been 
exacted  by  force,  was  no  longer  binding.  The  independent  State 
of  North  Carolina  demanded  their  services,  and  the  Congress  of 
the  Uni^d  Colonies  called  for  their  aid ;  to  fight  for  the  king  would 
be  to  resist  the  established  government.  With  some  the  argument 
was  satisfactory ;  they  took  up  arms  and  served  through  the  war ; 
others  remained  neutral ;  and  some  few  took  arms  for  the  king. 
The  active  tories  were  from  another  race  of  people  in  Orange. 
By  the  erection  of  the  county  of  Guilford,  in  1770,  from  the 

rmrnti^l^  ^f  Or^ngft  ^tiH  l^nF^"|  ^h^  rnn^Pgntinn  nf  Knffaln  em- 
braced the  centre,  and  had  the  county-seat  within  its  bounds,  a  few 
miles  from  the  residence  of  Dr.  Caldwell.  Guilford  Court-house 
virill  be  known  as  long  as  the  history  of  the  American  Revolution 
is  read ;  and  the  suflerings^and  bravery  of  the  four  large  congre- 
gations rf  Eno,  Hawfields,  Buffalo,  and  Alamance,  can  never  be 
unknovioi  while  constancy  and  bravery  are  admired.  These  con- 
gregations were  the  scene  of  the  plunderings  of  the  hungry,  needy, 
irritated  army  of  Comwallis,  after  he  had  butaed  his  baggage  and 
lost  the  object  6niis~pursuit,  and  found  himself  far  from  his  stores, 
and  in  an  enemy's  country.  The  detail  of  plundered  houses,  in- 
sulted women,  and  murdered  men,  is  too  sickening  to  be  dwelt 
upon.  The  catalogue  of  suflierings  would  fill  a  volume.  And  of 
these  Dr.  Caldwell  had  his  full  share.  Hie  house  was  plundered, 
his  library  and  valuable  papers  destroyed,  his  property  stolen,  and 
he  himself,  watched  for  as  a  felon,  passed  nights  in  the  woods  in  a 
secret  place.  He  heard  the  roar  of  the  battle  of  Guilford  Court- 
house, and  lejoiced  in  the  consequent  retreat  of  CoiwaUis.  But 
hm  joy  was  mingled  with  sorrow,  for  the  victory  was  purchased 
with  the  blood  of  some  of  his  people.  But  with  the  retreat  of 
CiM^iwallis,  the  savage  warfare  between  whigs  and  tories  raged 
more  violently  for  a  time,  and  then  came  to  an  end ;  and  the  dis- 

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tressed  congregation  of  Dr.  CaldweR  had  a  respite  from  the  horrors 
of  war. 

It  is  a  fact  worthy  of  observation,  that  the  track  of  the  armies 
through  North  Carolina,  previous  to  thft  battle  of  Guilford,  em- 
braced the  residence  of  the  Scotch-Irish,  and  Scotch  families, 
and  put  to  the  test  the  solemn  asseveration  in  the  two  declarations 
that  the  cause  of  independence  should  be  defended  at  the  cost  of 
^^  life,  fortune,  and  most  sacred  honor P  How  far  Dr.  Caldwell 
was  prepared  to  vindicate  that  pledge,  can  be  seen  in  the  extended 
account  of  his  trials  and  sufferings,  given  by  Mr.  Caruthers. 
Slow  to  engage  in  warfare,  timorous  in  provoking  bloodshed, 
when  the  warfare  and  the  battle  came  he  stood  his  ground  pre- 
pared to  suffer,  with  his  flock,  the  last  extremity,  and  escaped 
captivity  and  death  only  by  the  special  providence  of  God.  Many 
and  many  a  time  did  the  British  and  tories  lie  in  wait  for  him, 
and  watch  his  house,  and  make  sudden  visits,  and  use  false  pre- 
tences to  draw  him  from  his  hiding-place ;  and  once  so  well  was 
the  story  feigned,  that  the  prudence  and  foresight  of  his  wife  was 
ov6rreached,  and  the  hiding-place  discovered.  But  God  pre- 
served him  in  all  emergencies,  that  God  in  whom  he  put  his 
trust,  and  when  the  enemy  were  rejoicing  that  now,  at  last,  he 
was  discovered,  they  found  his  rude  shelter  deserted. 

After  the  peace.  Dr.  Caldwell's  labors  as  teacher  and  preacher 
returned  upon  him  with  increased  weight.  Though  by  his  own 
vote  in  the  convention  of  1776,  which  formed  the  constitution  of 
the  State  of  North  Carolina,  and  drew  up  the  Bill  of  Rights,  he 
could  not  be  a  member  of  the  legislature  without  laying  down  his 
ministerial  oflSce,  his  influence  with  political  men  was  rather  in- 
creased, and  his  unobtrusive  opinions  carried  great  weight  with 
all  that  knew  him.  Pattillo  was  member  of  the  first  Provincial 
Congress,  in  1775,  and  Caldwell  of  the  State  Convention,  in 
1776.  It  is  a  matter  of  tradition  that  he  drew  up  the  32d  article : 
"  That  no  person  who  shall  deny  the  being  of  God,  or  the  truth 
of  the  Protestant  religion,  or  the  divine  authority  either  of  the  Old 
or  New  Testament,  or  who  shall  hold  religious  principles  incom- 
patible with  freedom  and  safety  of  the  State,  shall  be  capable  of 
holding  any  office  or  place  of  trust  or  profit,  in  the  civil  depart- 
ment within  the  State."  The  preceding  section  disqualifies 
preachers  of  the  gospel  for  the  legislative  functions,  in  virtue  of 
their  office.  The  convention  of  1835,  to  amend  the  constitution, 
changed  the  word  "  Protestant "  in  the  32d  section  to  "  Ckru- 

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Dr.  Caldwell  harmonized  With  the  paper  drawn  up  by  Dr. 
£phraim  Brevard,  in  the  fall  of  1775,  which  probably  he  never 
saw ;  both  felt  that  anti-protestant  belief  in  rehgion  was  anti-republi- 
can, and  therefore  not  to  fte  encouraged ;  both  desired  freedom  of 
cmiscience  for  all  Protestant  denominations ;  neither  aske^  any 
reprisals  on  the  denomination  that  had  been  the  favorite  of  the 
crown,  and  the  State  religion  of  the  colony  ;  neither  desired  any 
privileges  for  their  own ;  both  desired  that  Jthe  Protestant  religion 
should  be  the  religion  of  the  State,  and  that  all  denominations 
should  be  equally  free  from  all  disabilities  and  all  patronage, 
fiilly  believing  that  religion  would  support  itself. 

While  Dr.  Caldwell  sought  public  favor  neither  for  himself  nor 
his  family,  public  favor  sought  them.  When  the  present  system 
of  district  courts  went  into  operation,  there  were  many  applica- 
tions to  the  judge,  for  the  office  of  clerk  of  Guilford  county.  On  the 
day  of  opening  the  court,  public  expectation  was  high,  from  the 
number  of  candidates,  and  the  uncommitted  silence  of  the  judge. 
Calling  to  Lawyer  Cameron,  then  at  the  bar,  now  Judge  Cameron 
of  Raleigh,  he  requested  him  to  act  as  clerk  that  day,  and  also  to  see 
if  Dr.  Caldwell  was  on  the  ground.  To  both  of  these  requests, 
Mr.  Cameron  assented ;  and  finding  the  old  gentleman  in  the  midst 
of  a  circle  of  his  friends,  he  introduced  him  to  the  judge's  room. 
After  a  kind  salutation  from  his  former  pupil,  the  Dr.  was  surprised 
by  the  inquiry,  "  Have  you  a  son  qualified  for  the  office  of  clerk  of 
this  county  ?"  After  some  reflection,  he  rephed  that  he  thought 
not,  as  none  of  them  had  been  educated  in  prospect  of  such  em- 
ployment After  some  persuasion  from  the  judge,  he  agreed  "  to 
•go  home  and  look  them  over,  and  give  him  word  the  next  day." 
As  aot  a  word  of  this  was  pubhc,  expectation  was  higher  than  ever, 
as  the  applicants  saw  Mr.  Cameron  act  as  clerk,  and  not  a  single 
intimation  from  the  judge  who  should  fill  the  office  The  next 
morning,  the  Dr.  appeared  at  the  judge's  room,  and  entered  with 
one  of  his  sons ;  saluting  the  judge,  and  turning  to  his  son,  "  Here, 
judge,  I  have  done  the  best  I  could."  McCoy  conferred  on  him 
the  office  ;  and  neither  the  judge  nor  the  county  have  had  cause 
to  regret  the  appointment. 

During  the  last  war,  when  a  draught  was  caUed  for  from  Guil- 
ford, and  the  attempt  to  meet  the  demand  by  volunteers  was  likely 
to  fail  from  the  great  reluctance  of  the  citizens  to  go  to  the  sea- 
shore of  a  neighboring  State,  whose  fame  for  healthiness  ranked 
no  higher  than  Norfolk  did  at  the  time.  Dr.  Caldwell,  by  request, 
addressed  the  people  in  the  court-house.    Through  infirmity,  he 


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was  carried  to  the  magistrate's  bench  ;  and  having  preached  firom 
the  words,  "  He  that  hath  no  sword,  let  him  sell  bis  garment  and 
buy  one  ;"  with  all  the  infirmities  of  age  upon  him,  he  produced 
such  a  feeling  among  the  young  men,  that  the  required  list  was 
inunodiately  filled  out.  This  was  patriotic  in  him,  who,  knowing 
the  horrible  evils  attending  armies,  was  opposed  to  the  war  in  the 
conmiencement ;  but  in  its  advancement,  remembered  that  he  was 
a  citizen  of  the  United  States,  and  that  he  must  stand  or  fall  with 
his  country. 

Dr.  Caldwell  knew  what  affliction  was  "from  experience,  for 
God  saw  it  not  best  that  his  laborious  servant  should  fulfil  his 
ministry  without  sharp  trials.  And  in  choosing  his  afflictions,  the 
Lord  his  Saviour  proportioned  their  measure  to  his  usefulness  and 
influence,  sending  upon  him  as  bitter  a  cup  as  could  probably  have 
come  to  him,  without  the  ingredients  of  sinfulness  or  death. 
First,  a  daughter  of  superior  endowments  and  liberal  education, 
gave  evidence  that  reason  had  lost  its  dominion  ;  and  all  the  skill 
of  his  firiend^^^sB>could  not  bring  it  back  to  its  throne.  Then  a 
son,  and  then  another  son,  wks  added  to  the  list  by  a  mysterious 
providence.  The  venerable  parents  bowed  in  submission  ;  and  in 
meekness  and  parental  fondness  watched  over  these  erratic,  yet 
not  harmful  children.  They  never  recovered  the  right  use  of 
their  reason.  The  son  that  preached  for  a  time  at  Rocky  River, 
was  splendid  in  his  ruins. 

When  the  University  of  North  Carolina  went  into  operation,  he 
declined  being  considered  a  candidate  for  the  Presidency.  As  a 
mark  of  their  respect  for  his  character  and  usefulness,  the  trustees 
conferred  upon  him  the  degree  of  D.D.,  at  an  early  stage  of  their 
proceedings,  when  a  spirit,  not  the  most  firiendly  to  religion,  was 
exercising  a  temporary  influence  in  their  councils. 

Dr.  Caldwell  continued  his  pastoral  services  till  about  the  yair 
1820 ;  often,  from  weariness,  on  his  return  home,  requiring  assist- 
ance to  dismount,  and  being  carried  into  his  house.  On  the  25tlh  of 
August,  1824,  he  literally  fell  asleep,  to  wake  no  more  till  the 
Resurrection,  his  earthly  pilgrimage  having  continued  a  period 
lacking  only  about  seven  months  of  a  hundred  years.  He  went  to 
his  grave  like  a  shock  of  com  fully  ripe. 

One  of  his  sons  was  for  many  years  pastor  of  Sugar  Creek,  the 
congregation  of  his  grandfather  Craighead;  and  one  of  his  grand- 
sons for  a  term  of  years  ministered  to  the  same  congregation. 
"  The  seed  of  the  righteous  is  blessed." 

Mrs.  CaTdwell  survived  her  husband  less  than  a  yeaur ;  and  de- 

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paited  in  the  exercise  of  a  good  hope,  thiough  grace,  of  everlasting 
life.  Her  refoains  were  laid  beside  those  of  Dr.  Caldwell.  A 
marble  slab  marks  the  place  of  sepulture  of  this  venerable  pair, 
near  Buffalo  church,  the  place  in  which  they  had  so  often  wor- 
shipped God. 

There  is  an  interesting  tradition  connected  with  the  family  of 
William  Paisley,  of  Alamance,  The  well-attested  facts  and  dates 
respecting  Mrs.  Paisley,  mother  of  the  Rev.  Samuel  Paisley,  as 
received  from  the  son,  are — ^That  she  used  to  say  that  she  had  no 
recollection  of  ever  seeing  father,  mother,  brother,  or  sister ;  that 
it  was  understood  that  the  Indians  killed  her  father,  and  that  her 
mother  died  soon  after  him  ;  that  Mr.  Smith  and  Mr,  Clack  used 
to  say,  the  Indians  bad  the  child ;  that  she  never  spoke  of  her 
captivity ;  that  she  was  reared  and  educated  by  the  Rev,  James 
Davenport,  of  Pennington ;  that  she  went  to  school  to  a  Mr,  Ches- 
nut,  an  Englishman,  about  twenty  miles  from  Philadelphia;  that 
William  Paisley  became  acquainted  with  her  there,  and  gaining 
iier  affections,  he  took  her  to  Philadelphia,  where  they  werocanrried 
by  Rev.  William  Tennant,  in  the  year  1763,  in  her  20th  year;  Aat 
they  went  to  Princeton,  and  Kved  there  till  afterthe  birthof  their  eldest 
son,  and  then  removed  to  North  Carolina.  The  tradition  in  Jersey 
ubout  this  lady  is — ^That  the  Rev.  James  Davenport,  whose  wife's 
maiden  name  was  Paine,  was  from  New  England,  and  settled  first 
on  Long  Island,  in  New  York,  and  from  thence  removed  to  Pen- 
nington, New  Jersey,  and  was  pastor  of  the  chur<;h  there  for  many 
years ;  that  he  obtained  the  child  from  the  Indians,  gave  it  the 
name  of  Deliverance  Paine,  and  reared  it  carefully  as  his  own. 

Miss  Sally  Martin  and  Miss  Phoebe  Davis  lived  together  a  long 
tinm  in  Princeton,  New  Jersey,  taught  school,  and  had  the  first 
instruction  of  almost  all  the  children  of  the  place.  Miss  Davis  is 
still  living  (1846).  These  ladies  used  to  tell  the  children  about 
little  Dilly  Paine,  as  is  well  recollected  by  some  that  went  to  school 
to  them,  and  re-affirmed  by  Miss  Davis^pon  inquiry,  in  1844  ; 
that  the  Indians  brought  her  along  and  cld^pd  her  as  theirs,  and  said 
she  had  no  parents ;  but  would  not  tell  where  nor  how  they  got  her, 
nor  give  her  up  to  the  white  people  ;  that  getting  out  of  provisions, 
and  having  nothing  to  buy  with,  and  becoming  wearied  of  carrying 
the  child  with  them,  they  sold  her  to  Mr,  Davenport,  for  a  loaf  of 
bread  and  a  bottle  of  rum.  With  him  the  little  orphan  grew  up 
and  lived  till  her  removal  to  Carolina, 

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About  twelve  miles  south  of  Charlotte,  on  one  of  the  routes  to 
Camden,  you  will  find  in  a  beautiAil  oak  grove,  through  which  the 
great  road  passes,  the  place  of  assemblage  for  the  worship  of  God, 
of  the  church  and  congregation  of  New  Providence,  or  Providence, 
as  it  is  now  more  commonly  caUed.  Here,  as  in  revolutionary 
times,  are  gathered  from  Sabbath  to  Sabbath,  the  inhabitants  of  a 
large  section  of  country,  which  was  the  scene  of  many  thrilling  in- 
cidents, when  Lord  Comwallis,  with  his  royal  army,  tested  the  prin- 
ciples of  the  North  Carolina  Presbyterians.  The  name  of  the  con- 
gregation was  adopted  from  one  in  Pennsylvania,  and  as  an  acknow- 
ledgment of  a  kind  providence  in  the  circumstances  of  the  settle- 
ment of  the  congregation,  particularly  in  their  being  unmolested  by 
the  Indians. 

Owing  to  the  distance  of  this  country  from  a  printing  press,  be- 
fore and  for  some  time  after  the  revolution,  few  books  or  pamphlets 
are  to  be  found  under  the  name  of  any  of  the  Presbyterian  minis- 
ters that  labored  so  unremittingly  among  the  churches  of  this  inte- 
resting population.  The  law  of  custom  had  d^ided  that  the  de- 
struction of  manuscripts  was  a  part  of  preparation  for  death,  as 
solemn  and  indispensable  as  the  making  the  last  will  and  testament 
Very  little  of  the  records  of  the  thoughts  of  these  men  have  been 
preserved  from  this  destruc^n.  And  the  unfortunate  burning  of 
some  houses,  together  with  the  carelessness  of  those  who  might 
have  rescued  some  things  from  oblivion,  leaves  the  present  genera- 
tion in  wondering  ignprgiice  of  the  trials,  and  energy,  and  princi- 
ples of  those  brave  an(||^ttcellent  men. 

The  grave  of  but  one  mii)Aster  is  found  in  the  b|irial-place  at 
Providence.  Step  into  the  yard  a  few  paces  from  the  church,  and 
among  the  chiselled  names  of  Stitt,  Potts,  McKee,  Rea,  Patterson, 
McCullock,  and  M»tthews,  the  oldest  of  which  b'^ars  date  of  1764, 
you  will  find  the  plam  monument  of  Walli^,  who  served  the  con- 
gregation fi*om  1792  Jill  1819.  His  mother's  monument  you  will 
find  in  the  old  grave-yard  of  Sugar  Creek,  in  the  comer  opposite  to 
Craighead's  sassafiras  trees.    Of  the  previous  ministers  the  accounts 

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are  scanty,  especially  as  the  congregation  was  not  so  fortunate  as 
some  of  its  neighbors  in  retaining  its  ministers  for  a  protracted 
period.  Of  Idr.  Wallis,  we  shall  say  more  in  the  close  of  this 

Settlements  in  the  bounds  of  this  congregation  were  made  about 
the  same  time  as  those  in  Sugar  Creek,  and  Steel  Creek,  and  Rocky 
River,  and  by  the  same  kind  of  emigrants.  The  first  ministerial 
labors  the  settlement  enjoyed,  beside  what  they  could  receive  from 
Mr.  Craighead,  were  from  the  Rev.  William  Richardson,  who  was 
licensed  by  Hanover  Presbytery,  at  a  meeting  at  Capt  Anderson's, 
in  Cumberland,  Virginia,  Jan.  25th  1768.  On  the  18th  of  July 
following,  at  the  first  meeting  of  the  Presbytery  after  the  union  of 
the  Synods  of  New  York  and  Philadelphia,  held  in  Cumberland, 
Mr.  Richardson  and  Mr.  Pattillo  were  ordained.  He  was  appointed 
to  attend  at  Rocky  River  on  the  27th  of  the  September  following, 
to  perform  the  installation  services  for  Mr.  Craighead,  being  on 
his  way  to  the  Cherokees.  How  long  he  remained  with  the  Chero- 
kees  is  not  known.  In  1761,  he  iU  reported  as  having  left  Hanover 
Presbytery,  and  joined  the  Presbytery  in  South  Carolina,  not  in  con- 
nection with  the  Synod.  In  1762,  the  Presbytery  sustained  his 
reasons  for  joining  that  Presbytery  without  dismission  from  his  own, 
with  which  he  was  in  regular  connection. 

Mr.  Richardson  was  the  maternal  uncle  of  the  famous  Wm.  Rich- 
ardson Davie,  so  noted  in  the  southern  war,  adopted  him  as  his 
son,  superintended  his  education,  and  made  him  heir  of  an  estate, 
every  shilling  of  which  Davie  expended  in  equipping  the  corps  of 
which  he  was  made  Major  in  1780. 

How  long  he  preached  in  Providence  is  not  known.  His  resi- 
dence was  in  South  Carolina. 

The  first  elders  in  the  church  were  Andrew  Rea,  Archibald 
Crocket,  Joshua  Ramsey,  and  Aaron  Howie.  For  some  time  pre- 
vious to  the  organization  of  the  church  in  1765,  there  had  been 
but  one  place  acknowledged  as  the  place  of  worship  by  the  people 
of  this  congregation,  and  that  is  the  grove  where  the  meeting-house 
now  stands,  in  the  shade  of  whose  trees  the  first  public  worship  was 
celebrated  until  a  house  was  built 

In  1766,  there  is  a  notice  on  the  records  of  the  Synod  of  "  a  call 
for  settlement  among  them,  from  Steel  Creekjoid  New  Providence." 
Aboirt  this  time  t/tr.  Robert  HenTypvtCo  gathered  the  church' tm 
Cub  Creek,  Virginia,  resolved,  after  ministering  to  that  charge  for  a 
number  of  years,  to  leave  them ;  and  an  engagement  was  made  for 
his  services  in  these  two  congregations.    By  the  records  of  the 

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Hanover  Presbytery,  it  appears  he  was  dismissed  from  Cub  Creek 
in  1766 ;  and  his  death  is  reported  to  the  Presbytery  as  having 
taken  place  May  8th,  1767.  • 

The  following  articles  of  agreement  between  Providence  and 
Clear  Creek  (now  called  Philadelphia)  have  been  preserved  by 
Wm.  Queary.  "  Whereas,  the  representation  of  both  congrega- 
tions doth  unanimously  agree  among  themselves,  in  the  names  of 
both  the  aforesaid  congregations,  to  stand  and  abide  by  each  other 
from  time  to  time  through  all  difficulties,  in  order  to  obtain  tl^e 
labors  of  a  gospel  minister,  that  is  to  say,  the  one-half  of  lus 
labors  to  one  congregation,  and  the  other  to  the  other.  And  for  a 
true  and  sincere  union  for  the  truth  of  the  aforesaid  articles,  the 
representation  of  both  congregations  hath  hereunto  subscribed  their 
names,  Jan.  27th,  1770.  New  Providence — ^John  Ramsey,  James 
linn,  John  Hagens,  James  Houston,  Andrew  Reah,  James  Drafien,  I 

James  Johnston,  James  Teate,  Thomas  Black,  Robert  Stewart:  . 

Clear  Creek — Adam  Alexander,  Matthew  Stewart,  John  Queary,  ' 

Michael  Ligget,  John  Ford."  j 

Two  of  the  above  names  appear  in  the  list  of  the  Mecklenburg 
Declaration,  viz: — Adam  Alexander  and    John  Queary,  whid^  I 

shows  that  the  men  were  public-spirited  men,  that  formed  this  rep-  | 

resentation.    But  we  have  no  memoranda  now  to  inform  us  of  the  | 

effects  of  this  union  upon  the  religious  concerns  of  the  congregation. 
Neither  have  we  any  detailed  account  of  the  ecclesiastical  concerns 
of  the  congregation  during  the  arduous  struggle  of  the  Revolution. 
It  is  known  that  Thomas  Reese  preached  in  Mecklenburg  for  some 
time  when  the  other  congregations  were  generally  supplied  with  at 
least  some  part  of  the  services  of  a  minister  ;  and  that  from  his  pen 
emanated  some  of  the  effective  papers  that  moved  the  inhabitants  of 
Mecklenburg ;  he  is  supposed  to  have  given  some  part  of  his  time 
to  Providence.  Mr*  McRee  came  from  Steel  Creek  to  supply  the 
pulpit,  for  some  time,  as  he  says  he  often  rode  from  home  to  preach 
for  them  on  the  Sabbath.  Mr.  Archibald  came  over  from  Rocky 
River  and  I^oplar  Tent,  and  supplied  them  for  a  season.  The  Rev. 
David  Barr  labored  in  the  bounds  for  some  time,  but  did  not  make 
it  his  permanent  residence. 

The  congregation  lying  on  the  route  of  the  armies  moving  north 
or  south,  suffered  its  full  share  in  the  plunderings  which,  by  the 
acMunt  of  the  British  historians,  were  severe,  at  the  time  Comwallis 
moved  on  to  Charlotte.   The  night  before  he  approached  that  village,  , 

he  encamped  in  Providence,  on  the  ground  occupied  by  Colonel 
Davie,  with  the  few  American  forces  that  behaved  so  nobly  when 



united  to  the  few  militia  and  volunteers  that  joined  them  in  Char- 
lotte, ^'  keeping  in  check  the  whole  British  army."  The  greatest 
trial  in  the  war  was  upon  those  neighborhoods  and  sections  of  coun- 
try sul]3ected  to  the  plunderings  of  the  anny  of  the  king.  It  was 
not  a  sudden  and  great  danger,  or  even  bloodshed,  in  a  good  cause, 
by  assault  or  regular  battle,  in  which  the  excitement  of  the  occasion 
carries  the  spirit  triumphant  through.  But  an  annoyance  in  the 
smaller  matters  of  property,  and  the  private  concerns ;  a  taking 
away  of  the  comfort  of  domestic  life,  a  harassing  of  defenceless  fe- 
males and  helpless  age  and  children ;  and  this  continued  from  day 
to  day,  when  all  the  enthusiasm  of  excitement  had  spent  it^  force ; 
and  principle  itself  could  scarce  sustain  the  accumulated  weight  of 
numberless  petty  privations  and  aggravations,  crowned  as  they 
sometimes  were  with  conflagration  and  butchery,  that  entailed  exile 
or  poverty.  It  is  a  matter  of  admiration  that  under  the  pressure  of 
all  these  evils  so  few  of  the  inhabitants  in  Mecklenburg  ever  thought 
of  deserting  the  cause  of  liberty,  or  of  ^^  taking  protection,"  though 
many  families  saw  their  wealth  swept  with  a  merciless  hand.  And 
the  few  that  yielded  in  the  trial  were  subjects  of  commiseration 
rather  than  of  severe  censure  and  harsh  denunciation^ 

James  Wallis,  who  was  the  first  minister  that  gave  protracted 
service  to  Providence,  spent  his  ministerial  life  in  the  congregation. 
He  was  bom  in  1762,  in  Sugar  Creek,  son  of  Ezekiel  Wallis.  His 
early  education  was  at  Liberty  Hall  in  Charlotte ;  and  his  college 
course  was  completed  at  Winnsborough,  South  Carolina^  under  Dr. 
Barr.  He  was  ordained  pastor  in  1792,  by  the  Presbytery  of  Or- 
ange, and  never  changed  his  congregation  till  death. 

Soon  after  entering  upon  his  office  in  this  congregation,  com- 
menced a  new  and  till  then  unknown  conflict  about  the  Bible. 
That  the  Presbyterian  ministers  south  of  Yadkin  had  been  true  pa- 
triots, no  man  in  the  country,  or  in  the  British  army,  pretended  to 
deny.  Their  names  were  not  unknown  in  the  camp ;  and  the  pul- 
pits of  the  seven  churches  poured  forth  the  highest  intellectual  ef-^ 
forts  in  discussing  the  rights  of  man,  and  sustaining  the  sinking 
spirits  of  the  distressed  country,  by  the  abounding  consolations  of 
the  word  of  God.  The  minister  and  his  congregation  prayed, — the 
father  in  his  family  prayed, — the  soldier  in  his  tent,  and  in  the 
woods,  prayed, — and  the  oommander  at  the  head  of  the  forces  often 
commenced  the  march  with  prayer.  And  it  was  no  idle  form  of 
prayer,  but  a  pouring  out  of  the  heart  to  God  Almighty  for  his  pro- 
tection in  the  struggle  for  liberty  and  truth. 

Dr.  Robinson,  of  Poplar  Tent,  used  to  tell  an  anecdote  of  an  old 

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gentleman,  by  the  name  of  Alexander,  in  one  of  the  neighbmng 
congregations,  that  did  not  think  of  neglecting  his  religious  duties 
though  called  into  camp  as  a  soldier.  Being  sent  out  to  intercept 
some  tories,  very  early  one  morning,  when  his  post  was  assigned 
him,  with  the  general  orders  to  wait  their  near  approach  and  take 
sure  aim,  he  took  the  opportunity  for  a  few  moments  of  devotion. 
Taking  off  his  hat  he  knelt  down  in  the  attitude  of  a  worshipper  ; 
upon  the  near  approach  of  the  enemy  he  resumed  his  post  and 
waited  the  signal.  The  unhappy  tory  that  encountered  the  shot  of 
his  rifle  fell  dead.  The  whole  party  of  tories  were  soon  dkpersed 
or  taken.  As  in  the  time  of  Cromwell  the  praying  soldiers  did  not 
nm  or  play  the  coward. 

When  the  war  was  over,  then  came  the  other  contest  of  fearful 
import,  whose  influence  was  felt  everywhere,  but  nowhere  in  Caro- 
lina with  more  violence  than  in  Mecklenburg  county.  The  author- 
ity of  the  king  had  been  discussed  and  set  aside ;  the  battle  between 
the  crown  and  the  people  had  been  fought,  and  won  by  the  people. 
Then  came  the  discussion  about  the  dominion  of  conscience — ^what 
should  govern  conscience,  philosophy  or  the  Bible  1  Should  philo- 
sophy dictate  to  the  Bible,  or  the  Bible  to  all  the  world  ?  The 
authority  of  the  Bible  imderwent  a  sifting  discussion,  such  as  Caro- 
lina had  never  seen,  and  may  never  see  again.  From  the  nature  of 
the  case  that  discussion  was  vehement  in  Mecklenburg,  and  from 
accidental  circumstances  embittered  in  Providence.  A  debating 
society, — and  debating  societies  for  political  purposes  were  conamon 
in  those  days, — was  formed  in  the  region  of  country  embracing  a 
part  of  Sugar  Creek,  and  Steel  Creek  and  Providence,  and  fumidied 
with  a  circulating  library,  replete  with  infidel  philosophy  and  infi- 
del sentiments  'on  religion  and  morality.  Everything  of  a  religious 
nature  was  called  in  question  and  discussed ;  and  the  standard  of 
opposition  was  raised  with  a  boldness  becoming  a  better  cause. 
Caldwell  of  Sugar  Creek,  and  Wallis  of  Providence,  brothers  in  the 
ministry,  and  sons-in-law  of  John  M'Knitt  Alexander,  were  in  the 
hottest  of  the  battle,  as  infidelity  is  never  so  outrageous  as  when  it 
takes  its  seat,  or  strives  to  take  it,  in  a  Christian  conmiunity. 

With  different  natural  temperament,  they  met  the  strife  like 
courageous  men:  Caldwell,  cool,  clear  and  amiable,  and  loved 
where  he  could  not  convince;  Wallis,  clear,  strong,  ardent,  and 
more  dreaded  though  less  loved ;  both  unfaltering,  and  unwearied 
and  honored.  Caldwell  left  politics  to  other  hands,  and  preached 
the  gospel ;  Wallis  proclaimed  the  great  principles  of  democracy 
as  part  of  his  creed ;  and  unmrted,  with  them,  the  unlimited  control 

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of  the  word  of  God  in  all  matters  pertaining  to  conscience,  whether 
public  or  private.  He  prq)ared  a  pamphlet  in  which  were  con- 
densed the  argmnents  of  Watson,  Paley  and  Leslie,  and  circulated 
it  anuMig  his  people  and  through  the  country.  A  pamphlet  as  well 
calculated  to  produce  the  effect  designed — ^the  exhibition  of  the  evi- 
dences of  revelation  in  contradiction  to  all  infidel  notions — ^has  sel- 
dom been  issued  from  the  press.  A  reprint  would  be  advantageous 
where  discussion  on  the  subject  of  revelation  is  called  for. 

The  debating  society  embraced  wealth  and  talent,  and  for  a  time 
maintained  the  contest  with  spirit.  Emigration  to  Tennessee,  in 
which  the  library  was  carried  across  the  mountains,  and  the  great 
revival  of  1802  broke  it  up. 

While  this  discussion  was  going  on,  and  men  were  arguing  for 
and  against  the  Bible  with  excited  and  sometimes  angry  feelings, 
another  cause  of  unhappiness  arose.  Mr.  Wallis  had  occasion  to 
be  absent  a  few  Sabbaths,  and  obtained  the  favor  of  Rev.  Wm.  C. 
Davis,  to  supply  his  pulpit  one  Sabbath.  Mr.  Davis,  on  the  day 
of  his  supply,  made  use  of  the  version  of  Psalms  by  Watts.  As 
the  congregation  had  never  agreed  to  introduce  this  version,  and  as 
many  families  were  opposed  to  their  use  in  public  worship,  offence 
was  taken ;  and  the  blame  was  thrown  on  Mr.  Wallis  as  having 
been  privy  to  the  matter.  The  discontented  withdrew,  and  for  a 
time  worshipped  in  a  building  about  three  hundred  yards  from  the 
old  stand ;  this,  however,  was  soon  abandoned,  and  the  seceding 
families  now  worship  at  Sardis,  about  seven  miles  distant;  th^  sub- 
ject of  Psalmody  being  the  principal  matter  of  division. 

The  great  revival  of  1802  and  onward,  a  particular  account  of 
which  is  given  in  the  chapter  on  James  M'Gready  and  the  great 
revival,  had  a  happy  infiuence  on  this  congregation.  A  camp- 
meeting  was  held  within  their  bounds,  commencing  Friday,  March 
23d,  1802,  at  which  it  was  supposed  from  five  to  six  thousand  per- 
sons were  present  To  accommodate  this  great  assemblage,  after  a 
sermon  at  the  public  stand  in  the  centre,  about  9  o'clock,  worship 
was  continued  at  five  different  places.  For  the  first  three  days  little 
impression  was  made,  and  the  opinion  that "  all  was  the  work  of 
man,  and  the  effects  of  the  power  of  oratory,''  which  had  been  circu- 
lated by  those  inclined  to  believe  in  the  infidel  notions,  was  gaining 
ground.  But  on  Sabbath  nij^t  a  great  impression  was  visible,  and 
before  the  close  of  the  meeting  a  large  number  were  hopefid  con- 
verts ;  and  among  these  were  some  that  had  been  prominent  in 
their  unbelief    There  are  some  living  to  this  day  who  were  con- 

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YMs  at  that  meeting,  whose  lives  have  been  those  of  consistent 

Mr.  Wallis  taught  a  classical  school  many  years.  The  de^  con- 
viction, that  purity  of  religion  and  morals  could  not  loai;  funrive 
the  introduction  of  an  ignorant  ministry  into  the  pulpit,  \agtd  on 
the  ministers  of  the  Presbyterian  church  to  unremitting  efforts  to 
establish  and  keep  alive  high  schools.  In  these  efforts  they  re- 
ceived the  aid  of  intelligent  laymen,  who  were  impelled  by  the  full 
belief,  that  the  welfare  of  the  body  politic  is  for  ever  indissolubly 
united  with  mental  cultivation  and  the  correct  training  of  the  moral 
principles.  Long  has  the  academy  stood  near  Providence  church, 
and  there  may  it  long  stand.  The  church  and  the  school-house 
were  inseparable  in  the  early  Presbyterian  settlements.  Mr.  Wal- 
lis taught  school  successfully,  and  his  successors  have  kept  the  ^oors 
of  the  academy  open  for  the  youth  of  Mecklenburg ;  and  when  the 
Wtors  of  the  present  generation  have  passed  from  the  stage,  their 
record  will  say  of  many  of  them,  that  their  education  was  com- 
menced, and  of  others,  that  it  was  finished  there.  It  does  not  appear 
that  Mr.  Wallis  was  driven  to  school-keeping  by  poverty  of  his 
means ;  but  from  the  necessity  of  the  country  at  laige,  and  his 
congregation  in  particular. 

Mr.  Wallis  was  for  some  time  before  his  death  a  member  of  the 
board  of  trustees  of  the  University.  This  shows  the  estimation  in 
which  he  was  held  by  his  political  firiends,  when  there  were  so  many 
Presbyterian  nunisters  of  eminence  as  teachers,  firom  whom  to 

Mr.  Wallis  was  of  stature  rather  below  the  nuddling  height, 
small  in  person,  quick  in  his  motions,  and  elastic  in  hb  movements; 
excitable  in  his  temper,  warm  in  his  attadunents,  ardent  in  his  de- 
livery of  sermons,  and  not  subject  to  fear.  His  congregation 
flourished  under  his  ministry.  He  finished  his  course  in  the  year 
1819,  in  the  57th  year  of  his  age,  and  the  27th  of  his  ministry. 

In  the  year  1823,  the  Rev.  Samuel  Williamson  was  called  and 
settled  as  pastor ;  in  this  office  he  continued  till  his  removal  to  the 
presidency  of  Davidson  college  in  the  year  1840.  During  his 
ministry,  about  the  year  1831,  those  members  of  Providence  living 
on  the  north  side  of  McAlpin's^Creek,  from  four  to  ten  miles  from 
Providence  church,  with  a  few  other  families,  were  organized  as  a 
separate  church  and  congregation  by  the  name  of  Sharon,  to  which 
a  part  of  the  labors  of  the  pastor,  Mr.  WiUiamson,  was  given. 

Providence  abounds  in  localities  of  revolutionary  interest  A 
complete  history  of  the  southern  war  will  bring  to  notice  many 
places  now  fast  passing  even  from  traditionary  remmbrance. 

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JOSSPil    GIUHAM.  261 



A  BRIEF  memoir  of  the  several  members  of  the  Mecklenburg  Con- 
vention virould  present  the  interesting  spectacle  of  noble  spirits, 
capable  of  the  highest  efforts  of  patriotism,  self-denial  and  manly 
daring,  acting  out  in  a  secluded  frontier  and  a  narrow  boundary  all 
the  imperishable  principles  on  which  our  Republic  is  based.  The 
great  truths  which  their  minds  embraced  and  their  hearts  loved, 
wiM  remain  unchanged  and  unchangeable.  They  may  be  modified, 
but  when  they  cease  to  be  the  principles  of  the  American  Republic, 
a  new  government  will  have  arisen,  a  new  battle  will  be  fought  hi 
the  renovated  plains  of  Asia  or  Africa,  or  Liberty  must  depart  from 
the  earth  for  ever. 

The  distance  from  %  flourishing  printing-press — so  great  an  evil 
during  the  Revolution — has  been  unfavorable  to  the  notoriety  of 
these  retired  but  eminent  men.  Short  memoirs,  ftmeral  orations, 
and  collections  of  anecdotes,  prepared  by  friends,  which  would 
have  given  all  the  desired  information,  were  left  to  perish  in  manu- 
script, or  die  with  those  who  had  been  witnesses,  or  live  in  the 
dim  and  twilight  existence  of  tradition.  All  the  promineiA  actors 
in  the  events  of  May  20th  and  30th,  1T75,  have  passed  away ; 
very  few  of  those  who  were  witnesses,  and  in  the  early  days  of 
youth,  are  living  at  this  distant  period ;  only  here  and  there  is  one 
who  can  tell  the  deeds  and  recount  the  sufferings,  and  relate  the 
anecdotes  of  the  men  of  the  Revolution.  Brief  notices  will  be 
given,  interspersed  in  the  body  of  the  narratives  and  intermingled 
in  the  chapters,  concerning  these  men  whose  memory  must  b^  dear 
to  posterity. 

The  man  whose  name  stands  at  the  head  of  this  chapter,  may  be 
taken  as  an  example  of  the  enterprise,  and  labors,  and  sufferings  of 
the  young  men  of  Carolina,  who  in  defence  of  liberty  spent  their 
strength,  gave  their  property,  and  shed  their  blood.  There  were 
multitudes  whose  names  are  worthy  of  a  record,  not  so  fortunate 
as  this  man,  that  found  fa  a  son-in-law  a  recorder  of  his  deeds  and 
a  memorialist  of  his  life,  who  has  faVored  the  public  with  a  speci- 
men of  Mecklenburg  youth  in  the  Revolution. 

As  you  go  from  Beattie's  Fo^d  towards  Lincolnton,  about  eight 

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miles  from  the  Catawba,  and  about  ten  from  the  village,  you  pass  Ve- 
suvius Furnace,  the  product  of  the  skill  and  enterprise  of  that 
citizen-soldier,  and  soldier-citizen,  Joseph  Graham.  Here  he  lived 
some  forty  years  of  his  life,  advancing  the  internal  improvements  of 
his  country  with  persevering  invention ;  planning,  building  and  per- 
fecting his  iron-works,  increasing  his  own  resources  as  he  added  to 
the  conveniences  of  his  neighborhood.  Here  he  reared  a  family  of 
children ;  seven  of  whom  survived  him,  though  his  life  was  pro- 
longed to  seventy-seven  years.  Here,  as  a  neighbor  and  head  of 
a  family,  like  Mr.  Hunter,  the  minister  of  Unity  and  Goshen,  on 
whose  ministry  he  attended,  Mr.  Graham  exercised  that  frank  hos- 
pitality and  cheerful  intercourse,  that  precision  in  principle  and 
decision  in  action  characteristic  of  those  soldiers  and  officers  of  the 
Revolution,  who  went  into  the  camp  patriots,  and  came  out  unpol- 
luted by  its  vicesj  and  unhardened  by  its  sufferings  and  bloody 

Graham  and  Hunter  were  both  spectators  of  the  convention  in 
Charlotte, — Hunter,  six  days  past  his  twentieth  birthday, — Gra- 
ham not  yet  sixteen.  Both  saw  much  service  in  the  war  that  fol- 
lowed ;  after  the  peace  Hunter  served  his  country  as  a  faithful 
minister  of  the  gospel,  and  Graham,  as  a  high-minded,  noble- 
spirited  citizen,  a  sheriff,  a  military  officer,  a  magistrate,  and  in  the 
latter  part  of  his  life,  an  elder  in  the  Presbyterian  church.  Both 
were  of  that  race  from  the  north  of  Ireland,  familiarly  called  Scotch- 
Irish,  whose  emigrant  families  filled  the  country  tracked  by  the 
bloodshed  and  ravages  of  the  invading  army  under  Comwallis ; 
and  poured  forth  soldiers  for  the  contest  for  freedom  of  opinion  and 
personal  liberty  as  brave  as  their  descendants  have  been  fortunate 
in  winning  the  honors  of  their  fellow  citizens.  Hunter  was  brought 
from  Ireland  when  a  boy ;  Graham  was  bom  in  Pennsylvania ; 
both  grew  to  years  of  manhood  in  Mec^enburg  county.  North 
Carolina ;  both  were  deprived  of  their  father  in  early  Ufe,  and  both 
were  trained  by  a  widowed  mother.  What  widows  there  were  in 
Carolina!  Widow  Graham,  Widow  Himter,  Widow  Brevard, 
Widow  Flinn,  and  Widow  Sharpe.  Joseph  Graham  was  bom  "in 
Pennsylvania,  October  3d,  1759,  and  at  about  the  age  of  seven 
years  was  settled  in  Carolina  with  his  widowed  mother,  who 
brought  her  five  children  to  the  neighborhood  of  Charlotte.  His 
coming  to  Mecklenburg  was  not  far  from  the  time  of  the  birth  of 
Andrew  Jackson,  since  General  and  President  of  the  United 
States,  which  took  place  March  15th,  1757,  on  the  Waxhaw  in 
South  Carolina,  about  thirty  miles  from  Charlotte.    Jackson,  like 

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Himter  and  Graham,  was  early  bereaved  of  his  father ;  and  to  this 
was  soon  added  the  irreparable  loss  of  his  mother,  who,  emigrating 
from  the  north  of  Ireland,  with  the  characteristic  attachment  to 
liberty,  was  made  a  sacrifice  to  the  independence  of  the  United 
States,  dying  a  victim  to  the  hardships  of  the  war. 

Mr.  Graham  was  accustomed  to  labor  from  his  childhood.  As 
his  frame  was  inured  to  hardships,  his  mind  was  not  left  unculti- 
vated. He  had  for  a  time  the  benefit  of  the  instruction  given  in 
the  flourishing  academy  in  Charlotte,  afterwards  known  as  Queen's 
Museum,  and  subsequently  as  Liberty  Hall,  the  nursery  of  inde- 
pendent youth  in  noble  sentiments. 

In  the  month  of  May,  1778,  in  his  nineteenth  year,  we  find  him 
an  officer  in  the  company  of  Captain  Gooden,  of  the  4th  regiment 
of  North  Carolina  regular  troops,  under  the  command  of  Colonel 
Archibald  Lytle,  marching  to  the  rendezvous  at  Bladensburg,  in 
Maryland.  In  Caswell  county  the  regiment  met  the  news  of  the 
battle  of  Monmouth,  and  the  consequent  retreat  of  the  British 
forces  to  New  York  ;  and  proceeded  no  farther.  Mr.  Graham  re- 
turned home  on  furlough,  and  spent  the  summer  on  his  mother's 

In  November,  of  the  same  year,  he  was  in  active  service  on  the 
Savannah,  under  General  Rutherford.  In  the  spring  following, 
we  find  him  as  quarter-master  with  the  troops  under  the  command 
of  General  Lincoln,  in  his  campaign  against  General  Prevost,  and 
taking  part  in  the  hard-fought  battle  of  the  Stono,  June  20th,  1779, 
which  lasted  an  hour  and  a  half.  Many  soldiers  perished  from 
the  excessive  heat  of  the  day,  among  whom  was  the  eldest  brother 
of  General  Jackson.  In  the  July  following  he  was  taken  with  a 
severe  illness  of  two  months,  received  his  discharge  near  Dor- 
chester, and  returned  home. 

Having  passed  the  winter  with  his  mother,  he  was  ploughing  in 
her  fields  in  May,  1780,  when  he  received  the  news  that  Charles- 
ton had  been  surrendered  to  the  British  arms ;  that  Comwallis  had 
moved  rapidly  on  to  Camden ;  that  Buford's  Virginia  regiment  re- 
treating, and  as  was  supposed  out  of  reach  of  the  enemy,  was 
surprised  by  Tarleton  on  the  Waxhaw,  and  miserably  butchered,  few 
escaping  unwounded,  and  many  cut  down  crying  for  quarter ;  and 
that  the  British  forces  were  within  forty  miles  of  Charlotte.  The 
inhabitants  of  the  Waxhaw  fled  for  shelter  from  Lord  Rawdon's 
oppression  to  Mecklenburg,  Rowan,  and  Guilford,  in  North  Caro- 
lina ;  yoimg  Jackson's  mother  residing  for  a  time  in  the  fcmily  of 
the  Wilsons.    A  regiment  was  raised  ii  Mecklenburg,  which  spent 

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the  summer  in  assailing  the  troops,  and  opposing  xh%  motions  of 
Rawdon ;  of  this  regiment  Graham  was  adjutant. 

On  the  16th  of  August,  1780,  Gates  was  defeated  near  Camden, 
and  fled  to  Hillsborough.  The  whole  country  was  in  alarm ;  dis- 
tressed, but  not  broken.  The  extreme  of  dangei  overbalanced  iiv 
the  minds  of  some  the  love  of  liberty ;  and  some  made  submission 
to  the  kiAg's  authority,  while  the  otheri  took  up  arms  more  vigor- 
ously than  ever  in  the  defence  of  all  that  m  dear.  Comwallis 
marched  towards  Charlotte,  that  **  hot-bed  of  rebellion,^  "  tJiat  hor- 
nets*  nesty^  as  his  lordship  afterwards  named  it,  to  take  a  position  in 
the  midst  of  the  most  disaflected  region  in  the  South.  Graham  was 
ordered  by  General  Davidson  to  repair  to  Charlotte,  take  command 
of  the  forces  assembled  there,  and  j<>in  Colonel  William  Richard- 
son Davie,  who  was  severely  annoying  the  advance  of  the  British 

The  night  Comwallis  took  possession  of  Davie's  encampment 
on  the  Waxhaw,  Davie  encamped  at  Providence,  about  twenty-five 
miles  from  his  lordship,  on  his  way  to  Charlotte.  On  the  morning 
of  the  25th  of  September  the  6ritish  army  was  on  the  advance 
towards  the  same  place ;  about  midnight  Davie  entered  the  town. 
On  the  morning  of  the  26th  the  royal  forces  approached  the  place. 
Tarleton's  dragoons  rushed  forward,  «md  were  repulsed ; — again 
rushed  forward,  and  were  again  repulsed.  A  regiment  being  or- 
dered to  sustain  the  charge,  they  rushed  on  the  third  time, — and 
were  the  third  time  repulsed  by  the  small  force  assembled  in  the 
tovni.  A  regiment  of  infantry  deploying  on  their  flanks,  the  forces 
under  Davie  and  Graham  retired  along  the  Salisbury  road,  keep- 
ing up  a  well-directed  fire  from  the  court-house  to  the  Gimi  Tree. 

At  the  farm  occupied  by  Mr. ,  just  out  of  ^own,  where  they 

halted  and  checked  the  advance  of  the  pursuing  forces,  Graham  nar- 
rowly escaped  a  double  danger  from  the  balls  of  the  enemy  and 
the  bursting  of  a  gun  in  the  hands  of  a  soldier  who  stood  near. 
The  forces  again  formed  on  the  hill  near  Sugar  Creek  meeting- 
house. The  delay  at  this  place,  protracted  by  the  zeal  of  Major 
White,  rendered  their  further  retreat  dangerous,  a  body  of  dra- 
goons having  gone  round  their  right  to  intercept  them  at  the  Cross 
Roads,  a  little  beyond.  This  movement  of  the  enemy  was  dis- 
covered just  in  time  for  the  greater  part  of  the  retreating  forces  to 
escape.  After  a  hot  pursuit,  Colonel  Looke,  of  Rowan,  was  over- 
taken and  shot  down  on  the  margin  of  the  pond  near  Alexander 
Kennedy's  lane ;  and  Graham  was  overtaken  in  the  skirt  of  the 
woods  some  distance  to  the  right  of  the  road,  between  Mr.  Ken- 

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*'  JOSEPH    GRAHAM.  255 

nedy's  and  J.  A.  Houston's,  cut  down,  severely  mangled,  and  left 
for  dead.  He  had  received  nine  wounds — six  from  sabre  cuts, 
and  three  from  bullets.  His  stock-buckle  intercepted  one  of  the 
cuts  upon  his  neck,  and  bore  marks  of  the  severity  of  the  blow 
aimed  at  his  life.  ^  Four  deep  sabre  gashes  scarred  his  head. 

After  the  enemy  left  him,  he  crawled  with  difficulty  to  some 
water  near,  and  slaking  his  intolerable  thirst,  washed  as  well  as  he  was 
able  his  numerous  and  painful  wounds.  For  a  time  he  despaired 
of  life,  and  expected  to  die  imnoticed  in  tliat  secluded  spot.  To- 
wards night  he  was  discovered  by  the  neighbors,  who  were  looking 
around  the  battle-field  to  find  their  wounded  countrymen,  and  con- 
veyed to  the  house  of  a  widow  lady,  the  mother  of  Mrs.  Susannah 
Alexander,  now  living.  Here  he  was  concealed  in  an  upper 
room,  or  loft,  and  attended  upon  through  the  night  by  the 
widow  and  her  daughter,  who  were  expecting  that  he  would  die 
from  the  number  and  severity  of  his  wounds.  Once  he  fell  asleep 
and  breathed  so  quietly,  and  looked  so  pale,  as  they  came  to  in- 
quire his  wants,  they  thought  he  was  dead. 

The  next  day,  the  27th,  the  lady  of  one  of  the  British  officers, 
wth  a  small  company  of  horsemen,  visited  the  house,  in  search  of 
fresh  provisions.  By  some  means  she  discovered  there  was  a 
wounded  man  in  the  loft.  On  pressing  the  inquiry  she  found  he 
was  an  officer,  and  his  wounds  severe ;  and  offered  to  send  a  sur- 
geon from  the  army  to  dress  his  wounds,  as  SQon  as  she  should 
reach  the  camp  at  Charlotte.  Alarmed  at  this  discovery,  Graham, 
summoning  all  his  powers  to  the  highest  exertion,  caused  bimself 
to  be  put  on  horseback,  tlie  succeeding  night,  and  was  carried  to 
his  mother's,  and  from  thence  speedily  to  the  hospital.  Three 
balls  were  taken  from  his  body.  The  severity  of  the  wounds  and 
the  loss  of  blood  confined  for  about  two  months  this  tctive 

After  the  rencontre  on  the  hill,  near  Sugar  Creek  meolipg- 
house,  and  the.  consequent  pursuit,  the  American  forces  retreated 
without  further  opposition.  There  had  been  no  hope  of  successfiil 
defence  of  the  town,  or  effectual  resistance  of  the  advancing  enemy. 
But  from  the  time  of  Buford's  Massacre,  in  May, — ^when  the  Pres- 
byterian church  on  the  Waxhaw  became  a  hospital,  where  yoimg 
Jackson  first  saw  wounds  and  the  carnage  of  war, — and  more  par- 
ticularly after  the  defeat  rf  Gates  in  August,  the  patriots  were 
exasperated,  driven  to  madness,  by  the  cnWfkies  of  the  tories  and 
the  marauding  parties  of  the  British  army.  Armed  bands  of  the 
patriots,  whigs,   as  they  were  called,  were  coilstantly  hovering 

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round  the  enemy  in  their  camp  and  on  their  march,  intercepting 
their  supplies,  cutting  off  their  foraging  parties,  and  retaliating 
distress.  These  annoyances  caused  Comwallis  and  his  officers  to 
move  cautiously,  and  keep  their  army  in  a  compact  body  ;  and  the 
country  not  inunediately  in  their  track  was  in  a  measure  free  from 
devastation,  it  being  entirely  unsafe  for  any  small  party  to  venture 
far  from  the  main  body.  The  report  of  a  foraging  party  would 
spread  with  wonderful  rapidity,  and  the  irritated  inhabitants  collect 
and  harass  the  plunderers  back  to  the  camp,  or  force  them  to  take 
shelter  under  the  cannon  of  his  lordship. 

Having  recovered  from  his  wounds,  Graham,  at  the  request  of 
Gen.  Wm.  L.  Davidson,  the  conunander  in  chief  of  the  miUtia  of 
the  western  counties  of  Carolina,  undertook,  in  December,  1780, 
to  raise  a  body  of  men  to  be  under  his  own  command.  In  two 
weeks  he  embodied  fifty-five  mounted  riflemen,  armed  and  accoutred 
at  their  own  expense  ;  some,  beside  their  rifles,  carrying  swords,  and 
some,  pistols  ;  all  prepared  for  hard  service,  and  entering  the  field 
without  a  quarter-master,  and  in  expectation  of  little  pay  for  the  three 
months  of  their  engagement,  which  proved  months  of  hard  service. 

The  celebrated  victory  of  the  Cowpens  was  gamed  by  Morgan, 
over  Tarleton,  on  the  17th  of  January,  1781.  To  secure  his  six 
hundred  prisoners,  Morgan  commenced  his  march  towards  Vir- 
ginia, through  Lincoln  county,  aiming  to  cross  the  Catawba  at 
Beattie's  ford.  Cornwallis  and  Greene  commenced  their  march  to 
the  same  ford,  the  royal  army  on  the  western  side  of  the  river,  to 
intercept  Morgan,  and  the  American  forces  on  the  eastern  side,  to 
meet  him  at  tlie  ford  and  secure  his  prisoners.  Then  commenced 
the  trial  of  generalship  between  the  two  commanders,  to  be  deter- 
mined by  force  and  skill,  the  reward  of  victory  to  be  the  prisoners 
of  Morgan  and  the  possession  of  the  Southern  States.  Much, 
perhaps  we  might  say  everything,  depended  on  the  reaching  the 
ford  first.  Each  of  the  three  parties  had  about  the  same  distance 
to  march.  Morgan  had  the  start,  but  was  encumbered  with  the 
prisoners.  The  two  rival  Generals  moved  on  with  all  possible 
celerity ;  the  royal  army  destroying  their  heavy  baggage,  by  the 
example  of  their  General ;  the  American  forces  having  but  little 
to  carry  or  destroy.  Greene  left  his  army  and  rode  across  the 
country  and  had  an  interview  with  Morgan,  who  pressed  on  with 
wonderful  spirit,  ambitious  to  secure  his  prisoners,  and  reached  the 
ford  unmolested.  On  the  morning  after  he  crossed,  Cornwallis 
appeared  upon  the  Western  bank,  hot  in  the  pursuit,  and  disap- 
pointed of  his  prey. 

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JOSEPH     GRAHAM.  "257 

The  river  had  risen  the  night  after  Morgan  crossed,  and  was 
impassable.     The  two  days  thus  gained  saw  Morgan  far  on  his 
way  to  Virginia,  and  Greene  moving  slowly  towards  the  Yadkin, 
between  him  and  Comwallis.     General  Davidson,  with  the  North 
Carolina  militia,  was  left  to  delay  the  crossing  of  the  enemy  as 
long  as  possible.     Captain  Graham  was  posted  with  his  rifle  com- 
pany at  Cowan's  Ford,  some  distance  below  Beattie's,  and  at  that 
ford,  after  many  feints,  his  Lordship  commenced  his  passage  of  the 
river.     The  riflemen  kept  up  a  constant  and  galling  fire  upon  the 
advancing  ranks,  and  many  an  officer  and  soldier  were  sent  float- 
ing down  the  stream,  victims  of  their  deadly  aim.     General  Da- 
vidson, hearing  the  firing,  came  down  to  the  river  bank,  accom- 
panied by  Col.  Wm.  Polk,  and  the  Rev.  Thomas  H.  McCaule, 
pastor  of  Centre  congregation,  in  whose  bounds  this  action  took 
place,  and  while  taking  observations,  received  a  fatal  wound  and 
fell  dead  fit)m  his  horse.     The  deadly  shot  was  supposed  to  be 
ftrom  the  hand  of  a  tory,  the  British  soldiers  using  only  muskets, 
and  the  wound  of  Davidson  being  made  by  a  rifle  ball.     No  one 
claimed  the  honor  of  piloting  the  enemy  to  the  ford,  or  of  aiming 
the  fatal  shot.     Such  a  preeminence  would  have  been  fatal  to  the 
claimant  in  North  Carolina  for  years. 

The  North  Carolina  militia,  under  the  command  of  General 
Pickens,  hung  upon  the  rear  of  the  enemy,  as  Comwallis  purfeued 
Greene  across  the  State  into  Virginia,  and  continued  to  molest 
them  in  their  encampment  at  Hillsborough.  Capt.  Graham,  with 
his  company  and  some  troops  from  Rowan,  surprised  and  cap- 
tured the  guard  at  Hart's  Mill,  only  a  mile  and  a  half  from  head- 
quarters, and  then  united  with  the  forces  of  Col.  Lee,  of  Virginia, 
and  the  next  day  assisted  in  the  surprise  of  Col.  Pyles,  with  his 
regiment  of  three  hundred  tories,  advancing  to  join  the  army  of 
his  Lordship,  and  within  two  miles  of  the  forces  under  Tarleton. 
Mistaking  the  American  forces  for  Tarleton's  troop,  which  was 
known  to  be  near,  the  tories  raised  the  shout  of  "  God  save  the 
kingy*^  and  never  discovered  their  mistake  till  trampled  down  by 
the  cavalry,  sword  in  hand.  The  discomfiture  was  complete,  and 
the  forces  under  Lee  escaped  without  loss,  passing  within  a  mile 
of  Tarleton's  corps.  Lee  used  to  speak  of  the  surprise  of  these 
tories  with  great  enthusiasm,  and  describe  graphically  their  con- 
sternation upon  discovering  their  mistake.  He  led  his  troops  along 
the  front  of  their  Une,  which  were  shouting  him  a  welcome  ;  he 
traversed  the  whole  front  unsuspected,  he  and  his  men  waving 

their  swords.    His  conamand,  "  wheel  into  Une,**  gave  no  alarm. 


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At  the  word  "  charge^'^  his  company  leaped  their  horses  upon  the 
ranks  of  the  tones,  and  in  a  moment  their  swords  were  bathed  in 
blood.    It  was  the  most  complete  surprise  of  the  whole  war. 

In  the  course  of  a  short  time  after  this,  Captain  Graham  was  in 
the  engagement  under  Lee  at  Clapp's  Mill,  on  the  Alamance ;  and 
in  a  few  days  after,  at  Whitsell's  Mill,  imder  Colonel  Washington. 
With  these  officers,  Graham  was  employed  in  harassing  all  forag- 
ing parties,  and  beating  up  the  quarters  of  the  tories,  till  the  14th 
March,  when  the  term  of  enlistment  for  which  he  had  engaged  his 
men  expired. 

As  was  usual  with  the  partizan  corps,  Graham's  company 
insisted  on  returning  home  for  refreshment  after  their  term  of  en- 
listment was  expired,  the  14th  of  March,  their  resources  being 
exhausted  and  their  engagements  having  been  fulfilled.  By  order 
of  General  Greene  they  were  marched  in  a  compact  body  till  the 
Yadkin  was  crossed,  and  there  disbanded.  By  this  movement, 
Graham  and  his  men  were  deprived  of  the  honor  of  assisting  in 
the  important  battle  at  Guilford  Court-house,  after  having  taken  so 
active  a  part  in  the  preparatory  steps.  The  very  next  day  after 
crossing  the  river,  far  in  the  rear,  Comwallis  having  accepted  the 
challenge  of  Greene,  gave  battle  ;  and  in  two  days  was  on  his  way 
to  Wilmington,  flying  from  his  defeated  adversary. 

The  western  part  of  North  Carolina  had  rest  during  the  sununer 
of  1781.  In  the  early  part  of  September,  General  Rutherford  was 
released  from  the  captivity  he  had  endured  from  the  time  of  the 
defeat  of  Gates.  Inunediately  upon  his  release  he  took  the  ne- 
cessary steps  to  raise  three  companies  of  dragoons  and  two 
hundred  mounted  infantry  ;  of  these,  Robert  Smith  was  appointed 
colonel,  and  Graham,  who  had  been  engaged  in  their  organization, 
was  appointed  major.  On  their  march  to  Wilmington,  near  the 
Raft  Swamp,  Graham,  with  ninety  dragoons  and  forty  infantry,  dis- 
persed a  large  body  of  tories  who  had  assembled  at  the  conmiand 
of  Comwallis  ;  and  soon  after,  with  one  troop  of  dagoons  and  two 
of  infantry,  he  surprised  and  defeated  another  near  Wilmington. 
On  the  next  day.  Major  Graham  led,  in  person,  the  attack  made 
on  the  British  garrison,  near  the  same  place.  The  last  engage- 
ment in  which  he  participated  during  the  war,  resulted  in  die 
defeat  of  the  celebrated  Colonel  Gagney,  near  Lake  Waccamaw. 
After  a  long  series  of  depredations,  practised  on  the  patriots  with- 
out relenting,  he  was  surprised  and  entirely  defeated.  In  this 
engagement  Major  Graham  commanded  three  companies,  and 
acted  a  brave  part  in  this  last  action  in  which  he  participated 

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JOSEPH     GRAHAM.  259 

during  the  Revolutionary  war,  which  was  speedily  closed  in  the 
South,  by  the  surrender  of  Comwallis,  at  Yorktown. 

After  the  close  of  the  war  he  was  elected  tfae  first  sheriff  of 
Mecklenburg  county,  and  ^ve  as  great  satisfaction  to  his  fellow- 
citizens  in  civil,  as  he  had  done  in  military  life.  For  many  years 
he  was  a  prominent  member  of  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State, 
from  the  same  county.  In  the  year  1787,  he  was  married  to  the 
second  daughter  of  Major  John  Davidson,  one  of  the  members  of 
the  Mecklenburg  Convention,  and  by  her  became  the  father  of 
twelve  children,  seven  of  whom  survived  him.  Soon  after  his 
marriage  he  removed  to  Lincoln  county,  and,  proceeded  to  erect 
the  iron  works  which  gave  him  employment  and  affluence,  and 
were  a  source  of  convenience  and  wealth  to  his  neighborhood  and 
feUow-citizens  of  the  county. 

In  the  year  1814,  by  the  strong  solicitations  of  the  governor  of 
the  State,  he  accepted  the  commission  of  general  of  a  force  to  be 
sent  to  the  aid  of  the  volunteers  of  Tennessee  and  Georgia,  acting 
under  Generals  Jackson,  Coffee  and  Carroll,  in  repeUing  the  mur- 
derous aggressions  of  the  Creek  Indians.  His  private  affairs 
required  his  attention  at  home  ;  his  public  spirit  prompted  him  ta 
inarch  with  a  fine  body  of  men  to  the  seat  of  war.  He  arrived  in 
time  to  assist  in  bringing  it  to  a  close,  and  received  the  submission 
of  several  hundred  of  the  Indians,  after  the  battle  fought  by 
General  Jackson,  at  the  Horse  Shoe.  After  more  than  thirty 
years  of  imparalleled  prosperity  had  crowned  the  labors  of  the  . 
Revolution,  and  each  had  been  prospered  in  their  private  concerns, 
and  shared  fiilly  in  the  honors  of  their  constituents,  Graham  and 
Jackson,  whose  boyhood  and  youth  had  been  spent  in  the  same 
troublous  scenes,  met  to  congratulate  each  other  and  their  country- 
men, at  the  successful  termination  of  a  vexatious  Indian  war. 

F»r  many  years  he  was  Major  General  of  the  fifth  Division  of 
North  Carolina  militia,  and  throughout  his  life  manifested  the 
same  gcnerostty  and  bravery  that  enabled  him  during  the  Re- 
volutionary war  to  be  the  most  successful  man  in  Mecklenburg 
coimty,  in  raising  a  company  or  a  legion.  Those  that  served 
under  him  testified  to  his  worth  as  a  man,  and  as  an  ofiicer. 

As  a  magistrate  and  civil  officer  he  was  dignified,  firm,  a  de- 
fender of  the  rights  of  his  fellow-citizens,  and  a  supporter  of  the 
laws.  Freedom  of  person  and  property  under  the  government 
of  law,  formed  the  basis  of  his  political  creed.  What  Judge 
Murphy  says  of  Archibald  Henderson,  with  the  slight  change  of 
a  few  circumstances,  may  be  said  of  Joseph  Graham,  in  his  pub- 

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lie  course.  Speaking  of  Henderson,  the  Judge  says, — "  No  man 
better  understood  the  theory  of  our  government,  no  man  more 
admired  it,  no  man  gave  more  practical  proofs  of  his  admiration. 
The  sublime  idea  that  he  lived  imder  the  government  of  laws  was 
for  ever  uppermost  in  his  mind,  and  seemed  to  give  a  coloring  to 
all  his  actions.  As  he  acknowledged  no  dominion  but  that  of  the 
laws,  he  bowed  with  reverence  to  their  authority,  and  taught  obe- 
dience no  less  by  his  example  than  his  precept.  In  the  county 
courts,  when  the  justice  of  the  peace  administered  the  laws,  he 
was  no  less  respectful  in  his  deportment  than  in  the  highest  tri- 
bunal of  the  State.  He  considered  obedience  to  the  law  to  be 
the  first  duty  of  a  citizen,  and  it  seemed  to  be  the  great  object  of 
his  professional  hfe  to  inculcate  a  sense  of  duty,  and  give  the 
administration  of  the  laws  an  impressive  character.  He  said  the 
laws  were  made  for  the  common  people,  and  they  should  be  in- 
terpreted and  administered  by  rules  which  they  understood,  when- 
ever it  was  practicable.  He  said  the  rules  of  pedantry  did  not 
suit  this  country,  nor  this  age,  that  common  sense  had  acquired 
the  dominion  in  poHtics  and  religion,  and  was  gaining  it  in  law." 
In  these  sentiments  all  sound  repubHcans  must  unite,  however 
they  may  diflFer  on  smaller  matters.  From  the  first,  the  inhabit- 
ants of  Mecklenburg  had  declared  that  it  was  not  against  law,  but 
against  oppression,  they  raised  their  arms.  The  fourth  resolution 
of  this  Convention  says,  "  That  as  we  now  acknowledge  the  ex- 
istence and  control  of  410  law  or  legal  officer,  civil  or  military, 
within  this  county,  we  do  hereby  ordain  and  adopt  as  a  rule  of 
;life,  all,  each,  and  every  of  our  former  laws,  wherein,  never- 
theless, the  crown  of  Great  Britain  never  can  be  considered  as 
.holding  rights,  privileges,  immunities,  or  authority  therein." 

His  religious  principles  were  those  of  his  ancestors,  and  must 
tbe  those  of  his  descendants.  Freedom  of  conscience  in  the  ex- 
ercise of  devotional  feelings,  in  public  and  in  private,  was  prized 
beyond  all  price.  Freedom  in  rehgion  was  the  great  object  for 
which  his  ancestors  had  contended  in  Ireland ;  for  it  they  had  emi- 
grated to  Carolina  ;  and  for  it,  in  conjunction  with  freedom  of  pro- 
perty and  person,  under  the  government  of  law,  he  had  taken  up 
arms  and  fought.  For  it  he  had  shed  his  blood  in  youth,  and  for 
it,  in  his  old  age,  he  would  have  died. 

One  who  knew  General  Graham  weU,  from  long  acquaintance, 
says  :  "  His  intercourse  with  others  was  marked  by  great  dignity 
of  deportment,  delicacy  of  feeling,  cheerfulness  of  spirit,  and 
equality  of  temper.     Men  of  learning  and  high  standing  have  often 

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JOSEPH     ORAHAlC.  261 

expressed  much  gratification  by  his  company,  and  surprise  at 
the  extent  and  accuracy  of  his  knowledge.  He  was  far,  very  far 
remoTed  from  all  those  feelings  of  selfishness,  vanity,  deception, 
or  envy,  which  unfit  men  for  the  duties  and  joys  of  social  life. 
His  eye  was  always  open  to  the  virtues  of  his  friends ;  his  heart 
was  always  ready  to  reciprocate  their  kindness,  to  sympathize 
with  their  sorrows,  and  overlook  their  infirmities.  His  hand,  his 
time,  his  counsel  and  his  influence,  were  all  at  the  command  of 
those  who  shared  his  confidence,  and  deserved  his  affection. 

"  But  there  was  another  circle  nearer  to  his  heart,  in  which  he 
was  still  better  prepared  to  shine ;  and  in  which  true  exceUency 
displayed,  is  a  brighter  and  surer  evidence  of  worth.  Justice 
could  not  be  done  to  his  character  without  being  knovni  in  the 
family  circle.  As  a  husband,  a  father,  and  a  master,  those  alone 
who  were  the  objects  of  his  attachment,  forbearance,  and  tender- 
ness, could  duly-appreciate  his  conduct  and  demeanor. 

**  He  possessed  a  lofty  and  delicate  sense  of  personal  honor  and 
virtuous  feeling.  His  presence  was  always  a  rebuke  to  the  arts 
and  abominations  of  evil  speaking,  profanity,  and  defamation.  If 
he  could  not  speak  well  of  his  fellow-men,  he  was  wise  and  firm 
enough  to  say  nothing.  He  regarded  the  reputation  of  others  as 
a  sacred  treasure,  and  would  never  stoop  to  meddle  with  the 
private  history,  or  detract  from  the  good  name  of  those  around  him. 
He  felt  that  the  sources  of  his  enjoyment,  and  the  causes  of  his 
elevation,  were  not  to  be  foimd  in  the  calamities  or  vices  of  his 
fellow-men,  and  hence  his  lips  were  closed  to  the  tales  of  slander, 
and  his  bosom  a  stranger  to  the  viriles  of  calumny. 

"  But  General  Graham  did  not  believe,  when  he  had  served  his 
country,  his  family,  and  his  friends,  that  his  work  on  earth  was 
finished.  With  an  imwavering  conviction  of  the  truth  and  import- 
ance of  religion,  he  professed  to  serve  God,  and  to  seek  for  salva- 
tion by  fjEuth  in  Christ.  For  a  long  period  of  time,  he  was  a  mem* 
ber  of  the  Presbyterian  church,  under  the  ministry  of  Dr.  Hunter ; 
and  for  ten  or  twelve  years  previous  to  his  death,  was  a  ruHng 
elder  of  Unity,  under  the  pastoral  care  of  Rev.  Mr.  Adams.  He 
cherished  the  most  profound  respect  for  the  ordinances  and  duties 
of  Christianity,  attended  with  deep  interest  and  imiform  pimctuali- 
ty  upon  the  means  of  grace.  He  delighted  much  in  reading  the 
Word  of  God,  and  in  hearkening  to  the  instructions  of  the  ministers 
of  the  gospel,  for  whom  he  always  manifested  the  greatest  regard. 
In  selecting  his  Ubrary,  he  proved  how  high  an  estimate  he  placed 
upon  Christian  instruction,  and  in  his  most  unreserved  intercourse 

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with  pious  firiends,  his  deep  and  pervading  concern  for  true  and 
undefiled  religion  was  apparent.  No  circumstance  would  deter 
him  from  manifesting  the  most  decided  contempt  for  the  grovelling 
spirit  of  infidelity  and  irreligion." 

Accustomed  in  his  youth  to  expose  himself  to  instaol  death  in 
a  good  cause,  and  in  his  age,  girding  his  loins  and  trimming  his 
lamp  according  to  the  gospel,  his  final  depahure  by  apoplexy 
coming  suddenly,  could  be  neither  distressing  nor  alarming.  He 
rode  from  Lincolnton,  on  the  10th  of  November,  1836,  and  on  the 
12th,  closed  his  eyes  for  ever.  He  was  buried  in  a  spot  chosen  by 
himself  and  Captain  Alexander  Brevard,  as  a  place  of  sepulture  for 
their  families.  Captain  Brevard  was  brother  of  Dr.  Ephraim 
Brevard,  the  draughtsman  of  the  Declaration ;  served  as  an  officer  in 
the  Continental  army  ;  was  connected  in  marriage  with  the  sister 
of  Mrs.  Graham,  both  ladies  being  daughters  of  Major  John  David- 
son ;  was  a  firm  firiend  and  neighbor  of  General  Graham  ;  vnth 
him,  served  as  elder  of  the  Presbyterian  church  ;  and  with  him, 
lies  buried  in  the  spot  of  their  choice,  a  secluded  place  walled  in 
with  rock,  on  the  Great  Road  from  Beattie's  Ford,  by  Brevard's 
Furnace,  to  Lincolnton.  On  the  stone  that  marks  Graham's  grave, 
you  may  read, 

Sacred  to  the  Memory  or 

Major  General  Joseph  Graham, 

who  died,  Nov.  12th,  1836,  aged  77  years. 

"  He  was  a  brave,  intelligent,  and  distinguished  officer  in  the 
Revolutionary  war^  and  in  various  campaigns  from  May,  1778,  to 
Nov.,  1781,  commanded  in  fifteen  engagements,  with  signal 
courage,  wisdom,  and  success. 

"  On  the  26th  of  Sept.,  1780,  after  a  gallant  defence  of  the  ground 
first  consecrated  by  the  Declaration  of  American  Independence,  he 
was  wounded  near  to  Charlotte. 

"  In  1814,  he  commanded  the  troops  of  North  Carolina,  in  their 
expedition  against  ^e  Creek  Indians. 

"  His  life  was  a  bright  and  illustrious  pattern  of  domestic, 
social,  and  public  virtues. 

"  Modest,  amiable,  upright,  and  pious,  he  lived  a  noble  orna- 
ment to  his  country,  a  faithful  friend  to  the  church,  and  a  rich 
blessing  to  his  family  ;  and  died  with  the  hope  of  a  glorious  im- 

A  good  portrait  of  General  Graham  may  be  seen  at  Cottage 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Home,  the  residence  of  the  Rev.  R,  H.  Morrison,  D.D.,  in  Unity 
congregation,  Lincohi  county.  The  picture  represents  a  fine  bold 
forehead,  blue  eye,  thin  lip,  with  the  shoulders  and  chest  of  a 
robust  man  of  middling  stature.  The  features  of  the  face  indicate 
calmness,  kindness,  and  decision.  You  would  not  expect  the  ori- 
ginal easily  to  be  made  angry,  or  alarmed,  or  driven  from  his  pur- 
pose. And  the  unvarying  testimony  of  all  that  knew  him,  is  that 
his  face  was  an  index  of  his  heart. 

The  more  the  character  and  jrinciples  of  the  men  of  the  Revo- 
lution are  known,  the  more  profound  the  veneration  for  their  me- 
mory. Their  persons  have  passed  away — scarce  a  vestige  remains. 
May  their  principles  flourish  for  ever  ! 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 



BATTLE    OP   king's    MOUNTAIN. 

The  following  paper  was  drawn  up  by  General  Graham,  who  was 
familiar  with  the  country  around  the  Moimtain,  knew  some  of 
the  officers  engaged  in  the  battle,  and  previous  to  writing  this  de- 
scription visited  the  battle-ground  with  a  son  of  one  of  the  officers. 
From  his  knoT^  habits  of  observation  and  correctness,  and  his  fa- 
miliarity with  military  detail,  there  is  no  doubt  that  this  is  the  most 
graphic  account  that  has  ever  been  given  of  that  celebrated  and 
important  action.  He  drew  a  beautiful  plot  of  the  battle-ground, 
and  the  position  of  the  forces  at  different  times  during  the  day  of 
the  adion. 

"  After  the  defeat  of  General  Gates  and  the  army  under  his  com- 
mand, on  the  16th  day  of  August,  1780,  and  the  defeat  of  General 
Sumpter,  two  days  after,  near  Rocky  Mount,  by  Colonel  Tarleton, 
the  South  was  almost  entirely  abandoned  to  the  enemy.  Most  of 
the  troops,  both  officers  and  men,  who  had  escaped  from  Gates's 
defeat,  passed  through  Charlotte,  N.  C,  where  most  of  the  militia 
of  Mecklenburg  county  were  assembled  in  consequence  of  the 
alarm ;  the  regular  troops  chiefly  passed  on  to  Hillsborough,  where 
General  Gates  finaUy  established  his  head-quarters. 

**  Wm.  L.  Davidson,  who  had  served  as  lieutenant-colonel  of  the 
regulars  in  the  Northern  Army,  was  appointed  brigadier-general  of 
the  militia  in  the  Salisbury  district,  in  the  place  of  General  Ruther- 
ford, who  was  taken  prisoner  at  Gates's  defeat.  He  formed  a  brigade, 
and  encamped  on  McAlpin's.Creek,  about  eight  miles  below  Char- 
lotte, and  in  the  course  of  two  or  three  weeks  was  reinforced  by 
General  Sunmer,  a  continental  officer,  but  having  no  regulars  to 
command,  took  command  of  the  militia  from  the  counties  of  Guil- 
ford, CasweU,  Orange,  and  others. 

"  After  Gates's  defeat,  the  attention  of  Lord  Comwallis  was 
chiefly  occupied  with  burying  the  dead,  taking  care  of  the  wounded, 
and  forwarding,  under  a  suitable  guard,  the  great  number  of  pri- 
soners he  had  taken,  to  the  city  of  Charleston,  and  regulating  the 
civil  government  he  was  establishing  in  South  Carolina,  and  ex- 
amining the  state  of  the  posts  occupied  by  his  troops  on  the  Con- 
garee,  Ninety-Six,  and  Augusta.    By  the  1st  of  September  he 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

BATTLE   OF   KINo's   MOUNTAIN.  265 

had  his  arrangements  made,  and  detached  Colonel  Ferguson  over 
the  Wateree,  with  only  one  hundred  and  ten  regulars,  under  the 
command  of  Captain  Dupeister,  and  about  the  same  nimiber  of 
tories ;  but  with  an  ample  supply  of  arms  and  other  military  stores. 
His  movements  were  at  first  rapid,  endeavoring  to  intercept  the  re- 
treat of  a  party  of  Mountain-men,  who  were  harassing  the  upper 
settlement  of  tories  in  South  Carolina.  Failing  in  this,  he  after- 
wards moved  slowly,  and  frequently  halted  to  collect  all  the  tories 
he  could  persuade  to  join  him.  He  passed  Broad  River,  and  be- 
fore the  last  of  September  encamped  at  a  place  called' Gilberts- 
town,  within  a  short  distance  of  where  the  thriving  village  of 
Rutherfordton  now  stands.  His  force  had  increased  to  upwards 
of  1,000  men.  On  his  march  to  this  place,  he  had  furnished 
arms  to  such  of  his  new  recruits  as  were  without  tfiem.  The 
greater  part  of  them  had  rifles ;  but  to  a  part  of  them,  he  had  them 
to  fix  a  large  knife  they  usually  carried,  made  small  enough  at  the 
butt  end,  for  two  inches  or  more  of  the  handle,  to  slip  iato  the 
muzzle  of  the  rifle,  so  that  it  might  be  occasionally  used  as  a 

"  Although  Colonel  Ferguson  failed  to  overtake  the  detachment 
of  Mountain-men  alluded  to,  he  took  two  of  them  prisoners,  who 
had  become  separated  from  their  commands.  In  a  day  or  two  he 
paroled  them,  and  enjoined  them  to  inform  the  officers  on  the  west- 
em  waters,  that  if  they  did  not  desist  jpom  their  opposition  to  the 
British  arms,  and  take  protection  under  his  standard,  he  would 
march  his  army  over  the  mountains,  hang  their  leaders,  and  lay 
waste  the  country  with-  fire  and  sword. 

"  Colonel  Charles  McDowell,  of  Burke  county,  on  the  approach 
of  Ferguson  with  so  large  a  force,  had  gone  over  the  mountains 
to  obtain  assistance,  and  was  in  consultation  with  Colonel  John 
Sevier  and  Colonel  Isaac  Shelby  what  plan  should  be  pursued, 
when  the  two  paroled  men  spoken  of  arrived  and  delivered  their 
message  from  Colonel  Ferguson.  It  was  decided  that  each  of 
them  should  use  his  best  efforts  to  raise  all  the  men  that  could  be 
enlisted,  and  that  this  force,  when  collected,  should  meet  on  the 
Wataga,  on  the  25th  of  September.  It  was  also  agreed  that 
Colonel  Shelby  should  give  intelligence  of  their  movements  to 
Colonel  WilUam  Campbell,  of  the  adjoining  county  of  Washing- 
ton, in  Virginia,  with  the  hope  that  he  would  raise  what  force  he 
could  and  co-operate  with  them.  They  met  on  the  Wataga  the 
day  appointed,  and  passed  the  mountains  on  the  30th  of  Septem- 
ber, where  they  were  joined  by  Colonel  Benjamin  Cleaveland,  and 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Major  Joseph  Winston,  from  Wilks  and  Surry  counties,  North 
CaroUna.  On  examining  their  force,  it  was  found  to  number  as 
follows,  viz : 

"  From    Washington   county,   Virginia,    under   CoL  Wm. 

Campbell' 400 

"  From  Sullivan  county.  North  Carolina,  under  CoL  Isaac 

Shelby 240 

"  From  Washington  county,  North  Carolina,  under^ol.  John 

Sevier 240 

"  From  Burke  and  Rutherford  counties.  North  Carolina,  im- 

der  Col.  Charles  McDowell 160 

"  From  Wilks  and  Surry  counties,  North  Carolina,  under 

Col.  Cleaveland  and  Major  James  Winston  .         .     350 

Total 1390 

"  Col.  Ferguson  having  accurate  intelUgence  of  the  force  col- 
lecting against  him,  early  on  the  4th  of  October,  ordered  his 
men  to  marchj  and  remained  half  an  hour  after  they  had  started 
writing  a  despatch  to  Lord  Cornwallis,  no  doubt  informing  him  of 
his  situation  and  soliciting  aid.  The  letter  was  committed  to  the 
care  of  the  noted  Abraham  Collins  (him  of  counterfeit  memo- 
ry) and  another  person  by  the  name  of  Quinn,  with  injunctions  to 
deliver  it  as  soon  as  possible.  They  set  out  and  attempted  to  pass 
the  direct  road  to  Charlotte,  but  having  to  pass  through  some 
whig  settlements,  they  were  surprised  and  pursued,  and  being 
compelled  to  secrete  themselves  by  day  and  travel  by  night,  they 
did  not  reach  Charlotte  until  the  morning  of  the  7th  of  October, 
the  day  of  the  battle.  Colonel  Ferguson  encamped  the  first  night 
at  the  noted  place  called  the  Cowpens,  about  twenty  miles  from 
Gilbertstovm.  On  the  5th  of  October  he  crossed  the  Broad 
River,  at  what  is  irow  called  Dear's  Ferry,  sixteen  miles.  On  the 
6th,  he  marched  up  the  Ridge  Road,  between  the  waters  of  King's 
and  Bufialo  creeks,  until  he  came  to  the  fork,  turning  to  the  right 
across  King's  Creek,  and  through  a  gap  in  the  mountain  towards 
Yorkville,  about  fourteen  miles.  There  he  encamped  on  the  sum- 
mit of  that  part  of  the  mountain  to  the  right  of  the  road,  where 
he  remained  till  he  was  attacked  on  the  7th. 

"  When  the  troops  from  the  different  counties  met  at  the  head  of 
the  Catawba  river,  the  commanding  officers  met,  and  finding  that 
they  were  all  of  equal  grade,  and  no  general  officer  to  command. 

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BATTLE    OP   ring's   MOUNTAIN.  267 

it  was  decided  that  Col.  Charles  McDowell  should  go  to  head- 
quarters, supposed  to  be  between  Charlotte  and  Salisbury,  to  ob- 
tain General  Sumner  or  General  Davidson  to  take  the  command. 
In  the  meantime,  it  was  agreed  that  Col.  William  Campbell,  who 
had  the  largest  regiment,  should  take  the  conunand  until  the  arri- 
val of  a  general  officer,  who  was  to  act  according  to  the  advice 
of  the  colonels  commanding,  and  that  Major  McDowell  should 
take  the  command  of  the  Burke  and  Rutherford  regiment  until 
the  return  of  Col.  McDowell. 

"  Shortly  after  these  measures  were  adopted,  intelligence  was 
received  that  Colonel  Ferguson  had  left  Gilbertstovm,  and  it  was 
decided  that  they  would  march  after  him,  by  that  place  ;  and  on 
their  way  they  received  evidence  that  it  was  his  design  to  evade  an 
engagement  with  them.  On  the  evening  of  the  6th  of  October,  the 
colonels  in  council  unanimously  resolved,  that  they  would  select 
all  the  men  and  horses  fit  for  service,  and  immediately  pursue  Fer- 
guson until  they  should  overtake  him,  leaving  such  as  were  not 
able  to  go  to  come  after  them  as  fast  as  they  could.  The  next 
morning  the  selection  was  made,  and  910  men,  including  officers, 
were  marched  before,  leaving  the  others  to  follow.  They  came  to 
the  Cov^ens,  where  Ferguson  had  camped  on  the  night  of  the 
4th,  and  there  met  Colonel  Williams,  of  South  Carolina,  with  near 
400  men,  and  about  60  from  Lincoln  county,  who  had  joined  them 
on  their  march  under  Colonel  Hambrite  and  Major  Chronicle. 
After  drawing  rations  of  beef,  the  whole  proceeded  on  a  little 
before  sunset,  taking  Ferguson's  trail  towards  Dear's  Ferry,  on 
Broad  River.  Night  coming  on,  and  being  very  dark,  their  pilot 
got  out  of  the  right  way,  and  for  some  time  they  were  lost;  but 
before  daylight  they  reached  near  to  the  ferry,  and  by  directions  of 
the  officers,  the  pilot  led  them  to  the  Cherokee  ford,  about  a  mile 
and  a  half  below,  as  it  was  not  known  but  the  enemy  might  be  in 
possession  of  the  eastern  bank  of  the  river.  It  was  on  the  morning 
of  the  7th,  before  sunrise,  when  they  crossed  the  river,  and  marched 
about  two  miles  to  the  place  where  Ferguson  had  encamped  on 
the  night  of  the  5th.  There  they  halted  a  short  time,  and  took 
such  breakfast  as  their  wallets  and  saddlebags  would  afford.  The 
day  was  showery,  and  they  were  obliged  to  use  their  blankets  and 
great  coats  to  protect  their  arms  from  wet.  They  passed  on  a 
dozen  of  miles  vrithout  seeing  any  person ;  although  they  met  a 
lad  in  an  old  field,  by  the  name  of  Fonderin,  about  twelve  or  four- 
teen years  of  age,  who  had  a  brother  and  other  relations  in 
Ferguson's  camp,  and  who  was  directly  from  it,  within  less  than 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


three  miles.  A  halt  was  ordered,  and  the  colonels  met  in  consult- 
ation. Several  persons  knew  the  groimd  well  on  which  the  enemy 
was  encamped,  agreeably  to  the  information  given  by  the  boy,  of 
their  position.  The  plan  of  battle  was  inmiediately  settled ;  that 
the  forces  should  be  nearly  equally  divided,  and  one  half  would 
take  to  the  right,  cross  over  and  occupy  the  southeast  side  of  the 
mountain,  and  that  the  other  should  advance  to  the  northwest  side, 
and  that  each  division  should  move  forward  imtil  they  formed  a 
junction,  when  all  should  face  to  the  front,  and  press  upon  the 
enemy  up  the  sides  of  the  moimtain.  Orders  were  given  to  pre- 
pare for  battle  by  laying  aside  every  inciunbrance,  examining  into 
their  arms,  and  guarding  against  alarms.  The  orders  were 
speedily  obeyed,  and  they  moved  forward  over  King's  Creek  and 
up  a  branch  and  ravine,  and  between  two  rocky  knobs  ;  which 
when  they  had  passed,  the  top  of  the  mountain  and  the  enemy's 
camp  upon  it  were  in  full  view,  about  one  'himdred  poles  in  front." 
"  The  enemy's  camp  was  to  the  right  of  the  road,  seventy  or 
eighty  poles  in  length,  and  on  the  sununit  of  the  mountain,  which 
at  this  place  runs  nearly  northeast  and  southwest  (the  shadow  of 
the  timber  at  half  past  one  P.  M.  ranges  with  it).  The  troops 
were  led  on  in  the  following  order :  to  the  right,  Major  Winston, 
Colonel  Sevier,  Colonel  Campbell,  Colonel  Shelby,  and  Major 
McDowell ;  to  the  left,  Colonel  Hambrite,  Colonel  Cleaveland, 
and  Colonel  Williams,  of  South  Carolina.  Each  division  moved 
off"  steadily  to  the  place  assigned  them,  in  the  order  of  battle. 
Some  of  the  regiments  suffered  much  imder  the  galling  fire  of 
the  enemy,  before  they  were  in  a  position  to  engage  in  the  action. 
Some  complaints  began  to  be  uttered,  that  "  it  would  never  do  to 
be  shot  down  without  returning  the  fire ;'  Colonel  Shelby  repUed, 
^  press  on  to  your  places,  and  then  your  fire  will  not  he  lost^ 
The  men,  led  by  Shelby  and  M'Dowell,  were  soon  closely  en- 
gaged, and  the  contest  from  the  first  was  very  severe.  Williams 
and  Cleaveland  were  soon  in  their  places,  and  with  the  utmost 
energy  engaged  the  foe.  Ferguson,  finding  that  end  of  his  line 
giving  way,  ordered  forward  his  regulars  and  riflemen,  with  bayo- 
nets, and  made  a  furious  charge  upon  Shelby  and  M'Dowell, 
charging  dovni  the  mountain  some  two  himdred  yards.  A  united 
and  destructive  fire  soon  compelled  him  to  order  his  party  back  to 
the  top  of  the  mountain.  To  ward  off  the  deadly  attack  from 
Colonel  Williams,  Ferguson  again  charged  with  fury  down  the 
mountain.  When  Shelby's  men  saw  this,  they  raised  the  cry, 
*  Come  on,  men,  the  enemy  is  retreating !'    They  rallied,  and  by 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


the  time  Ferguson  returned  from  the  charge  agamst  the  South 
Carolinians,  renewed  their  fire  with  great  resolution.  Ferguson 
again  charged  upon  Shelby,  but  not  so  far  as  before ;  Colonel 
Williams's  men  in  turn  called  out,  *  the  enemy  is  retreating,  come 
on,  men  !' 

"  At  this  stage  of  the  action,  Hambrite  and  Winston  had  met, 
and  a  brisk  fire  was  poured  upon  Ferguson's  men,  all  round  the 
mountain.  As  he  would  advance  towards  Campbell,  Sevier, 
Winston,  and  Hambrite,  he  was  pursued  by  Shelby,  M'Dowell, 
Williams,  and  Cleaveland.  When  he  would  turn  his  face  against 
the  latter,  the  former  would  press  on  in  pursuit.  Thus  he  strug- 
gled on,  making  charges  and  retreats,  but  his  left  was  rapidly 
losing  ground.  His  men  were  rapidly  faUing  before  the  skilful 
aim  and  unbending  courage  of  the  whigs.  Even  after  being 
wounded,  he  fought  on  with  courage.  He  made  every  eflFort  that 
could  be  done  by  a  brave  and  skilful  officer,  according  to  his 
position.  At  length  he  was  shot  dead,  and  his  whole  command 
driven  up  into  a  group  of  sixty  yards  in  length,  and  not  forty  in 

"  The  British  officer,  Capt.  Dupeister,  who  took  the  command, 
ordered  a  white  flag  to  be  raised  in  token  of  surrender,  but  the 
bearer  was  instantly  shot  down.  He  soon  had  another  raised,  and 
called  out  for  quarter.  Col.  Shelby  demanded,  if  they  surrendered, 
why  they  did  not  throw  down  their  arms.  It  was  instantly  done. 
But  still  the  firing  was  cdhtinued,  until  Shelby  and  Sevier  went 
iftside  the  lines  and  ordered  the  men  to  cease.  Some  who  kept  at 
it  would  call  out,  *  Give  them  Buford's  play,'  alluding  to  Colonel 
Buford's  defeat  by  Tarleton,  where  no  quarter  was  given.  A 
guard  was  placed  over  the  prisoners,  and  all  remained  on  the  moim- 
tain  during  that  night." 

"  The  party  which  led  the  left  wing,  under  Colonel  Hambrite, 
suffered  very  much,  having  to  pass  very  difficult  ground  to  reach 
their  place  of  destination,  and  within  eighty  rods  of  the  enemy's 
marksmen.  Colonel  Hambrite  was  wounded,  and  Major  Chronicle 
was  killed.  Colonel  Wilhams,  of  South  Carolina,  a  brave  and 
efficient  offioer,  was  also  killed.  The  loss  of  the  whigs  was  not 
exactly  ascertained,  but  beUeved  to  be  about  thirty  killed  and  fifty 
wounded.  The  enemy  had  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  killed,  and 
all  the  rest  taken  prisoners." 

"On  the  morning  of  the  8th  a  court-martial  was  held,  and 
several  of  the  prisoners,  who  were  found  guilty  of  murder  and 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


Other  high  crimes,  were  sentenced  to  be  hanged.    About  twenty 
were  executed." 

From  this  paper  of  Gen.  Graham  it  appears  that  the  first  moving 
of  the  expedition  was  in  North  Carolina.  Virginia  came  to  her 
aid,  and  the  gallant  South  Carolina  took  her  share.  The  gallant 
Williams  has  no  monument.  The  friends  of  Major  Chronicle  and 
a  few  others  erected  a  monument  where  they  were  buried,  near  the 
battle-ground.     On  the  east  side  is  this  inscription,  viz. : 

Sacred  to  the  memory  of  Major  William  CHRoiriCLK 

and  Captain  Mattocki,  William  Robb,  and  JoHir  Botd  : — 

who  were  kiUed  at  this  place  on  the  7th  of  October,  1780, 

fighting  in  defence  of  America. 

On  the  west  side — 

Col.  Ferguson,  an  officer  of 

his  Britannic  Majesty,  was 

defeated  and  killed  at  this  place, 

on  the  7th  of  October,  1780. 

Colonel  WiUiams  was  an  elder  in  the  Presbyterian  church,  much 
beloved  as  a  man  and  an  officer,  ffis  fellow-citizens  preferred 
marching  under  him,  when  the  time  for  marching  came.  The  last 
meeting,  it  is  said,  with  his  friends,  was  at  the  church,  in  which  he 
used  to  meet  them  in  solenm  worship,  and  at  a  communion  season. 
Shelby  became  noted  in  Kentucky,  was  made  Governor,  and  was, 
in  the  latter  part  of  his  hfe,  religious,  and  an  elder  of  the  church. 
The  McDowells  held  through  life  the  highest  stand  with  their  fel- 
low^citizens.  Winston,  Hambrite,  Sevier,  and  Cleaveland,  were 
true  patriots.  Campbell  was,  after  this,  in  the  battle  of  Guilford, 
and  afterwards  the  commander  of  the  militia  in  the  eastern  section  of 
Virginia ;  and  while  engaged  with  his  duties  was  seized  with  a 
fever,  which  proved  mortal.  He  was  buried  at  Rocky  Mills,  in 
Hanover  county.  A  native  of  Augusta  county,  he  removed  early 
to  Washington  county, — ^a  bold,  active  man,  and  extremely  popular 
with  the  militia,  as  is  seen  in  the  fact  that  on  a  short  notice  he 
rallied  400  men  of  his  county  to  march  with  him  in  this  expedition, 
— ^an  untiring  enemy  of  the  tories,  who  hated  him  as  much  as  he 
loved  his  country.  After  an  interval  of  forty  years,  his  remains, 
in  a  surprising  state  of  preservation,  were  removed  to  Washington 
county,  to  repose  with  his  family. 

It  is  said  that  Colonel  Ferguson,  when  he  encamped  on  King's 
Mountain,  after  so  many  days  of  retreat  before  the  gathering  mih- 
tia,  exclaimed  to  his  men,  "Here  is  a  place  God  Almighty  caimot 

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BATTLE    OF   KINo's   MOUNTAIN.  271 

drive  us  from."  He  never  left  the  mountain ;  the  next  day  he  fell 
in  battle. 

By  courtesy,  Colonel  Campbell,  as  having  the  largest  force,  was 
considered  the  leading  officer ;  during  the  action  he  rode  down  two 
horses.  Early  in  the  action,  his  black,  called  Bald  Face,  proving 
unruly,  he  exchanged  him  for  a  horse  belonging  to  a  Mr.  Camp- 
bell, of  his  corps.  In  the  heat  of  the  battle  he  was  seen  on  foot 
at  the  head  of  his  men,  with  his  coat  oflf,  and  his  shirt-collar  open. 
Some  two  hundred  yards  down  the  mountain  was  Bald  Face, 
mounted  by  the  Colonel's  servant,  a  tall,  well-proportioned  mulatto, 
who  said,  ^'  he  had  come  up  to  see  what  his  master  and  the  rest 
were  doing." 

Ex-Senator  Preston,  of  South  Carolina,  a  grandson  of  Colonel 
Campbell,  in  his  youth,  stopped  at  a  tavern  in  South  CaroUna,  near 
the  North  Carolina  line,  and  in  sight  of  King's  Mountain ;  and 
while  breakfast  was  preparing,  observed  that  the  landlady  frequently 
turned  to  look  at  him.  While  eating,  she  asked  him  his  name,  and 
observed,  by  way  of  apology,  that  he  was  very  like  the  man  she 
most  dreaded  on  earth.  "  And  who  is  that  ?"  said  Preston. 
"  Colonel  Campbell,"  said  the  woman,  "  that  hung  my  husband 
at  King's  Mountain." 

Besides  Shelby,  who  became  religious  before  his  death,  and 
Williams,  who  was  so  much  beloved  as  elder,  it  is  the  tradition 
that  two  of  the  other  officers  were  elders  in  the  Presbyterian 
church  ;  but  which  of  them  is  not  handed  down  distinctly.  They 
were  republicans  on  principle,  and  fought  and  bled  for  their  prin- 
ciples. The  whole  military  force  that  were  engaged  in  this  expe- 
dition were  from  Presbyterian  settlements,  and  were  in  all  proba- 
biUty  all  of  them  of  Scotch  and  Scotch-Irish  origin. 

Though  the  scene  of  this  battle  is  in  South  Carolina,  the  chief 
honor  belongs  to  North  Carolina,  shared  most  nobly  with  South 
Carolina  and  Virginia.  The  officers  and  men  concerned  in  the 
planning  and  executing  the  enterprise  were  all  of  the  same  race, 
and  were  gathered  from  what  now  forms  four  States.  "  Mountain- 
men,"  and  "  beyond  the  mountains,"  mean  Tennessee  and  Kentucky, 
then  forming  western  coxmties  of  North  Carolina  and  Virginia. 

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It  is  a  remarkable  circumstance  that  the  battle  of  Gkiilford  Court- 
house, March  15th,  1781,  which  drore  the  invading  army  of  Com- 
wallis  from  Nocth  Carolina,  was  fought  within  about  a  day's  march 
of  the  scene  of  the  first  bloodshed  for  American  Independence,  made 
on  the  Alamance,  some  ten  years  before.  May  1771,  the  one  in  the 
bounds  of  Buffalo  congregation,  and  the  other  on  the  skirts  of  Ala- 
mance, the  two  congregations  forming  the  pastoral  charge  of  Dr. 
David  Caldwell. 

The  pursuit  of  Greene  by  Cornwallis  across  the  State,  from  the 
time  the  Catawba  was  crossed  in  January,  1781,  and  Davidson 
slain,  was  as  rapid  as  the  well  disciplined  army  of  English,  having 
destroyed  their  baggage,  could  make  it,  under  tiie  direction  of  brave 
and  skilful  officers,  through  a  country  for  the  most  part  hostile  to 
his  majesty's  forces,  with  no  magazines,  or  provisions  collected  for 
their  supply,  and  the  sources  of  refreshment  along  the  track  of  pur- 
suit mostly  consumed  by  the  retreating  American  army.  Perhaps 
in  the  whole  course  of  tiie  war,  generalship  and  bravery,  in  pursuit 
and  retreat,  were  never  better  exhibited,  than  in  the  efforts  of  his 
lordship  to  bring  Grreene  to  battle  before  he  could  cross  the  Dan, 
and  the  success  of  Gre«ne  to  elude  all  his  lordship's  efforts.  It  is 
said  that  the  advance  guards  of  one  and  the  rear  guard  of  the 
other  were  often  within  musket-shot  without  discharging  a  gun. 
The  great  object,  a  general  battle,  could  not  be  gained  by  the  death 
or  wounds  of  a  few  of  Greene's  rear,  and  the  officers  of  Cornwallis 
refrained  from  firing  on  those  whom  they  could  not  intercept 

At  nine  o'clock  at  night,  on  the  14th  of  February,  the  main 
army  having  crossed  the  day  before,  Lee's  legion  took  the  boats 
that  had  carried  over  the  forces  under  Colonel  Otho  Williams,  at 
Boyd's  Ferry ;  Lieutenant  Colonel  Carrington,  the  quartermaster 
general,  entering  the  ladt  boat.  Had  it  been  daylight,  the  British 
forces  might  have  seen  the  departure,  so  close  was  the  advance 
guard.    Here  the  pursuit  ended. 

Cornwallis  chose  Hillsborough  for  his  head-quarters.  While  a 
detachment  of  his  army  lay  at  the  Red  House,  they  occupied  the 
church  of  Hugh  McAden,  the  first  located  missionary  in  North 

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Carolina,  and  rememberihg  that  those  who  sang  ^^  David's  Psahns 
in  Metre,''  in  South  Carolina,  were  rebels  against  the  king,  and 
their  ministers  fomenters  of  rebellion,  they  complimented  McAden, 
a  short  time  in  his  grave,  and  his  congregation  also,  by  burning  his 
library  and  papers.      Fortunately  his  early  journal  escaped  the 

His  lordship  tarried  about  ten  days  in  Hillsborough.  In  that  time 
Grreene,  reinforced  by  militia  and  volunteers  from  Virginia,  had  re- 
crossed  the  Dan,  and  commenced  that  harassing  warfare- that  drew 
Comwallis  from  his  headquarters,  and  brought  on  the  decisive  bat- 
tle. Between  the  18th  and J^  those  marches  and  counter-marches 
took  place  by  forces  under  conmiand  of  Greene's  officers,  that  led  to 
the  destruction  of  the  regiment  of  tories  under  Colonel  Pyles, 
inarching  to  join  the  invaders,  about  midway  between  Hillsborough 
and  Greensborough,  and  to  the  entanglement  of  Tarleton,  from 
which  he  was  rescued  only  by  the  watchfulness  of  his  general,  who 
sent  three  messengers  in  haste  after  him,  in  one  night,  to  speed  his 
return,  and  just  saved  him  from  the  forces  that  were  preparing  to 
cut  him  off  before  daylight 

On  the  26th  of  February  Comwallis  left  Hillsborough,  and  mov- 
ing south  encamped  on  the  fertile  Alamance,  and  moved  on,  quar- 
tering upon  the  ^^  rebels."  On  the  6th  of  March  he  made  a  move 
to  entrap  that  remarkable  officer.  Colonel  Jtho  Williams  of  Mary- 
land ;  and  in  the  manoeuvres  that  followed,  a  circumstance  occmred 
that  gave  a  British  officer  great  ^clat  in  the  American  camp. 
Above  thirty  rifle  shots,  deliberately  aimed,  were  made  by  King's 
mountain  riflemen,  at  Wetzell's  Milk  on  Reedy  Fork,  upon  a  Bri- 
tish officer  that  was  seen  slowly  approaching  the  bank  of  the  stream, 
and  carefully  fording  the  current  on  a  beautiful  black  horse,  at  the 
time  apparently  busied  with  the  movements  of  a  detachment  of  sol- 
diers, all  within  view,  and  in  fair  rifle  shot  To  the  amazement  of 
all,  without  harm,  or  discovering  the  least  sensation  of  alarm,  he 
crossed  the  stream  and  disappeared.  Upon  inquiring  of  some  pri- 
soners what  officer  in  the  manoeuvres  and  skirmishes  rode  a  black 
horse,  the  name  of  the  gallant,  gentlemanly  and  skilful  Colonel  ' 
Webster  was  given  in  reply. 

Comwallis  removed  his  army  into  the  bounds  of  Buffalo  congre- 
gation, and  encamped  on  the  plantation  of  William  Rankin.  Re- 
maining there  till  all  the  provisions  on  the  plantation  and  in  the 
neighborhood  were  consumed,  and  the  plunder  secured,  the  army 
was  marched  into  the  Alamance  congregation,  and  encamped  on  the 
plantation  of  Ralph  Gorrel,  Esq.,  who,  like  Mr.  Rankin,  was  a  man  of 


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influence  and  wealth,  and  a  true  whig.  Turning  the  family  out  of 
doors,  consuming,  plundering,  and  destroying,  with  the  thoughtless 
recklessness  of  inrading  soldiers,  leaving  the  neighborhood  a  scene 
of  desolation,  after  an  abode  of  two  days,  the  army  was  marched  on 
Sabbath,  March  11th,  to  the  premises  of  Dr.  Caldwell.  Mrs.  Cald- 
well and  the  children  retired  to  the  smoke-house,  and  there  passed 
a  day  without  provision  and  without  a  bed.  The  officers  that  occu- 
pied the  house  insulted  her  distress  with  profane  language  and 
cruel  treatment,  until  the  principal  physician,  understanding  her 
condition,  interposed,  and  procured  for  her  a  bed  and  a  few  cooking 
utensils,  and  ^  some  provisions.  The  head-quarters  of  his  lordship 
was  at  Mr.  McCuistin's  on  the  great  road  from  the  court-house  to 
Fayetteville ;  but  the  army  was  encamped  mainly  on  Dr.  Cald- 
well'f  plantation,  the  line  extending  entirely  across  it,  and  the 
wings  occupying  part  of  two  of  his  neighbor's,  one  on  each  side  ; 
"  and  the  marls  of  it  are  still  visible."  Mr.  Caruthers  says — 
"  every  panel  of  ^  fence  on  the  premises  was  burned  ;  every  particle 
of  provisions  consumed  or  carried  away ;  every  living  thing  was 
destroyed  except  one  old  goose ;  and  nearly  every  square  rod  of 
ground  was  penetrated  with  their  iron  ramrods,  ip  search  of  hidden 

Before  leaving  the  place,  the  library  and  papers  of  Dr.  Caldiyell 
were  destroyed  by  fire.  This  was  done  by  the  command  of  the  offi- 
cers. The  large  oven  in  the  yard  was  used  for  the  purpose.  A  fire 
being  kindled,  armful  after  armful  of  the  books  and  papers  was,  1^ 
the  servants,  committed  to  the  flames,  till  the  destruction  was  com- 
plete. The  Dr.  was  at  this  time  in  the  camp  of  Grreene,  which,  on 
Monday,  the  12th,  was  about  five  miles  from  High  Rock ;  on  Tues- 
day, eight  miles  farther,  on  Ready  Fort,  and  on  Wednesday  at  the 
Court  House.  A  price  had  been  set  by  his  lordship  on  the  Dr.'s 
head :  J£200  to  any  one  who  should  bring  him  in  prisoner.  As  if 
to  revenge  his  absence  from  home  on  his  library  and  papers,  the 
order  was  given  for  their  destruction.  Not  even  the  family  Bible 
was  spared.  The  fatal  Psalms  in  metre  probably  ensured  its  de- 
struction. The  loss  of  the  manuscripts  was  irreparable ;  the  library 
in  the  course  of  time  was  partially  replaced.    . 

After  remaining  two  days,  the  army  left  the  neighborhood  a  scene 
of  desolation  and  distress,  and  removed  to  the  Quaker  settlement  on 
Deep  River.  About  this  time  occurred  the  massacre  of  the  bugler 
of  Lee's  legion,  while  crying  for  quarter,  but  a  little  more  atrocious 
than  the  slaughters  and  plunderings  which  were  enacted  throughout 
Dr  Caldwell's  congr^ations. 

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By  Greene's  near  approach  on  Wednesday,  the  14th  of  March,  it 
was  understood  throughout  the  country,  and  in  the  British  camp, 
that  the  American  general,  who  had  so  long  shunned  an  engage- 
ment, would  no  longer  decline  a  battle.  Lee's  legion  led  on  the 
attack.  The  king's  forces  approached  the  chosen  battle-ground  in 
beautiful  military  order  and  in  high  spirits.  By  the  court-house 
lay  Grreene  with  his  regulars ;  in  front,  to  the  south,  were  open  fields 
of  a  rolling  surface  with  some  ravines,  through  which  passed  the 
great  Salisbury  road,  on  the  right  and  left  of  which  were  woods ; 
about  a  rifle  shot  in  front,  beyond  these  fields,  were  woods  of  about 
the  same  depth  ;  in  these,  on  the  right  and  left  of  the  road,  were  sta- 
tioned the  Virginia  volunteers  and  militia,  some  of  them  excellent 
marksmen  with  the  rifle,  in  a  hollow  that  ran  nearly  at  right  angles 
to  the  road,  so  low  that  the  militia  would  be  unseen  by  the  enemy's 
line  till  within  gun-shot ;  in  front  of  the  woods  on  the  south,  behind 
a  rail-fence  enclosing  extended  open  fields^  lay  the  North  Carolina 
forces,  militia  and  volunteers,  some  excellent  riflemen.  Across  these 
open  fields,  the  army  of  Cornwallis,  in  battle  array,  advanced  on 
each  side  of  the  road  in  front  of  the  Carolina  forces  concealed  by 
the  fence  and  flanked  on  their  left  by  Campbell's  riflemen  and  Lee's 
legion,  and  their  right  by  Lynch's  rifle  corps  and  Washington's 

The  orders  to  the  first  line  were,  to  fire  twice,  from  behind  the 
fence,  upon  the  enemy  on  their  near  approach,  and  then  to  retire ; 
to  the  second  line,  to  give  the  advancing  enemy  such  reception  as 
circumstances  required ;  and  in  case  of  a  retreat,  all  were  to  rally  in 
the  rear  of  the  regulars. 

The  British  forces  could  be  seen  for  a  mile  or  more,  as  they  defiled 
into  the  open  fields.  The  fi^old-pieces  of  Greene  stationed  in  the  road 
under  Captain  Singleton,  just  in  front  of  the  front  line,  played  upon 
the  advancing  enemy,  and  were  briskly  answered  by  that  of  the 
enemy  under  Lieut.  McLeod.  As  the  British  forces  advanced,  Sin- 
gleton retreated  according  to  orders  to  the  court-house.  The  first 
fire,  from  the  first  line,  behind  the  fence,  was  unexpected  jmd  very 
destructive.  The  following  extract  of  a  letter  from  Dugald  Stewart, 
a  captain  in  the  army  of  Cornwallis,  to  his  relative  Donald  Stewart 
of  Guilford  county.  North  Carolina,  dated  Ballachelish,  Argyleshire, 
Scotland,  Oct  25,  1825,  is  taken  from  Mr.  Caruthers. 

"  The  regiment  to  which  I  belonged,  the  71st  or  Frazier's  High- 
landers, was  drjiwn  up  on  the  left  of  the  British  line  along  with 
the  23d,  or  Welsh  Fusileers,  with  some  other  regiments.    In  the 

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advance  we  received  a  very  deadly  fire  from  the  Irish  line  of  the 
American  army,  composed  of  their  marksmen  lying  on  the  ground 
behind  a  rail-ience.     One  half  of  the  Highlanders  dropt  on  that 
spot    There  ought  to  be  a  pretty  large  tumulus  where  our  m«i 
were  buried.'*    This  "  Irish  line'*  and  these  "  marksmen"   in  the 
firont  line  were  probably  the  company  of  volunteers  under  Captain 
John  Forbes  from  the  Alamance,  made  up  of  his  firiends  and  neigh- 
bors, the  Allisons,  the  Kerrs,  the  Wileys,  the  Paisleys  and  others, 
who  had  come  to  take  part  in  the  battle.     Captain  Forbes  fired  the 
first  gun ;  his  men  saw  a  British  officer  fall ;  they  gave  their  "  deadly 
fire,"  and  repeated  it,  and  then  retreated.    Forbes  in  the  retreat 
received  a  mortal  wound.     William  Paisley,  the  father  of  the  Rev. 
Samuel  Paisley,  was  also  wounded,  but  not  mortally.    Had  the  whole 
front  line  behaved  as  gallantly,  the  fortune  of  the  day  would  have 
been  still  more  disastrous  to  the  invaders.     But  there  were  some 
who  thought  "  discretion  the  better  part  of  valor" — *^  that  he  that 
fights  and  runs  away,  may  live  to  fight  another  day."    The  British 
line  resumed  its  march,  inclining  to  the  left  in  front  of  the  r^ulars 
under  Greene,  with  whom  the  sharpest  contest  was  anticipated. 
Encountering  the  second  line  of  militia  and  volunteers,  the  exiemj 
met  another  unexpected  reception  from  the  Virginia  marksmen. 
The  right  of  that  line  under  General  Lawson  wheeled  round  upon 
their  left,  and  then  retreated  in  confiision.     Col.  Webster,  who  led 
the  British  left,  then  advanced  upon  the  regulars  under  Col.  Gunby. 
The  left  of  the  second  line  of  militia  and  volunteers  was  encountered 
by  the  British  right  under  General  Leslie,  and  maintained  their 
ground,  alternately  advancing  upon  the  enemy  and  then  retreating 
to  their  original  position,  till  the  retreat  of  the  regulars  under  Grreene. 
In  a  short  diary  kept  by  a  Virginia  rifleman  who  stood  on  the  left 
of  the  second  line,  who  said  he  discharged  his  rifle  fourteen  times 
that  afternoon,  Samuel  Houston,  afterwards  so  long  the  pastor  of  the 
Highbridge  congregation,  Rockbridge  county,  Virginia, — ^he  says 
that,  before  the  battle,  he  retired  and  committed  himself  to  the  mer- 
ciful providence  of  God ;  and  then, "  standing  in  readiness, 

we  heard  the  pickets  fire.  Shortly,  the  English  fired  a  cannon, 
which  was  answered,  and  so  on  alternately  till  the  small-armed 
troops  came  nigh,  and  then  close  firing  began  near  the  centre  but 
rather  towards  the  right,  and  soon  spread  along  the  line.  Our 
Brigade-Major,  Mr.  Williams,  fled.  Presently  came  two  men  to  us 
and  informed  us  the  British  fled.  Soon  the  enemy  appeared  to  us. 
We  fired  on  their  flank,  and  shot  down  many  of  them.  At  which 
i;ime  Captain  Telford  was  killed.    We  pursued  them  about  forty 

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poles,  to  the  top  of  a  hill,  when  they  stood,  and  we  retreated  from 
them  back  to  where  we  formed ;— then  we  repulsed  them  again ; 
and  they  a  second  time  made  us  retreat  back  to  our  first  ground, 
when  we  were  deceived  by  a  regiment  of  Hessians,  whom  we  took 
for  our  own,  and  cried  out  to  them  to  see  if  they  were  our  friends, 
and  shouted  aloud  Liberty,  Liberty,  and  advanced  up,  till  they  let 
off  some  guns ;  then  we  fired  sharply  on  them  and  made  them  re- 
treat a  little,  but  presently  their  light -horse  came  on  us,  and  not 
being  defended  by  our  light-horse,  nor  reinforced,  though  firing 
bad  long  ceased  in  all  other  parts,  we  were  obliged  to  run,  and 
many  were  sore  chased  and  some  cut  down.  We  lost  our  Major 
and  Captain  then.  We  all  scattered ;  and  some  of  our  party,  and 
Campbell's,  and  Moffitt's,  collected  together,  and  with  Campbell  and 
Moffitt  and  Major  Pooge,  we  marched  to  head-quarters." 

It  is  stated  by  Johnson,  that  General  Stevens  placed  in  the  rear  of 
the  left  of  this  second  line  some  good  marksmen,  with  orders  to 
shoot  down  any  of  his  men  that  deserted  the  ranks.  It  is  also  well 
known  that  this  part  of  the  line  kept  its  position  till  Greene  ordered 
a  general  retreat 

Let  us  go  to  the  fiercest  part  of  the  battle.  The  court-house  is 
gone ;  the  village  is  wasted  to  a  house ;  the  actors  in  that  eventful 
strife  are  all  passed  away ; — but  the  face  of  the  country  is  un- 
changed ;  the  open  fields  and  the  woods  retam  the  relative  posi- 
tion of  sixty  years  since.  Taking  your  stand  on  this  highest  ground, 
where  the  court-house  stood,  you  may  look  over  the  whole  battle- 
field of  th^  sharpest  contest  Directly  in  front,  to  the  south,  is  the 
open  rolling  field  across  which  the  gallant  Webster  led  his  regi- 
ment, as  boldly  as  if  his  life  was  charmed  against  powder  and  lead, 
on  to  attack  the  first  Maryland  regiment,  renowned  for  their  con- 
duct at  the  Cowpens.  The  gallant  colonel's  regiment  recoiled  at  the 
first  deadly  fire,  and  gave  way  before  the  advance  of  the  Maryland- 
ers.  Grievously  wounded,  Webster  rallied  his  men  on  the  skirts  of 
the  wood  in  front  of  you,  and  in  a  little  time  was  ready  to  re-enter 
the  battle.  From  the  Salisbury  road,  Leslie  sends  down  two  regi- 
ments to  advance  upon  the  second  Maryland  regiment,  which  be- 
haved in  an  unsoldierlike  manner,  and  did  nothing  worthy  of  their 
name.  O'Harra  hastened  on  with  two  regiments  to  the  flank  of 
Howard  regaining  his  line,  and  made  an  attack  on  the  second  Ma- 
ryland regiment,  which  gave  way  and  fled.  Just  then,  Colonel 
Washington  rapidly  passed  by  the  head  of  Leslie's  regiment,  leaped 
a  ravine  with  his  corps  unseen,  and  made  a  terrible  onset  upon  the 
Queen's  Guards,  exulting  in  their  victory  over  the  second  raiment 

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The  carnage  was  dreadful.  At  this  time  it  was,  as  lieiiteiiaiit 
Holcomb  related  to  Dr.  Jones  of  Nottaway,  that  the  noted  Francisco 
performed  a  deed  of  blood  without  a  parallel.  In  that  short  ren- 
counter, he  cut  down  eleven  men  with  his  brawny  arm  and  terrible 
broadsword.  One  of  the  guards  thrust  his  bayonet,  and  in  spite  of 
the  parrying  of  Francisco's  sword,  pinned  his  leg  to  the  horse. 
Francisco  forbore  to  strike,  but  assisted  him  to  extricate  his  bay- 
onet As  the  soldier  turned  and  fled,  he  made  a  furious  blow  with 
his  sword,  and  cleft  the  poor  fellow's  head  down  to  his  shoulders. 
The  force  of  the  blow,  added  to  the  soldier's  speed,  sent  him  on  a 
number  of  steps,  with  his  cleft  head  hanging  upon  each  shoulder, 
before  he  fell.  The  astonished  beholders  shouted, "  Did  you  ever 
see  the  like?"  Howard,  with  the  1st,  came  rushing  on  them, 
and  the  contest  was  renewed  in  a  most  desperate  manner  about  mid- 
way between  the  court-house  and  the  woods  in  front  This  was 
the  crisis  of  the  battle.  Comwallis  came  down  from  -his  post,  where 
the  Salisbury  road  enters  the  wood,  to  the  hollow,  to  see  the  con- 
dition of  the  battle,  and  under  the  cover  of  the  smoke,  rode  up  to 
that  old  oak  just  in  the  skirts  of  the  fiery  contest  Washington, 
who  had  drawn  off  his  troops,  was  hovering  round  to  watch  his  op- 
portunity for  another  onset,  and  approached  that  same  oak  unper- 
ceived  by  his  lordship ;  stopping  to  beckon  on  his  men  to  move 
and  intercept  the  officer,  then  unknown  to  him,  he  happened  to 
strike  his  unlaced  helmet  from  his  head.  On  recovering  it,  he  per- 
ceived the  white  horse  that  carried  the  officer  on  the  full  gallop 
towards  the  artillery  posted  on  the  rising  ground,  where  the  road 
emerges  from  the  woods.  His  lordship  gave  orders  to  Lieutenant 
McLeod  to  charge  with  grape-shot,  and  fire  in  upon  the  contending 
mass  of  men.  O'Harra,  who  had  been  carried  wounded  to  that  po- 
sition, heard  the  fatal  orders,  and  begged  the  commander  to  spare 
his  fine  troops.  His  lordship  repeated  the  order  sternly,  and  stood 
by  the  devouring  cannon  till  the  regiments  who  were  yielding 
ground  to  the  Maryland  forces  rallied,  and  bravely,  or  rather  des- 
perately, renewed  the  contest  This  rally  decided  the  fiate  of  the 
day.     Greene  drew  off  his  forces. 

At  the  time  Comwallis  was  in  danger  of  being  taken  by  Washing- 
ton, Greene,  also,  going  down  to  survey  the  battle  and  learn  the  con- 
dition of  his  forces,  under  cover  of  the  smoke,  approached  within  a 
few  steps  of  a  large  force  of  the  enemy  5  discovering  his  perilous 
condition,  he  slowly  retreated  and  escaped  without  observation.  In 
a  letter  to  his  lady,  the  day  after  the  battle,  he  says — ^^  I  had  not  the 
honor  of  being  woimded,  but  was  very  near  being  taken,  having 

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rode  in  the  heat  of  the  action,  fiill  tilt,  directly  into  the  midst  of  the 
enemy ;  but  by  Col.  Harris  calling  to  me  and  advertising  me  of  my 
atuation  I  had  just  time  to  escape.'' 

The  consequences  of  this  battle  are  well  known — ^the  retreat  of 
Comwallis,  and  the  delivery  of  Carolina. 

During  this  eventful  Thursday,  all  the  active  men  in  Dr.  Caldwell's 
congregation  were  in  some  way  engaged  with  the  army ;  and  we 
are  told  by  Mr.  Caruthers  that  there  were  two  collections  of  females, 
one  in  Buffalo,  and  the  other  in  Alamance,  engaged  in  most  earnest 
prayer  for  their  families  and  their  country ;  many  others  sought  the 
divine  aid  in  solitary  places.  One  pious  lady  sent  her  son,  often, 
during  the  afternoon,  to  the  summit  of  a  little  hill  near  which  she 
spent  much  time  in  prayer,  to  listen  and  bring  her  word  which  way 
the  firing  came,  firom  the  southward  or  the  northward.  When  he 
returned  and  said  it  was  going  northward — ^^  Then,"  exclaimed  she, 
**  all  is  lost,  Greene  is  defeated."  But  all  was  not  lost ;  the  God  that 
hears  prayer  remembered  his  people. 

The  invaders  left  the  ground  the  next  day,  and  all  the  country 
around  were  busy  in  burying  the  dead  and  carrying  off  their  woun- 
ded, many  of  whom  lay  the  cold  wet  night  after  the  battle  exposed 
upon  the  ground.  Capt  Forbis  lay  about  thirty  hours  before  he  ' 
was  discovered  by  his  firiends.  He  was  then  found  by  an  old  lady, 
who  was  searching  the  woods  for  a  relative  He  survived  a  short 
time  after  being  carried  to  his  house.  He  declared  before  his  death, 
that  on  the  day  after  the  battle  a  tory  of  his  acquaintance  passed 
by  him  and  recognized  him,  and  instead  of  giving  him  a  little 
water,  for  which  he  craved,  to  quench  his  raging  thurst,  kicked  him 
and  cursed  him  as  a  rebel.  After  the  death  of  Forbis,  that  man  was 
found  suspended  on  a  tree  before  his  own  door. 

The  strength  of  the  tories  had  been  greatly  increased  by  the 
presence  of  the  British  forces,  and  the  policy  of  Comwallis.  The 
feuds  and  bloodshed  in  the  neighborhood  were  indescribable  for  their 
vexations,  and  often  for  their  atrocities.  For  a  short  time  after  the 
battle  these  were  more  bitter.  The  entire  departure  of  the  invaders 
permitted  the  country  to  resume  its  quiet,  and  pursue  their  occupa- 
tions in  comparative  peaceftilness. 

The  battle  at  the  court-house  aboimded  ift  acts  of  heroism  and 
also  of  cowardice.  In  that  contest,  when  the  grape  shot  poured  upon 
the  contending  forces,  it  is  said  some  of  the  British  officers  fell  as  if 
dead,  and  were  plundered,  but  after  the  battle  were  not  reported 
either  among  the  wounded  or  missing. 

The  gallant  Webster,  that  escaped  so  remarkably  at  Wetzell's 

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Mills,  and  rallied  his  broken  forces  so  nobly  and  came  back  into 
the  action,  died  of  the  wounds  received  in  his  charge  upon  the 
Maryland  regiment  He  accx>mpanied  the  retreating  army  as  far  as 
Bladen  county,  and  with  the  sympathy  of  his  enemies,  as  well  as  the 
king's  forces,  was  consigned  to  his  grave,  near  Elizabeth,  the  county 
seat  There  was  no  fear  his  grave  would  be  profaned  When 
General  Philips  died  at  Petersbury,  Virginia,  some  time  after,  his 
grave  was  secreted  through  fear  of  the  irritated  country,  lest  his 
cruelties  should  be  visited  on  his  ashes. 

The  Virginia  militia  and  volunteers,  that  maintained  their  ground 
so  bravely  and  received  so  much  applause  for  their  soldierlike  con- 
duct, were  from  Augusta  and  Rockbridge  counties,  and  almost  to  a 
man  the  descendants  of  Scotch-Irish.  Some  of  the  congr^ation  of. 
the  noted  Graham  were  there ;  and  a  company  fix>m  the  congrega- 
tion of  the  silver-tongued  Waddel,  the  Blind  Preacher  of  Mr.  Wirt, 
heard  a  farewell  address  from  him,  while  under  arms  ready  to  marcL 
Many  that  marched  returned  no  more ;  and  others  bore  the  marks 
of  deep  gashes  from  the  light-horse  broadswords  the  remainder 
of  their  days.  The  last  of  these  men  were  lately  carried  to  their 

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MINUTES   OF  THE    8TN0D.  281 



When  it  was  finally  determined,  in  May,  1788,  by  the  Synod  of 
New  York  and  Philadelphia,  to  constitute -a  General  Assembly  of 
the  Presbyterian  Church,  in  the  United  Slates  of  America,  as  a 
preliminary  step  some  new  S)mods  were  first  set  off,  of  which  the 
Synod  of  the  Carolinas  was  one  ;  by  the  following  resolutions  the 
way  was  open  for  its  meeting : — "  Resolved,  that  the  Synod  of 
the  Carolinas  meet  on  the  first  Wednesday  of  November  next,  at 
eleven  o'clock,  A.M.,  at  Centre  church,  in  Rowan  county,  and 
that  Mr.  Pattillo,  or,  in  his  absence,  the  senior  minister  present, 
open  the  Synod  with  a  sermon,  and  preside  till  a  moderator  be 
chosen."  The  Presbyteries  that,  united,  formed  the  Synod,  were 
Orange,  in  North  Carolina,  South  Carolina,  in  the  State  of  the 
same  name,  and  Abingdon,  principally  in  Tennessee. 

The  members  of  Orange  Presbytery  were  Rev.  Messrs.  Henry 
Pattillo,  David  Caldwell,  Samuel  E.  McCorkle,  James  Hall,  Ro- 
bert Archibald,  James  McRee,  Jacob  Lake,  Daniel  Thatcher, 
David  Barr,  John  Beck,  in  all  ten.  Those  of  South  Carolina, 
James  Edmonds,  John  Harris,  Joseph  Alexander,  John  Simpson, 
Thomas  Reese,  Thomas  H.  McCaule,  James  Templeton,  Fran- 
cis Cummins,  Robert  Finley,  Robert  Hall,  Robert  Mecklin ;  in 
all  eleven.  Of  Abingdon  Presbytery,  Charles  Cummins,  Heze- 
kiah  Balch,  John  Coasan,  Samuel  Houston,  Samuel  Carrick, 
James  Balch,  in  all  seven.     Total  in  the  Synod,  twenty-eight. 

From  the  records  of  the  twenty-five  sessions  which  this  Synod 
held,  previously  to  its  division  in  1813,  such  extraets  will  be  made 
as  are  of  abiding  interest,  or  necessary  to  give  a  succinct  account 
of  the  doings  of  a  pious  and  active  body  of  men,  whose  names 
and  doings  should  not  be  forgotten.  In  some  cases'  a  brief  state- 
ment will  be  made,  embracing  the  spirit  of  the  records  for  the 
sake  of  brevity ;  in  others  the  very  words  will  be  given,  which 
will  be  indicated  by  the  conunon  quotation  marks.  The  exact 
words  will  be  given  whenever  they  appear  to  be  of  importance. 

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"  SESSION    I. 

"  Centre  Churchy  State  of  North  Carolinay      >' 
November  bthy  1788.  J 

"  The  Synod  of  the  Cftrolinas  met  according  to  the  appointment 
of  the  late  Synod  of  New  York  ard  Philadelphia,  convened  in 
May,  1788.  Members  present  were,  of  the  Presbytery  of  Orange, 
the  Rev.  David  Caldwell,  Samuel  E.  McCorkle,  James  HaU, 
Robert  Archibald,  James  McRee,  and  Jacob  Lake,  ministers  ; 
with  elders,  Messrs.  Wm.  Anderson,  McNeely,  Harris,  King, 
Robert  Irwin,  and  John  Dickey. 

"  Of  the  Presb)rtery  of  South  Carolina,  the  Rev.  James  Temple- 
ton,  Francis  Cunmiins,  Robert  Hall,  ministers ;  with  elders, 
Messrs.  Martin  and  Hamilton. 

"  Of  the  Presbytery  of  Abingdon,  the  Rev.  Samuel  Houston. 
One  new  member,  it  appears,  had  been  added  to  the  Presbytery  of 
^uth  Carolina,  John  Newton,  and  one  had  died,  Robert  Mecklin. 
The  Synod  was  opened  by  the  Rev.  David  Caldwell  being  the 
senior  member  present,  after  which  Synod  was  constituted  with 
prayer.  The  Rev.  David  Caldwell  was  chosen  moderator,  and 
Rev.  James  McRee  and  Robert  Hall  clerks." 

The  Committee  of  Overtures  read  the  following : — "  That  the 
committee  think  it  highly  necessary  that  Synod  should  inquire 
respecting  a  certain  report  injurious  to  the  credit  of  the  late  Sjmod 
of  New  York  and  Philadelphia,  namely,  that  said  Synod  had  cast 
off  the  larger  catechism,  and  that  witb  difficulty  the  shorter  was 
retained."  The  Synod,  in  consequence  of  examining  into  the 
above  report,  and  having  received  what  they  considered  as  authentic 
testimony  to  the  contrary,  concluded  the  report  to  be  totally  false, 
"  Resolved,  that  it  be  enjoined  on  the  several  members  of  Synod, 
to  take  an  account,  when  it  may  appear  that  the  above  false  and 
scandalous  report  is  injurious  to  tlie  credit  of  religion,  and  call 
those  who  propagated  it  before  their  respective  jurisdiction,  and  if 
found  guilty  without  being  able  to  give  their  author,  that  they  be 
treated  according  to  the  demerit  of  their  crime. 

"  Synod  adjourned  to  meet  at  Poplar  Tent,  on  the  first  Wednes- 
day in  September  next.     Concluded  with  prayer." 

"  Poplar  Tenty  State  of  North  Carolina,      > 
September  2d,  1789.  J 
'  The  Synod  met  according  to  adjournment,  and  was  opened  by 

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the  Rev.  David  Caldwell,  with  a  sermon  from  Psalms  ii.,  6."  Two 
members  were  reported  as  added  to  the  Presbytery  of  South  Caro- 
lina, Robert  McCuUock  and  William  C.  Davis,  and  one  dismiss- 
ed, Robert  Finley.  It  appeared  that  the  Presbjrtery  of  Orange 
had  received  the  Rev.  David  Kerr,  from  the  Presbytery  of  Tem- 
ple Patrick,  in  Ireland,  as  a  member  in  good  standing ;  the  Synod 
proceeded  to  consider  his  credentials  and  collateral  testimony,  ap- 
proved of  the  proceeding  and  invited  him  to  a  seat. 

The  report  about  the  larger  catechism  being  cast  off  was  further 
considered,  and  it  appearing  the  Rev.  Robert  Finley,  lately  dis- 
missed from  the  Presbytery  of  South  CaroUna,  was  implicJated  in 
that  report,  Sjrnod  ordered  a  letter  to  be  written  to  him,  and  ano- 
ther to  the  Presb3rtery  of  which  he  is  a  member. 

"  Overturesy — ^Whether  persons  who  practise  dancingy  revel' 
lingy  horse-racingy  and  card-playingy  are  to  be  admitted  to  sealing 
ordinances  ?  Synod,  taking  into  consideration  these  and  other 
things  of  a  similar  tendency.  Resolved,  that  they  are  wrong  ;  and 
the  practisers  of  them  ought  not  to  be  admitted  to  seaUng  ordi 
nances,  until  they  be  dealt  with  by  their  spiritual  rulers  in  such 
manner  as  to  them  may  appear  most  for  the  glory  of  God,  their 
own  good,  and  the  good  of  the  church." 

"  Overturey — Are  persons  who  habitually  neglect  to  attend 
public  worship,  on  fast  or  thanksgiving  days,  admissible  to  seal- 
ing ordinances  ?  Synod  unanimously  agree  that  such  conduct  is 
inconsistent  with  the  Christian  character  ;  a  disrespect  paid  to  the 
call  of  God  in  his  providences,  and  the  authority  of  the  church  ; 
offensive  to  the  sober-minded,  and  in  point  of  example  injurious 
to  others." 

The  Synod  then  proceeded  to  order  all  its  members  to  read  the 
proceedings  of  Synod  on  the  overtures  in  all  their  churches,  and 
in  the  vacancies. 

On  a  reference  from  the  Synod  of  South  Carolina,  after  delibe- 
ration. Synod  "  Judged,  that  the  marriage  of  John  Latham,  of 
"Waxhaw,  with  his  deceased  wife's  sister's  daughter,  is  criminal 
and  highly  offensive ;  and  that  all  such  marriages  are  truly  de- 
testable, and  ought  to  be  strenuously  discotrtitenanced  ;  and  that 
said  Latham,  in  his  present  standing,  is  by  no  means  admissible 
to  the  sealing  ordinances  of  the  church."  This  is  referred  to  in 
the  thirteenth  session. 

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"session  III. 

'' Bethany y  Oct.  6  {Wednesday),  1790. 

'^  Synod  met  agreeably  to  adjournment,  and  was  opened  with  a 
sermon  preached  by  4ie  Rev.  Henry  Pattillo  (the  moderator  being 
absent),  from  Acts  xivi.,  18." 

Mr.  Pattillo  was  chosen  moderator,  Mr.  John  Springer  was 
reported  as  having  been  added  to  the  Presbytery  of  South  Caro- 
lina, and  Mr.  Houston  as  having  been  dismissed  from  Abingdon. 
The  Synod  examined  and  approved  the  proceedings  of  Orange 
Presbytery,  in  receiving  the  Rev.  Wm.  Moore  from  the  Presby- 
tery of  Hanover.  (The  proceedings  had  been  regular,  but  Synod 
took  the  oversight  of  receiving  members  from  other  bodies.) 

*•  Overtured,  That  Dr.  Doddridge's  Rise  and  Progress  of  Reli- 
gion, and  his  ten  sermons  on  Regeneration,  be  printed  by  con- 
tributions raised  by  the  members  of  Synod. 

"  Ordered,  that  the  Rev.  James  M'Ree  request  the  printers  in 
Fayetteville  to  publish  in  their  Gazette  the  terms  on  which  they 
will  print,  bind,  and  letter  the  above  books. 

"  Ordered,  that  each  Presbytery  make  provisions  that  they  be 
represented  in  the  General  Assembly. 

"  The  Synod  recommended  that  the  last  Wednesday  in  next 
month  be  observed  as  a  day  of  public  thanksgiving  to  God,  as  an 
acknowledgment  of  his  goodness  in  the  plentiful  crops  of  the 
present  year." 

session  IV. 

Thyatira,  Oct.  bth  {Wednesday),  1791. 

In  the  absence  of  the  moderator,  the  Rev.  Joseph  Alexander 
opened  the  Synod,  with  a  sermon  from  John  ix.,  35,  and  was 
chosen  moderator.  South  Carolina  Presbytery  reported  one  ad- 
ded, James  Stephenson. 

The  Sjrnod  took  action  on  the  subject  of  reprinting  Doddridge's 
Rise  and  Progress,  and  his  ten  sermons  on  Regeneration,  and 
appointed  a  member  of  each  Presbytery  to  see  to  it  that  pro- 
posals were  circulated  to  obtain  subscriptions  in  all  the  congrega- 
tions ;  and  if  the  numbers,  as  returned  from  the  Spring  meetings 
of  Presbyteries,  amounted  to  fifteen  hundred,  the  conmiittee  of 
Synod  was  to  forward  a  list  to  the  printer,  that  the  work  be  com- 

The  elders  and  congregation  at  Stony  Creek  having  sent  up  for 

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MINTJTBS   OP   THE    SYNOD.  «  285 

advice  respecting  the  use  of  Dr.  Watts's  Hymns,  in  public  wor- 
ship, it  was  resolved,  "  that  the  petitioners  be  referred  to  the 
General  Assembly,  as  the  Synod  do  not  conceive  that  it  lies  with 
them  to  sanction  any  system  of  psahnody,  other  than  such  sys- 
tems as  may  be  sanctioned  by  the  General  Assembly." 

The  Committee  of  Overtures  presented  the  following  questions, 
**  Are  they  who  publicly  profess  a  behef  in  the  doctrine  of  the 
universal  and  actual  salvation  of  the  whole  human  race,  or  of 
the  fallen  angels,  or  both,  through  the  mediation  of  Christ,  to  be 
admitted  to  the  sealing  ordinances  of  the  gospel  ?  Wherefore, 
resolved,  that  although  the  Synod  set  themselves  unanimously 
against  the  doctrine  of  universal  salvation,  as  an  article  of  be- 
lief, yet  as  the  question  involves  some  difficulty  respecting  ad- 
mission to  sealing  ordinances,  the  said  question  be  sent  up  to  the 
General  Assembly  for  their  decision.     (See  next  session.) 

"  The  Committee  of  Overtures  laid  the  following  questions  be- 
fore Synod  for  consideration :  "  Should  church  sessions  require 
an  assent  to,  and  approbation  of  the  Confession  of  Faith,  and 
larger  or  shorter  catechisms,  previously  to  their  admitting  persons 
to  sealing  ordinances  ?"  On  this  subject,  "  Resolved,  that  the 
proceedings  of  the  Synod  of  New  York  and  Philadelphia 
General  Assembly  are  sufficient  to  direct  our  members  in  that 

"  Resolved,  that  the  following  ministers  and  elders  be  a  Stand- 
ing Commission  of  Synod,  and  particularly  to  take  up  and  issue 
the  affair  of  Mr.  Cossan,  if  not  issued  by  the  Presbytery  of  Ab- 
ingdon, viz :  the  Rev.  Samuel  E.  M'Corkle,  moderator,  James 
Hall,  James  Templeton,  James  M'Ree,  Robert  Hall,  Wm.  C. 
Davies,  and  Charles  Cummins ;  with  elders,  John  Dickey,  John 
M'Knitt  Alexander,  Adam  Beard,  William  Cathey,  William  An- 
derson, Joseph  Feemster,  and  John  Nelson.  The  moderator's 
council  to  consist  of  one  minister,  besides  himself,  and  one  elder. 
Two  ministers  besides  the  moderator,  and  as  many  of  the  above 
elders  as  may  be  present,  to  constitute  a  quorum." 

(From  this  time.  Commission  of  Synod  was  a  regular  appoint- 
ment, with  few  intermissions.  Much  important  business  was 
done  by  them,  and  their  decision  was  final.) 

"  On  motion,  Resolved,  that  it  be  enjoined  on  the  several  Pres- 
byteries to  take  as  effectual  measures  as  possible  for  collecting 
materials  for  the  history  of  the  Presbyterian  churches  in  America, 
and  that  returns  of  the  said  materials  be  made  to  the  General 
Assembly  as  early  as  possible." 

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At  this  meeting  the  Synod  took  up  the  subject  of  domestic  mis- 
sions, and  resolved  to  send  out  four  missionaries  to  act  in  the  des- 
titute regions  each  side  of  the  AUeghanies.  The  direction  of 
missionaries  to  be  in  the  commission  of  Synod  during  recess  of 
Synod  ;  their  support  fixed  at  two  hundred  dollars  annually.  It 
was  made  the  duty  of  the  missionaries  to  ascertain  who  of  the 
families  they  visited  wished  to  receive  the  gospel  frouLthe  Presby- 
terians, and  make  report ;  they  were  also  to  make  collections 
where  they  preached.  The  persons  appointed  were  James  Tem- 
pleton  and  Robert  Hall,  of  South  Carolina  Presbytery ;  and  Robert 
Archibald,  with  the  Licentiate  John  Bowman,  of  the  Presbytery 
of  Orange.     Each  was  to  labor  for  six  months. 

The  Presbytery  of  Orange  reported  at  this  meeting,  that  seven 
of  their  ministers  had  stated  charges  ;  three  temporary  charges  ; 
and  one  no  charge  ;  two  probationers,  who  have  calls  under  con- 
sideration ;  three  who  have  accepted  calls  ;  and  six  who  have  not 
calls  ;  and  five  candidates  ;  thirteen  vacancies  able  to  support  seven 
pastors  ;  and  eighteen  not  able  to  support  one.  The  Presbytery 
of  South  Carolina  reported  as  follows  :  ten  ministers  vrith  stated 
charges  ;  three  vrithout  any  charge ;  twb  Ucentiates ;  and  nine 
candidates  ;  thirteen  vacancies  able  to  support  nine  pastors ;  twen- 
ty-nine not  able  to  support  one.  The  names  of  pastors  are  not 
given  annexed  to  their  churches. 


"  Bethesda,  October  4th  ( Wednesday),  1792. 

"  Sjmod  met  pursuant  to  adjournment,  and  was  opened  with  a 
sermon  from  Matt.  xi.  6,  preached  by  the  Rev.  Joseph  Alexander, 
the  Moderator."  "  The  Rev.  Samuel  E.  McCorkle,  D.D.,  was 
chosen  Moderator."  The  Presbytery  of  Orange  reported  three 
members  added  by  ordination,  William  Hodges,  James  Wallis,  and 
Samuel  C.  Caldwell ;  the  two  last  mentioned  were  invited  to  seats. 
The  question  sent  up  to  the  last  Assembly  was  taken  up,  and  the 
following  minute  made  : — "  This  Synod  at  their  last  sessions  hav- 
ing sent  on  a  question  to  the  General  Assembly  respecting  the 
admission  or  non-admission  of  those  who  profess  their  belief  in 
the  doctrine  of  Universal  Redemption,  have  it  in  their  power  to 
refer  the  pubUc  in  general,  and  the  members  of  our  church  in  par- 
ticular, to  the  decision  of  the  General  Assembly  on  that  subject, 
which  is  as  follows  : — ^In  General  Assembly,  May,  1792,  a  ques- 
tion from  the  Synod  of  the  CaroUnas  was  introduced  through  the 

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MINUTES   OF   THE    STNOD.«  287 

Committee  of  Bills  and  Overtures,  which  was  as  follows  :  *  Are 
those  who  publicly  profess  a  belief  in  the  doctrine  of  universal  and 
actual  salvation  of  the  whole  human  race,  or  of  the  fallen  angels, 
or  both,  through  the  mediation  of  Christ,  to  be  admitted  to  the 
sealing  ordinances  of  the  gospel  V  The  Assembly  determined  that 
such  persons  should  not  be  admitted." 

It  being  ascertained  that  800  subscribers  could  be  obtained  for 
Doddridge's  Rise  and  Progress,  &c.,  Dr.  McCorkle  and  Rev.  Jas* 
McRee  were  appointed  agents  to  transact  with  the  printer  in  behalf 
of  Synod.  (This  scheme  of  benevolent  improvement  occupied 
the  Synod  for  some  years,  as  will  be  seen ;  and  finally  failed,  after 
a  large  amount  of  money  had  been  expended.) 

By  report  made  to  Synod,  it  appears  the  commission  of  Synod 
had  held  two  meetings  to  transact  the  missionary  business  which 
had  been  committed  to  them.  The  first,  in  October,  1791,  at 
Thyatira'  church,  in  which  they  drew  up  rules  and  instruc- 
tions for  the  missionaries,  and  gave  commissions  to  Rev.  James 
Templeton,  and  Robert  Hall,  to  act  for  four  months  each  in  the 
lower  parts  of  South  Carolina  and  Georgia,  before  the  middle  of 
the  succeeding  April;  and  Rev.  Robert  Archibald  for  four 
months,  and  Mr.  John  Bowman,  for  three  months,  as  above,  in  the 
lower  parts  of  North  Carolina.  The  only  part  of  the  very  judi- 
cious rules  and  instructions  they  prepared  for  their  missionaries, 
which  requires  attention,  as  difiering  from  those  now  given,  is  that 
contained  in  the  third  regulation  :  "  You  are  not  to  tarry  longer 
than  three  weeks  at  the  same  time,  in  the  bounds  of  twenty  miles, 
except  peculiar  circumstances  may  appear  to  make  it  necessary." 
The  next  meeting  was  at  Steele  Creek  church,  in  April,  1792,  to 
receive  the  reports  of  missionaries,  and  give  commissions  for  the 
summer  succeeding. 

They  held  a  third  meeting  for  judicial  business  at  Salem 
church,  on  the  Nolachuckee,  in  September,  to  attend  to  a  case  of 
discipline  between  the  Presbjrtery  of  Abingdon  and  the  Rev.  Mr. 

The  Synod  approved  of  the  doings  of  the  commission  after 
hearing  their  minutes  read  : — and  Synod,  on  a  review  of  the  whole 
of  the  minutes  of  said  commissioners,  concurred  in  their  approba- 
tion of  all  their  proceedings  since  appointed  to  that  ofiice.  There 
is  one  act  of  the  commissioners  to  be  noticed ;  it  was  determined 
by  them,  while  at  Salem,  tiiat  if  either  party  felt  aggrieved  by 
this  decision,  they  idiould  have  a  re-hearing  before  Synod  ;  but  no 
advantage  was  taken  of  it. 

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Orange  Presbytery  reported  their  admission  of  the  Rev.  Colin 
Lindsey,  from  Europe,  as  a  member  of  their  body ;  of  their  pro- 
ceedings the  Synod  approved. 


''Sugaw  Creek,  Oct.  2d,  1793." 

The  Synod  met  in  regular  sessions,  and  was  opened  with  a  ser- 
mon by  the  Rev.  Dr.  McCorkle,  from  1st  Cor.  xii.  13.  Rev. 
James  Templelon  was  chosen  moderator.  Rev.  Humphrey  Hun- 
ter and  Robert  Cunningham  were  reported  from  Peerly,  of  South 
Carolina,  as  new  members ;  and  Lewis  Fuileteau  Wilson,  James 
M'Gready,  Joseph  Kilpatrick,  Alexander  Caldv^ell,  and  Angus 
McDiarmid  (a  licentiate  from  Europe,  ordained  by  the  Presbytery), 
were  reported  from  the  Presbytery  of  Orange  ;  and  Samuel  Doake, 
from  Abingdon  Presbytery. 

In  consequence  of  an  overture.  Synod  passed  the  following 
recommendations,  viz. :  "  That  members  of  the  church  transgress- 
ing the  rules  thereof,  be  called  on  as  soon  as  convenient  to  account 
for  their  conduct,  and  not  wait  till  they  may  ask  the  privileges  of 
the  church."  Notice  of  this  reconunendation  was  sent  to  all  the 
absent  members  of  Synod. 

The  following  letter  was  received  from  the  Rev.  Henry  Pattillo, 

"to  the  moderator. 

"  Granville,  3d  September,  1793. 

"  Rev.  and  dear  Brother — ^From  the  pleasure  you  enjoy  in  at- 
tending church  judications,  you  can  conjecture  my  mortification  in 
being  denied  them.  But  my  advanced  age,  and  the  great  distance 
reftise  me  the  privilege.  I  bless  the  great  Lord  of  tie  harvest 
that  he  is  sending  so  many  quaUfied  laborers  to  work  for  }iim. 
What  a  number  of  excellent  youth  did  I  see  in  Prince  Edward  at 
a  Presbytery  and  Sacrament  last  spring !  of  approved  piety,  warm 
zeal  and  indefatigable  diligence,  great  popular  talents,  unstained 
reputation,  and  genteel  behavior.  There  is  scarcely  a  comer  in 
"Rrginia  whert  their  voice  has  not  been  heard  with  pleasure  and 
profit  by  multitudes.  Presbyterianism,  if  that  is  wortti  regarding, 
was  never  half  so  extedsively  known  and  sought  after  in  that  State 
as  now.  I  hope  these  characteristics  of  persons  and  successes 
agree  to  those  worthy  youths  wlie  have  been  sent  out  by  us  south 
of  the  Virginia  line.     On  both  sides  they  are  all  young,  thriving 

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MINUTES   OP   THE    SYNOD.  289 

American  scions  who  flourish  in  their  native  soil ;  we  have  never 
found  the  exotic  plants  of  Europe's  cold  regions  to  thrive  among 
us.  Frazer  and  Patton  were  the  blots  of  human  nature;  and 
others  might  be  named,  who  have  been,  or  are  like  to  be,  a  grief 
to  our  hearts,  rather  than  useful  ministers  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  a 
blessing  to  the  churches.  Their  divinity,  if  they  have  one,  is  not 
Jesus  Christ  and  the  power  of  his  grace  in  experimental  reUgion, — 
their  politics  are  monarchical,  and  suit  not  the  liberal  spirit  of  Ameri- 
can Republicans.  They  will  neither  pray,  preach,  nor  live  like 
pious  youth  bred  among  ourselves.  I  bear  my  testimony  against 
the  admission  of  such  dry  sticks  among  lively  trees  in  our  Ameri- 
can vineyard.  And  1  assure  myself,  my  worthy  and  beloved 
brethren  will  have  nothing  to  do  vrith  such,  but  call  on  them  to 
know  Jesus  Christ  before  they  preach  him.  Their  admission  must 
be  only  a  speedy  prelude  to  their  expulsion,  while  we  hold  the 
keys,  and  discipline  is  observed  amongst  us.  The  churches  will 
be  much  better  as  vacancies  than  committed  to  stewards  who 
would  feed  them  with  poison,  or  dry  husks  at  best.  If  my  rever- 
end brethren  will  admit  this  letter  to  record,  it  will  speak  for  me 
when  I  am  numbered  with  the  dead. 

"  I  intended  to  send  you  the  history  of  the  Presbyterian  church 
in  these  parts  ;  but  must  omit  that  for  the  present,  and  be  ready 
by  your  spring  meeting.  Bear  one  word  more  on  the  great 
subject.  As  to  Europe,  though  perhaps,  a#  Sallust  says  of 
ancient  Rome,  she  may  be  too  old  and  feeble  to  produce  many 
great  men,  yet  she  knows  how  to  hold  them,  if  they  make  their 
appearance  ;  so  let  it  never  be  said,  that  such  as  she  rejects  should 
be  hcked  up  by  America,in  all  the  vigor  of  her  youth  in  Church  and 
State.  One  word  more, — if  there  is  such  a  scarcity  of  ministers, 
and  there  be  so  great  a  famine  of  the  word  of  the  Lord,  we  had 
infinitely  better  send  forth  pious  laymen,  who  have  trod  the  way,, 
and  would  endeavor  to  lead  others  into  it,  than  men  who  have 
nothing  to  recommend  them  but  a  smattering  of  languages  and 
sciences,  while  they  are  the  enemies  of  the  cross  of  Christ,  and 
strangers  to  vital  piety.  My  prayers,  my  wishes,  and,  if  you  will 
forgive  the  expression,  my  fatherly  cares  are  anxioualy  employed 
for  you.  May  the  pleasure  of  the  Lord  prosper  in  your  hands. 
"  Your  own  aflFectionate  brother  and  obedient  servant, 

"  Henry  Pattillo." 

Synod  received  information  thai  the  edition  i^  Doddridge's  Rise 

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and  Progress,  &c.,  would  be  ready  for  delivery  in  tlie  month  of 

The  commission  of  Synod  reported  repeated  meetings,  to  com- 
mission the  missionaries,  mark  out  their  routes,  and  to  receire 
their  reports.  They  reported,  as  haying  been  in  their  employ,  the 
following  ministers  : — ^James  Hall,  Samuel  C.  Caldwell,  in  NorUi 
/Carolina ;  John  Bowman  in  North  Carolina  and  Tennessee  ;  Ro- 
bert McCuUoch  in  South  Carolina ;  and  Robert  Cunningham  in 
Georgia.  These  labored  faithfully.  On  making  their  reports  and 
exhibiting  to  the  commission  their  receipts  from  contributions  by 
the  people  to  whom  they  had  preached,  they  declined  receiving 
from  the  Synod  or  the  commission  the  small  balance  of  their  wages. 
The  missionaries  read  their  reports  to  Synod ;  one  of  which  is 
recorded  :  the  other  being  lost  before  the  records  of  Synod  ^vere 
transcribed  into  the  present  folio  volume  for  preservation. 


Steele  Creek,  Friday ,  October  3df  1794. 

Synod  was  opened,  in  the  absence  of  the  moderator,  by  Rev. 
Samuel  C.  Caldwell,  with  a  sermon  from  Ezekiel  xziii.,  36 
and  37. 

The  Rev.  James  Hall  was  chosen  moderator. 

New  members  reported  :  From  South  Carolina  Presbytery, — 
Moses  Waddd,  John  Brown,  William  Williamson,  and  Robert 
Wilson:  Abingdon  Presbytery, — Robert  Henderson  and  Gideon 

An  inquiry  took  place  in  Synod  respecting  an  absent  member  of 
the  Presbytery  of  Orange,  the  Rev.  Robert  Archibald,  who  was 
•charged  by  common  fame  with  preaching  the  doctrine  of  uniyersal 
restoration  of  mankind  :  and  the  Orange  Presbytery  having  given 
to  Synod  a  relation  of  their  proceedings  in  regard  to  Mr.  Archibald 
— "  Synod  advised  that  the  members  of  Orange  resolve  themselves 
into  a  Presbyterial  capacity  and  inunediately  decide  on  the  affairs 
of  Mr.  Archibald.  Accordingly,  the  members  of  the  Presbytery 
of  Orange  constituted  and  came  to  the  follovnng  decision 
— ^That  the  Rev.  Robert  Archibald  be  suspended,  and  he  is 
hereby  suspended  from  the  exercise  of  his  ministerial  office,  and 
from  the  communion  of  our  church.  And  Sjmod  ordered  that 
each  member  of  their  respective  Presbyteries  publish  in  his  own 
and  in  vacant  congregations  the  decision  of  Orange  Presbytery 
relative  to  Mr.  Archibald,  and  warn  them  against  the  reception  of 

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the  above  doctrine :  and  warn  them  also  against  countenancing  or 
receiving  Mr.  Archibald  as  a  minister  of  the  gospel  in  his  present 

The  Synod  received  report  firom  South  Carolina  Presbytery,  that 
proper  steps  had  been  taken  to  fully  answer  the  requisition  of  Synod 
respecting  the  history  of  the  churches.  The  members  of  Orange 
Presbytery  were  enjoined  to  send  the  proper  materials  for  the 
history  of  their  churches  to  Rev.  Messrs.  Dr.  McCorkle  and  James 
Hall ;  and  the  members  of  Abingdon,  to  Rev.  Messrs.  Hezekiah 
Balch  and  Robert  Henderson,  before  the  1st  of  December ;  that 
they  might  prepare  a  narrative  for  the  inspection  of  their  Presby- 
teries at  the  spring  meeting ;  and  from  thence  to  be  sent  on  to  the 
next  sessions  of  the  General  Assembly. 

The  commission  of  Synod  reported  their  various  meetings  and 
appointments.  The  following  missionaries  read  their  reports  of 
travel  and  labor  to  the  Synod  : — Rev,  James  Hall,  a  tour  in  the 
lower  part  of  North  Carolina  ;  Mr.  John  M.  Wilson,  to  the  lower 
part  of  North  Carolina ;  Mr.  Robert  Wilson,  to  the  lower  part  of 
South  Carolina ;  Mr.  Joha  Robinson,  to  the  lower  part  of  South 
Carolina ;  Mr.  John  Bowman,t  o  the  lower  part  of  North  CaroUna ; 
and  Mr.  James  H,  Bowman  to  the  same  region.  The  reports  of 
the  missionaries  were  spread  on  the  minutes  of  S3^od,  and  cover 
sixteen  folio  pages,  and  show  great  diligence  in  missionary  wc»rk, 
and  the  alarming  want  of  ministers. 

In  consequence  of  an  overture.  Synod  ordered  their  several 
Presbyteries  to  call  on  their  respective  members  and  church  ses- 
sions, and  their  several  licentiates  and  vacancies  to  render  an  ac- 
count, once  a  year,  how  they  discharge  their  respective  duties  to 
each  other ;  ''  yet  the  Presbyteries  are  to  conduct,  as  to  vacancies, 
as  prudence  may  direct" 


New  Providence^  Thursday ^  Oct.  1st,  1796. 

The  Synod  was  opened  with  a  sermon  by  the  Rev.  James  Tern* 
pleton,  from  Isaiah  Ixii,,  6  and  7.  The  Re^v.  James  White  Ste- 
phenson was  chosen  moderator.  The  Presbytery  of  Orange  reported 
new  members  by  ordination, — ^John  Robinson,  James  Bowman, 
John  M.  Wilson,  and  John  Carrigai) ;  also  Samuel  Stanford  and 
Humphrey  Hunter,  from  other  Presbyteries.  The  Presbytery  of 
South  Carolina  reported  Robert  B.  Walker,  William  Montgomery, 
and  David  Dunlap« 

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It  appearing  to  Synod,  that  an  ordained  missionary  was  required 
in  the  Western  Territory,  and  it  teing  stated  that  Mr.  Wm.  Me- 
Gee,  of  Orange  Presbytery,  was  willing  to  take  an  appointment 
for  that  purpose — "  Ordered  that  the  Presbytery  be  directed,  and 
they  are  hereby  directed  to  ordain  Mr.  McGee,  as  soon  as  may  be 
convenient,  agreeably  to  the  permission  granted  to  this  Synod,  in 
such  cases,  by  the  General  Assembly,  at  their  sessions  of  last 

The  Presbytery  of  Orange  was  divided  by  a  line  running  along 
the  Yadkin  River.  The  Rev.  Henry  Pattillo,  David  Caldwell, 
Colin  Lindsey,  David  Kerr,  William  Moore,  William  Hodge, 
James  M'Gready,  Samuel  Stanford,  Angus  McDermaid,  John 
Robinson,  and  James  H.  Bowman,  retain  the  names  of  the  Pres- 
bytery of  Orange,  to  meet  at  New  Hope,  on  the  third  Wednesday 
of  November.  The  Rev.  Henry  Pattillo,  to  preach  the  opening 
sermon  and  preside ;  in  case  of  his  absence,  the  senior  minister 
present  to  perform  these  duties. 

The  Rev.  Samuel  E.  McCorkle,  D.D.,  James  Hall,  James 
McRee,  David  Barr,  Samuel  C.  Caldwell,  James  Wallis,  Joseph 
D.  Kilpatrick,  Lewis  F.  Wilson,  Humphrey  Hunter,  Alexander 
Caldwell,  John  M.  Wilson,  and  Joseph  Carragan,  to  be  known  by 
the  name  of  the  Presbytery  of  Concord,  to  meet  at  Centre  Church, 
on  the  last  Tuesday  of  March,  1796,  Mr.  Wallis  to  preach  and 
preside  till  a  moderator  be  chosen. 

Dr.  McCorkle  produced  to  Synod  receipts  for  £80  128.  9d. ; 
paid  towards  the  printing  of  Doddridge's  Rise  and  Progress,  &c. 

"  The  Synod  taking  into  consideration  the  unusually  adverse 
dispensation  of  Providence  towards  our  Southern  States,  respecting 
the  fruits  of  the  earth ;  the  critical  situation  of  our  nation  vrith 
respect  to  Great  Britain  ;  and  the  languishing  state  of  religion  in 
the  church,  do  earnestly  recommend  to  all  the  societies  under  their 
care  to  observe  the  second  Wednesday  of  December  next,  as  a 
day  of  humiliation,  fasting  and  prayer,  to  Almighty  God,  that  he 
may  avert  the  calamities  of  famine,  continue  with  us  the  blessings 
of  peace,  and  favor  his  church  with  a  revival  of  religion.'* 

session  IX. 

Morganton,  Thursday,  Nov.  8d,  1796. 

The  Synod  was  opened  with  a  sermon  by  the  Rev.  Samuel 
Carrick,  from  Psalm  Iviii.,  5.  Mr.  Carrick  was  chosen  moderator. 
The  Presbytery  of  South  Carolina  reported  new  members — John 

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Foster,  George  E.  Macwhorter,  John  B.  Kennedy,  James  Gille- 
land,  and  Samuel  W.  Yongue  ;  and  also  the  Rev.  Thomas  Reese 
,  and  Thomas  H.  McCaule,  deceased  since  the  last  meeting. 

Upon  inquiry,  it  appeared  that  Dr.  Sibley  had  not  executed  the 
promised  edition  of  Doddridge ;  and  fears  were  expressed  of  a 
total  failure  of  the  contemplated  edition. 

The  members  of  South  Carolina  Presbytery,  living  irest  of 
Savannah  River,  viz.,  Rev.  John  Newton,  John  Springer,  Robert 
M.  Cimningham,  Moses  Waddel,  and  William  Montgomery,  were, 
by  request,  set  off  to  form  a  Presbytery  by  the  name  of  Hope- 
well, to  meet  on  the  third  Thursday  of  March,  1797,  to  be  con- 
stituted by  the  Rev.  John  Springer,  or  in  his  absence,  the  senior 

The  following  question  was  overtured,  viz. :  "  Is  it  expedient 
to  admit  baptized  slaves  as  witnesses  in  ecclesiastical  judicatories 
where  others  cannot  be  had  ?"  Answered  in  the  negative.  An 
orider  was  passed  enjoining  upon  heads  of  families  the  religious 
instruction  of  their  slaves  ;  and  the  teaching  the  children  of  slaves 
to  read  the  Bible. 

By  documents  from  Abingdon  Presbytery  and  others,  it  appear- 
ed there  had  been  great  excitement  in  that  Presbytery  ;  and  that 
in  consequence.  Rev.  Charles  Cummins,  Edward  Crawford, 
Samuel  Doake,  Joseph  Lake,  and  James  Balch,  had  separated 
themselves  from  their  brethren,  and  formed  the  Independent  Pres- 
bytery of  Abingdon.  The  cause  assigned  was,  that  Rev.  Heze- 
kiah  Bdch  had  published  in  the  Knoxville  Gazette,  a  number  of 
Articles  of  Faith,  which  gave  great  offence  to  many  brethren,  and 
also  to  many  of  the  people  ;  the  matter  had  been  laid  before  the 
Presbytery,  and  Mr.  Balch  apologizing  for  some  personal  abuse 
and  imprudent  doings,  and  explaining  his  doctrines  as  not  contrary 
to  the  Confession  of  Faith,  the  majority  were  satisfied  to  dismiss 
the  matter.  The  brethren  mentioned  above,  were  so  dissatisfied 
with  this  conclusion  of  the  matter,  that  they  withdrew  and  formed 
their  Presbytery.  In  their  letter  to  the  Presb3rtery,  they  say — 
**  There  is  no  manner  of  doubt  but  they,  who  have  declared  them- 
selves Independent,  will  immediately  return  to  the  imion,  in  form, 
as  soon  as  they  shall,"  &c.  The  conditions  of  their  return  were, 
dealing  with  Balch,  and  those  who  held  his  sentiments,  and  an 
assurance  of  protection  "  in  preaching  and  exercising  church  disci- 
pline, according  to  the  Confession  of  Faith.**  What  Mr.  Balch's 
creed  was,  which  they  considered  erroneous,  does  not  appear. 
The  Synod  directed  letters  to  be  sent  to  the  churches  in  Abingdon 

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Presbytery,  and  to  the  Independent  Presbytery  ;  but  what  were 
their  contents  does  not  appear  on  the  records. 

"  A  memcNrial  was  brought  forward  and  kid  before  Synod,  by 
the  Rev.  James  Gilleland,  stating  his  conscientious  diffioilties  in 
receiving  the  advice  of  the  Presbjrtery  of  South  Carolina,  which 
has  enjoined  upon  him  to  be  silent  in  the  pulpit  on  the  8abje<^  of 
the  emancipation  of  the  Africans,  which  injunction  Mr.  GiDeland 
declares  to  be,  in  his  apprehension,  contrary  to  the  counsel  of 
God.  Whereupon  Synod,  after  deliberation  ^upon  the  matter,  da 
concur  with  the  Presbytery  in  advising  Mr.  GiHeland  to  content 
himself  with  using  his  utmost  endeavors  in  private  to  c^n  the 
way  for  emancipation,  so  as  to  secure  our  happiness  as  a  people^ 
preserve  the  peace  of  the  church,  and  render  them  capable  of  en- 
joying the  blessings  of  liberty.  Synod  is  of  the  opinion^  to  preadi 
publicly  against  slavery,  in  present  circumstances,  and  to  lay^ 
down  as  the  duty  of  every  one,  to  liberate  those  who  are  aider 
their  care,  is  that  which  would  lead  to  disorder,  and  open  the 
way  to  great  confusion.** 

Synod  adjourned,  to  meet  at  Mount  Bethel,  on  the  second 
Thursday  in  August,  1797. 


The  minutes  of  the  session  held  at  Mount  Bethel,  near  Green- 
ville, Tennessee,  never  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  stated  derk. 
It  appears,  however,  from  reference  in  succeeding  minutes,  that 
the  formation  of  the  Independent  Presbytery  was  condenmed^ 
and  the  members  suspended ;  and  the  discontent  in  the  bounds 
of  Abingdon  Presbytery  being  very  great,  a  commission  of  Synod 
was  appointed  to  meet  at  Mount  Bethel,  in  November,  to  hear 
and  adjudicate  the  complaints  and  charges  made  against  members 
of  the  Presbytery. 


A  commission  of  Synod,  consisting  of  fourteen  ministers  and 
twelve  elders,  met  at  Mount  Bethel,  near  Greenville,  Tennessee, 
Tuesday,  November  21  st,  1797.  Rev.  Francis  Cummins  preached 
from  Romans  viii.,  Ist,  and  was  chosen  naoderator.  The  first 
step  was  to  set  apart  the  next  day  as  a  day  of  public  feusting  and 
humiliation  before  God.  The  people  were  requested  to  join  with 
them  in  the  services.    The  Rev.  Samuel  Doake,  Jacob  Lake, 

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MINUTES   OF   THE    STNOD.  295 

and  James  Balch,  appeared^  and  having  declared  their  submission 
to  Synod,  and  disavowing  their  independence,  and  confessing 
their  irregularity,  and  declaring  their  return  to  order,  the  com- 
mission removed  their  suspension,  and  restored  them  to  the  full 
exercise  of  the  ministerial  office. 

Various  charges  were  exhibited  against  Rev.  Hezekiah  Balch, 
and  the  witnesses  brought  forward,  and  their  testimony  given. 
1st.  He  was  charged  with  contradicting  himself  in  a  certain  state- 
ment about  Drs.  Hopkins  and  Edwards  being  members  of  the 
association  of  Connecticut,  and  in  conmiunion  with  the  General 
Assembly ;  first  affirming  and  then  denying  his  having  said  so. 
On  this  charge  he  was  acquitted,  and  the  persons  who  brought 
it  were  reproved.  He  was  also  charged  with  saying  "  the  saints 
appeared  in  heaven  in  their  own  righteousness,"  and  afterwards 
of  denying.  He  admitted  the  declaration,  and  disclaimed  the 
denial.  It  was  proved  that  he  explained  it  as  'Uhe  firuit  of 
Christ's  righteousness,"  &c.  This  part  of  the  charge  was  not 
sustained,  and  the  reporters  of  it  were  reproved. 

2d.  He  was  charged  with  preaching  false  doctrine.  No  manu- 
script or  printed  paper  of  his  preparation  was  produced.  The 
witnesses  stated  what  they  recollected  of  his  sermons  and  con- 
versation, that  they  thought  culpably  erroneous.  He  was  accused 
of  charging  the  church  of  Scotland  and  some  of  our  Calvinistic 
divines  of  holding  the  doctrine  "  that  there  were  infants  in  hell 
not  a  span  long ;"  of  saying  *'  that  original  sin  is  not  conveyed 
by  natural  generation ;"  that  if  it  were,  the  procreation  of  children 
would  be  sinful,  a  damning  sin ;  that  he  justified  a  man  in  saying 
Jie  was  not  afraid  to  take  upon  himself  the  original  sin  of  the 
whole  human  family,  Adam  excepted  (the  person  explaining  that 
by  original  sin  he  meant  Adam's  particular  act  in  eating  the  for- 
bidden fruit);  of  saying  "there  was  no  sin  but  in  self -love  ; 
that  Adam's  sin  was  his  only,  by  approbation  and  imitation  "  (but 
that  he  also  affirmed  that  the  corruption  of  our  nature,  and  the 
propensity  to  make  a  wrong  choice,  was  from  Adam) ;  of  saying 
that  "  we  were  not  liable  to  condemnation  till  we  became  moral 
agents,  or  capable  of  a  wrong  choice,  then  the  dire  consequences 
of  Adam's  sin  were  imputed,  but  not  his  personal  act ;"  of  saying 
"  that  answer  in  our  catechism  was  wroug,  which  says  *  no  mere 
man  can  keep  the  commands  of  God  perfect,^  for  they  were  able, 
if  they  were  willing ;  that  through  Adam's  sin  our  nature  was 
corrupted,  but  none  were  chargeable  till  they  acted;  and 'that  the 
first  act  was  original  sin  in  our  posterity." 

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On  this  charge  with  the  specifications,  the  commission  of  Synod 
"  view  it  as  involving  in  it  doctrines  akeady  referred  to  the  General 
Assembly,  and  therefore  unanimously  agree  to  refer  the  charge, 
with  the  testimony,  to  the  General  Assembly  for  consideration 
and  judgment." 

During  this  part  of  the  trial,  one  witness  made  a  statement, 
which,  although  it  bears  not  on  the  merits  of  the  case,'ffl!d  was 
incidentally  given  in,  is  nevertheless  interesting,  viz  :  "  Mr.  Balch 
said  he  had  no  new  doctrine,  though  Mr.  Doake  and  Mr.  James 
Balch  had  labored  to  establish  that  he  had.  In  his  late  tour  (to 
New  England)  he  had  gathered  no  new  doctrines,  only  explana- 
tions, for  he  considered  mankind  as  guilty  as  ever  he  did,  only 
the  old  way  was  a  lie,  and  the  new  one  was  true.'*  From  the 
firequent  reference  to  Dr.  Hopkins,  it  would  seem  that  he  intended 
to  hold  and  preach  the  peculiar  doctrines  of  that  celebrated  man. 

The  third  charge  was  "  for  marrying  Joseph  Posey  and  Jane 
Reeves  together,  knowing  that  he,  Joseph  Posey,  had  a  lawful 
wife  living  within  three  miles  of  him."  The  first  part  of  the 
charge,  the  marrying,  he  admitted  ;  the  latter  part,  involving  cri- 
minality, he  denied.  Though  he  admitted  he  knew  she  had  been 
his  lawful  wife.  The  judgment  of  the  commission  was,  that 
"  Posey  had  not  been  legally  freed  from  his  former  wife  "  at  the 
time  Mr.  Balch  performed  the  marriage  ceremony,  and  that  "  Rev. 
Hezekiah  Balch  had  conducted  in  a  precipitate  and  irregular  man- 
ner, in  marrying  Joseph  Posey  to  Jane  Reeves,  and  that  this  ac- 
tion, if  received  as  a  precedent,  would  introduce  great  and  mani- 
fold evils,  both  in  church  and  state." 

The  fourth  charge  was  for  creating  a  new  session  in  Mount 
Bethel,  contrary  to  the  constitution.  The  fact  of  creating  a  new 
session  was  admitted ;  and  the  principal  circumstances  were  agreed 
upon  by  the  witnesses.  The  new  session  had  suspended  the  old, 
and  those  who  went  with  them ;  and  great  confusion  had  arisen  in 
the  congregations  and  the  Presbytery.  The  cause  of  division 
which  led  to  the  appointment  of  the  new  session,  was  the  novelty 
of  the  doctrines  Mr.  Balch  preached,  which,  notwithstanding  all 
his  explanations,  appeared  to  many  of  his  people,  and  part  of  the 
Presbj^ery,  to  be  erroneous  ;  they  have  been  stated  under  the  2d 
charge.  The  new  session  was  made  up  of  fiiends  to  Mr.  Balch, 
— the  old  session  greatly  opposed  him. 

The  judgment  of  the  commission  was,  "  that  the  new  session 
was  unconstitutionally  created,  and  all  their  judicial  acts  null 
and  void."     Mount  Bethel  was  released  from  the  pastoral  care  of 

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MINUTES   OF   THE    SYNOD.  297 

Mr.  Balch,  and  pronounced  a  vacancy.    The  petition  of  Abingdon 
Presbytery  for  division,  was  granted :  and  the  Rev.  Charles  Cum- 
mins, Samuel  Doake,  Jacob  Lake  and  James  Balch,  were  set  oflF 
to  compose  Abingdon  Presbytery,  to  meet  at  Salem  on  the  14th 
inst9.nt,    Mr.  Lake  to  preach  and  preside ; — and  Rev.  Hezekiah 
Balch,    John  Cossan,  Samuel  Carrick,  Robert  Henderson  and 
Gideoff»^Blackbum,  to  compose  the  Presbytery  of  Union,,  to  meet 
at  Hopewell  on  the  2d  Tuesday  of  February,  1798,  Mr.  Carrick 
to  preach  and  preside  ;  in  case  of  absence  of  either  person  ap- 
pointed to  preside,  the  oldest  member  present  to  supply  his  place. 
The  subject  of  promiscuous  communiort  was  taken  up  by  the 
commissioners  on  an  overture ;  and  the  decision  was,  that  as  it 
was  not  necessary,  and  as  it  gave  olSence  to  some  of  the  people  as 
implying  a  coalescence  with  other  denominations  in  doctrines  not 
held  by  him,  from  "  prudential  motives,"  a  minister  ought  to  ab- 
stain.    No  decision  was  given  respecting  the  occasional  commu- 
hion  of  private  members. 


Bethel  Church,  South  Carolina,  Oct.  ISth,  1798. 

The  session  was  opened  by  Rev.  S.  C.  Caldwell,  the  last 
moderator,  with  a  sermon  from  Philippians  ii.,  12th  and  13th,  and 
the  Rev.  Francis  Cummins  was  chosen  moderator.  The  Pres- 
bytery of  Concord  reported  new  members,  Wm.  C.  Davies,  from 
South  Carolina  Presbytery ;  and  by  ordination,  George  Newton  and 
Samuel  Davies :  the  Presbytery  of  Union  reported  Samuel  G. 
Ramsey  by  ordination ;  the  Presbjrtery  of  Hopewell  reported  the 
death  of  John  Springer. 

Inquiries  were  made  about  the  edition  of  Doddridge's  Rise  and 
Progress ;  no  satisfactory  information  was  obtained.  Rev.  Ed- 
ward Crawford,  who  was  suspended  in  1797,  as  being  member 
of  the  Independent  Presbytery,  appeared ;  and  having  made  suita- 
ble concessions  and  received  an  admonition  from  the  chair,  was 
ceived  as  a  member  of  Synod  and  a  member  of  Abingdon  Pres- 

Charges  which  had  been  brought  against  Rev.  Hezekiah  Balch, 
by  the  old  session  of  Mount  Bethel,  before  Union  Presbytery,  and 
by  them  referred  to  Synod,  were  read  :  The  1st  charge  accused 
Mr.  Balch  of  having  held  an  election  for  elders  in  Mt)unt  Bethel 
Church,  soon  after  the  first  meeting  of  the  Presbytery  of  Union, 
while  the  congregation  was  vacant,  against  the  will  and  desire  of 

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the  old  session :  and  refusing  the  privilege  of  toting  to  any  who 
had  not  signed  a  call  for  himself.  The  2d  charge  accused  him  of 
intruding  on  the  congregation  the  first  Sabbath  after  his  return 
from  Philadelphia,  and  preaching  without  leave  of  session,  while 
they  had  two  young  men  engaged  and  there,  on  that  day :  and 
also  ordaining  elders  against  the  express  order  of  the  existing  ses- 
sion ;  and  also  for  persisting  to  preach  in  the  congregation,  dd 
charge — "  We  charge  Mr.  Balch  for  deviating  from  the  truth,  by 
denying  in  the  Assembly,  that  he  ever  said  in  Presbytery,  August, 
1796,  that  he  meant  the  same  by  the  word  transfer  as  impute. 
Also  for  denying  in  the  Assembly  that  he  ever  held  that  there  was 
not  a  covenant  made  with  Adam ;  for  proof  of  which,  see  the  As- 
sembly's judgment  on  his  creed.  And  that  he  did  hold  there  was 
not  a  covenant  made  with  Adam.** 

The  4th  charge  accused  Mr.  Balch  of  falsehood  in  denying 
what  he  had  said  in  a  sermon  about  original  sin,  and  of  charging 
his  accusers  with  drunkenness,  &c.  , 

5th  Charge. — "  We  charge  Mr.  Balch  for  saying  since  his  re- 
turn from  the  General  Assembly,  that  he  was  fifty  thousand  times 
stronger  in  belief  of  that  definition  of  holiness  (alluding  to  the 
creed)  than  he  was  before  he  went  away.  For  those  expressions 
we  give  Josiah  Temple  and  Alexander  Galbraith  as  evidence ;  and 
that  that  definition  of  holiness  was  pointed  out  as  erroneous  by 
the  General  Assembly,  we  refer  you  to  the  judgment  on  his 

Charges  were  brought  against  Mr.  Balch  by  two  other  indivi- 
duals, of  minor  importance. 

Mr.  Balch  brought  charges  against  the  old  session,  for  using 
violence  towards  him,  by  driving  him  from  the  meeting-house  ;  and 
for  not  keeping  their  word,  &c. 

Synod  judged  on  the  first  and  second  charges,  that  the  election 
of  the  elders  after  the  rising  of  the  commission  (held  at  Mount 
Bethel)  was  irregular;  and  that  Mr.  Balch.  is  highly  censurable 
for  ordaining  them  so  disorderly  and  schismatically  ;  and  that  he 
was  imprudent  in  preaching  in  the  house  to  but  a  part  of  the  con- 
gregation. Respecting  Mr.  Batch's  charges  against  the  elders, 
the  Synod  decided, — That  the  elders  "  had  blameably  violated  " 
their  promise  in  not  withdrawing  certain  civil  suits ;  and  were 
highly  censurable  for  interrupting  Mr.  Balch  in  time  of  worship, 
and  driving  him  out  of  the  house  ;  and  that  one  of  the  elders  had 
improperly  used  the  name  of  God,  for  which  he  is  highly  censur- 

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As  the  other  matters  were  not  ready  for  trial,  Synod  postponed 
fiival  sentence  on  these  matters  until  the  Extraordinary  Synod,  ap- 
pointed to  be  held  at  Little  Britain,  on  the  second  Tuesday  of  Feb- 
ruary, 1799,  for  the  purpose  of  attending  to  all  the  charges  and  all 
matters  of  difficulty. 


Little  Britain,  Rutherford  Co.,  N.  C,  13^A  Feb.,  1799. 

Synod  was  opened  by  the  moderator,  Francis  Cummins,  with  a 
sermon  from  Titus  iii.,  10,  11.  Present  thirteen  ministers  and 
seven  elders. 

About  thirty  folio  pages  of  evidence  on  the  three  remaining 
charges  against  Mr.  Balch,  for  and  against  them,  had  been  taken 
by  a  committee,  and  were  read  in  Synod.  Mr.  Balch  was  heard 
in  his  defence ;  and  Mr.  Galbraith  was  heard  for  those  who  had 
accused  him  :  and  both  professed  they  had  nothing  more  to  say  in 
the  case. 

The  Synod  decided  on  the  3d  and  4th  charges  brought  by  the 
session,  that  they  were  not  sustained  by  the  evidence.  On  the  5th 
charge  Mr.  Balch  acknowltdged  that  he  had  expressed  himself  as 
charged,  and  that  his  only  objection  was,  it  was  not  strong  enough ; 
"  instead  of  fifty  thousand  times,  he  would  say  five  hundred  thou- 
sand times."  Whereupon  "  the  Synod,  after  mature  deliberation, 
jvdgey  that  Mr.  Balch  has  acted  with  duplicity  in  expressing  him- 
self as  laid  down  in  the  charge,  considering  the  judgment  of  the 
Assembly,  and  his  submission  to  that  judgment." 

The  two  other  charges  were  pronounced  unsustained. 

The  Synod  proceeded  to  pronounce  sentence  on  Mr.  Balch  : 
"  Do  hereby  suspend  him  from  the  exercise  of  his  office  as  a  mi- 
nister of  the  gospel,  and  refer  him  to  the  Presb3rtery  of  Union,  to 
which  he  belongs,  who  will  be  adequate  to  the  removal  of  the 
suspension,  when  reformation  on  the  part  of  Mr.  Balch  shall  open 
the  way."  They  also  pronounced  the  sentence  of  suspension 
from  the  office  of  elder  and  the^'conmiunion  of  the  church  upon 
four  of  the  elders  who  had  appeared  against  Mr.  Balch,  for  the 
impropriety  and  irregularity  of  their  course  ;  also  the  sentence  of  a 
public  reprimand  on  two  others  who  appeared ;  and  that  of  a  pri- 
vate reprimand  on  two  others,  as  not  having  exhibited  a  proper 
spirit.  A  conunittee  was  appointed  to  repair  to  Mount  Bethel, 
and  conmiunicate  the  sentence  and  administer  the  admonitions. 

On  the  sentence  being  read,  Mr.  Galbraith,  who  appeared  in  the 

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name  of  the  session,  expressed  his  submission  Mr.  Balch  asked 
till  the  next  day  for  consideration.  The  next  day  Mr.  Balch  asked 
a  re-hearing,  which  was  refused,  as,  in  the  judgment  of  Synod, 
there  did  not  appear  to  be  sufficient  cause. 

After  a  session  of  six  days,  the  record  of  which,  with  the  eiri- 
dence,  covers  about  forty-one  foUo  pages,  the  session  closed  with 
the  following  minutes  : 

"  The  Rev.  Hezekiah  Balch  read  the  following  paper,  which  he 
requested  to  be  entered  on  the  minutes,  viz :  To  the  Rev.  S3rncMl 
of  the  Carolinas :  As  I  do  not  wish  to  do  anything  that  may  have 
the  least  appearance  of  obstinacy,  I  do  cheerfully  submit  to  your 
judgment ;  at  the  same  time  solenmly  declaring  that  I  am  not  con- 
scious of  anything,  in  the  matter  referred  to,  more  than  impru- 
dence, which  I  hope  I  shall  always  be  ready  to  acknowledge,  as 
far  as  I  can  without  injury  to  my  conscience  or  the  truth.  I  hum- 
bly request  that  this,  my  answer,  may  be  entered  on  your  minutes. 

"  I  am  yours, 
("  Signed,)  "  Hezekiah  Balch." 

"  The  parties  having  both  submitted  to  the  judgment  of  S3rnod, 
received  a  suitable  admonition  from  the  moderator."  "At  the 
request  of  Mr.  Balch,  Mr.  Galbraith  and  he  shook  hands  in  the 
presence  of  Synod  in  testimony  of  their  personal  affection  to  and 
cordial  wishes  for  the  welfare  of  each  other,  and  hopes  of  a  per- 
manent friendship  hereafter."  And  the  Extraordinary  Session 


Hopewell  Church,  October  3lst,  1799. 

Rev.  Francis  Cummins  opened  the  sessions  vrith  a  sermon  from 
Luke  xiii.,  22 ;  and  James  McRee  was  chosen  moderator. 

Four  new  names  appear  on  the  list  of  Orange  Presbytery  as 
ordained  either  in  the  year  '97  or  '98 ;  the  list  of  '97  was  lost  with 
records  ;  and  in  '98  the  list  is  not  given.  The  four  were  William 
T.  Thomson,  WilUam  Paisley,  John  Gillespie,  Samuel  McAdo, 
and  Robert  Tate.  The  Presbytery  reported  also  Mr.  John  An- 
derson, from  another  Presbytery. 

Several  cases  came  before  Synod,  by  overture  or  request,  con- 
cerning marriages  within  the  forbidden  degree  of  relationship :  one 
respecting  a  man  marrjring  his  former  wife's  half-brother's  widow ; 

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— dismissed,  as  not  within  the  prohibited  degrees  :  one  of  a  man 
who  had  married  his  deceased  wife's  sister's  daughter, — laid  over 
till  the  matter  could  come  before  the  Assembly,  for  a  general  rule 
on  such  subjects :  and  one  of  a  man  who  had  married  his  former 
wife's  sister,  and  had  with  her  been  under  suspension  for  some 
time, — ^laid  over. 

The  case  of  Mr.  Bowman,  who  had  been  suspended  by  the 
Abingdon  Presbytery,  for  unsoimd  doctrine,  was  taken  up ;  and, 
after  hearing  Mr.  Bowman's  explanations,  the  Synod  reversed  the 
sentence,  and  addressed  an  affectionate  letter  to  the  Presbytery. 
The  subject  of  dispute  was  the  extent  and  manner  of  the  offer  of 
the  Gospel — Mr.  Bowman  using  the  phrases  of  Dr.  Hopkins,  and 
his  views  of  Election,  which  were  disagreeable  to  his  brethren, 
and,  though  not  altogether  agreeable,  yet  not  condemned  by 

This  year  four  of  the  Presbyteries  presented  a  report  of  their 
preachers,  with  their  places  of  preacing,  which  may  interest  the 

Presbytery  op  Orange — 14  members. 

Henry  Pattillo,  Grassy  Creek  and  Nutbush. 

David  Caldwell,  Buffalo  and  Alamance. 

Colin  Lindsay,  without  charge. 

William  Moore,  Upper  and  Lower  Hico. 

William  Hodge,  wiUiout  charge. 

Samuel  Stanford,  Black  River,  and  Brown  Marsh. 

Angus  McDiarmid,  Barbacue,  Bluff,  McCoy's. 

James  H.  Bowman,  Eno,  and  Little  River. 

William  F.  Thompson,  New  Hope. 

John  Gillespie,  Centre,  Laurel  Hill,  and  Raft  Sw|imp. 

William  D.  Paisley,  Union,  and  Lower  Buffalo. 

Samuel  McAdo,  Speedwell  and  Haw  River. 

John  Anderson,  without  charge. 

Robert  Tate,  South  Washington  and  Rockfish. 
Licentiates — ^John  Rankin,  Robert  Foster,  Andrew  Caldwell, 
and  Edward  Pharr.  Candidates — Daniel  Brown,  Ezekiel  B. 
Currie,  John  Matthews,  Duncan  Brown,  Murdock  McKillan,  Mal- 
colm McNair,  Hugh  Shaw,  and  Murdock  Murphy.  They  have 
ordained  William  McGee; — ^have  licensed  Barton  Stone, — ^and 
dismissed  them  both  to  connect  themselves  with  the  Presbytery  of 

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Presbytery  of  South  Carolina — 18  ministers. 

Joseph  Alexander,  Bullock's  Creek. 

John  Simpson,  Good  Hope,  and  Roberts. 

James  Templeton,  Nazareth. 

Francis  Cummins,  Rocky  River. 
Robert  McCuUock,  Catholic  and  Purity. 

James  W.  Stephenson,  Indianstown  and  Williamsburgh. 

John  Brown,  Waxhaws. 

Robert  Wilson,  Long  Cane. 

William  Williamson,  Fairforest. 

Robert  B.  Walker,  Bethesda. 

David  E.  Dunlap,  Columbia. 

Samuel  W.  Yongue,  Lebanon  and  Mount  Olivet. 

John  Foster,  Salem. 

James  Gilleland,  Bradoway. 

John  B.  Kennedy,  Duncan's  Creek  and  Little  River. 

George  E.  Macwhorter,  Bethel  and  Beersheba. 

Andrew  Brown,  Bethlehem  and  Cane  Creek. 

John  B.  Davies,  Fishing  Creek  and  Richardson. 
They  have  three  licentiates, — George  Reid,  William  G.  Ros- 
borough,  and  John  Couser :  and  two  candidates, — High  Dickson 
and  Thomas  Neely. 

Presbytery  of  Concord — 15  ministers. 
Samuel  E.  McCorkle,  D.D.,  Thyatira. 
James  Hall,  Bethany. 
.  James  McRee,  Centre. 
David  Barr,  Philadelphia. 
Wm.  C.  Davies,  Olney. 

Samuel  C.  Caldwell,  Sugaw  Creek  and  Hopewell. 
James  Wallis,  Providence. 
Joseph  D.  Kilpatrick,  Third  Creek  and  Unity. 
Lewis  F.  Wilson,  Concord  and  Fourth  Creek. 
Humphrey  Himter,  Goshen  and  Unity. 
John  M.  Wilson,  Quaker  Meadow  and  Morgantown. 
John  Carrigan,  Ramah,  and  Bethpage. 
John  Andrews,  Little  Britain. 
Samuel  Davies,  Mamre. 
George  Newton,  Swannanoe  and  Rim's  Creek. 
They  have  one  candidate,  Thomas  Hall. 

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MINUTES   OP   THE   SYNOD.  -  303 

Union  Presbytery— 4  members. 

Samuel  Carrick,  the  Fork  and  Knoxville. 
Robert  Henderson,  Westminster  and  Hopewell. 
Gideon  Blackburn,  Eusebia  and  New  Providence. 
Samuel  G.  Ramsey,  Ebenezer  and  Pleasant  Forest. 
It  would  have  been  gratifying,  if  the  other  Presbyteries  had  made 
a  return,  that  we  might  know  the  places  in  which  the  rtwiisters  of 
the  Synod  labored  at  the  close  of  the  last  century ;  with  all  the 
candidates,  vacancies,  and  licentiates  ;  a  reference  and  compari- 
son would  be  advantageous  to  the  present  generation. 

On  petition,  the  Presbytery  of  South  Carolina  was  divided,  and 
Sroad  River  made  the  dividing  line.  The  members  on  the  north- 
east side  of  the  river,  viz.,  Joseph  Alexander,  Robert  McCuUock, 
James  W.  Stephenson,  John  Brown,  Robert  B.  Walker,  David  E. 
Dunlap,  Samuel  W.  Yongue,  John  Foster,  George  E.  Macwhorter, 
and  John  B.  Davies,  to  constitute  the  first  Presbytery  cf  South 
Carolina,  to  meet  at  Bullock's  Creek,  on  the  first  Friday  of  Feb-  • 
ruary,  1800,  and  Rev.  Joseph  Alexander  to  preside,  or  the  senior 
member  in  his  absence.  And  the  members  on  the  south-west 
side,  viz.,  Joseph  Simpson,  James  Templeton,  Francis  Cummins, 
Robert  Wilson,  Wm.  Wilhamson,  James  Gilleland,  John  B. 
Kennedy,  and  Andrew  Brown,  to  be  known  as  the  Second  Pres- 
bytery of  South  Carolina^  to  hold  its  first  meeting  at  Fair  Forest, 
on  the  first  Friday  of  February,  1800.  The  Rev.  John  Simpson 
to  preside,  or  in  his  absence  the  senior  member.  The  first  named 
Presbytery  to  keep  the  records  of  the  past,  furnishing  to  the 
second  such  extracts  as  they  may  need. 

Synod  resolved  to  hold  its  annual  meetings,  hereafter,  in  Octo- 
ber, commencing  the  first  Thursday. 


Sugaw  Creek,  Oct.  2d,  1800. 

Synod  was  opened  by  Rev.  James  McRee,  with  a  sermon  from 
Ist  Tim.  iv.,  16.  The  Rev.  John  Brown  was  chosen  moderator. 
The  Rev.  James  S.  Adams  and  Thomas  Price,  of  the  Indepen- 
dent church,  being  present,  were  invited  to  seats  as  corresponding 

It  appearing,  that  the  letter,  on  the  subject  of  the  difficulties 
attending  marriages  in.  affinity,  which  was  prepared  for  the  last 
Assembly,  failed  to  reach  the  Assembly ;  a  conunittee  was  appoint- 
ed to  drs^  another  this  meeting. 

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From  the  report  of  Orange  Presbytery,  it  appeared,  that  the 
Presbytery  had  conditionally  suspended  Colin  Lindsey,  and  had 
dismissed  Wqi.  Hodge,  Samuel  McAdo,  and  Mr.  John  Rankin,  to 
go  to  the  West.    An  overture  for  the  purpose  of  conmiencing  a 
correspondence  with  other  religious  denominations  in  the  State, 
about  petitioning  the  legislature  for  the  emancipation  of  the  slaves, 
on  the  principle  that  all  children  of  slaves  bom  after  a  fixed  time, 
shall  be  free,  which  was  brought  in  last  meeting  of  Synod  was 
taken  up  and  disposed  of  by  the  following  report,  which  was  adopted : 
"  Your  committee  report,  that  though  it  is  our  ardent  wish  that  the 
object  contemplated  in  the  overture  should  be  obtained  ;  yet,  as  it 
appears  to  us  that  matters  are  not  yet  matured  for  carrying  it  for- 
ward, especially  in  the  southern  parts  of  our  States,  your  com- 
mittee are  of  opinion  that  the  overture  should  now  be  laid  aside  ; 
and  that  it  be  enjoined  upon  every  member  of  this  Synod  to  use 
his  inflwnce  to  carry  into  effect  the  directions  and  reconmienda- 
tions  of  the  Synod  of  New  York  and  Philadelphia,  and  those  ad- 
ditionally made  by  the  General  Assembly,  for  the  instruction  of 
those  who  are  in  a  state  of  slavery,  to  prepare  them  the  better  for 
a  state  of  freedom,  when  such  shall  be  contemplated  by  the  legis- 
latures of  our  southern  States." 

"  The  S)mod  considering  the  importance  and  necessity  of  carry- 
ing on  the  missionary  business, — ^that  the  Rev.  James  Hall  has 
been  appointed  by  the  General  Assembly  to  the  Natchez,  and 
ought,  if  possible,  to  have  company, — determined  to  send  with 
him  two  members,  viz.,  the  Rev.  Messrs.  James  H.  Bowman  and 
William  Montgomery,  who  are  directed  to  spend  eight  months,  if 
convenient  and  they  find  it  expedient,  in  that  country  and  places 
adjacent ;  conmiencing  their  mission  about  the  15th  instant :  and 
for  the  support  of  these  missionaries  the  Synod  itself  to  give  them 
thirty-three  and  one-lhird  dollars  per  month  from  the  time  they 
engage  in  the  work;  they  rendering  a  regular  accoimt  of  all 
moneys  received  by  them  during  their  mission."  ( The  reason  for 
passing  the  subject  of  missions  for  a  few  years  is  nowhere  given,) 
Overture  from  the  First  Presbytery  of  South  Carolina. — "  In 
case  of  fornication,  will  an  acknowledgment  before  the  church 
session,  and  reported  to  the  congregation,  be  sufllcient  ?"  Answered 
in  the  negative. 

A  pastoral  letter  on  the  subject  of  domestic  missions  was  pre- 
pared and  sent  to  the  Presbyteries  to  be  laid  before  the  congrega- 

Ret.  Heaekiah  Balch  brought  a  complaint  against  the  Presby- 

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MINUTES    OF   THE    SYNOD.  305 

lery  of  Abingdon  for  having  ordained  Mr.  Witherspoon  'in  Mount 
Bethel  church  before  they  had  settled  their  money  accounts  with 
himself;  and  also  because  Mr.  W.  held  the  following  sentiments, 
as  expressed  in  a  public  sermon :  **  1st.  That  Jesus  Christ  is  not 
the  object  of  faith.  2d.  That  the  justification  of  a  sinner  through 
the  atonement  of  Christ  is  an  act  of  justice.  3d.  That  the  justifi- 
cation of  a  sinner  through  the  righteousness  of  Christ,  is  not  as 
wholly  an  act  of  God's  free  grace,  as  if  there  had  been  no  atone- 
ment made.  4th.  That  there  was  no  difierence  between  saving 
faith  and  historical  faith,  only  in  degree  of  evidence." 

Trial  of  the  complaint  was  ordered  for  next  meeting  of  Synod. 

On  petition  from  Hezekiah  Balch  and  others,  a  new  Presbytery 
was  set  ofi",  to  be  known  by  the  name  of  Greenville,  to  consist 
of  Rev.  Messrs.  George  Newton,  Samuel  Davis,  Heaekiah  Balch, 
and  John  Cossan,  to  meet  at  Swannanoe  church,  on  the  third 
Tuesday  of  November  next,  and  Mr.  Nev^rton  to  presi(fe  and 
preach ;  and  that  Messrs.  John  Bowman  and  Stephen  Bovelle,  ^ 
with  their  congregations,  be  attached  either  to  the  Abingdon  or 
Greenville  Presbytery,  as  they  may  choose. 


Fishing  Creek,  October  Isty  1801. 

Synod  was  opened  by  Rev.  John  Brown,  with  a  sermon  from 
Rom.  xi.,  13 ;  and  William  Montgomery  was  chosen  moderator. 

The  Presbytery  of  Orange  reported  they  had  removed  the  con- 
ditional suspension  of  Colin  Lindsey,  dismissed  the  Rev.  John 
Anderson  to  the  first  Presbytery  of  South  Carolina :  that  they  had 
deposed  Robert  M'CuUoch,  and  ordained  William  Rosborough ; 
the  Presbytery  of  Concord,  that  they  had  suspended  Rev.  David 
Barr ;  th^  Presbytery  of  Greenville,  that  they  had  ordained  John 
Bowman  and  dismissed  him,  and  had  ordained  Stephen  Bovelle. 

**  The  reports  of  our  missionaries  to  the  Natchez  were  called  for 
and  read,  together  with  some  other  papers  relating  to  that  business. 
The  Synod  were  happy  to  find,  that  by  the  blessing  of  Divine 
Providence,  the  good  consequences  of  that  mission  appear  to  have 
far  exceeded  their  most  sanguine  expectations.  The  missionaries 
received  the  cordial  thanks  of  the  house  for  thtir  prudence,  zeal,  and 
diligence,  in  the  execution  of  the  important  duties  assigned  them." 

The  case  of  the  man  who  had  married  his  wife's  sister's  daugh- 
ter, and  was  put  under  discipline  by  the  Synod  at  its  session  in 
1789,  was  taken  up,  and  after  much  consideratioa  the  Synod 


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adopted  the  following :  "  This  Synod  so  far  rescind  their  former 
judgment,  as  to  leave  it  to  the  church  session  of  tht  congregation 
to  which  Mr.  Latham  belongs,  to  do  as  they  think  prudence  and 
duty  may  direct  them ;  keeping  carefully  in  view  the  glory  of  God, 
and  the  peace  and  happiness  of  the  church  in  those  parts." 

The  complaint  of  Mr.  Balch  against  the  Presbytery  of  Abingdon 
was  taken  up.  On  the  first  complaint  (see  last  session)  the  Synod 
judged  that4he  Presbytery  ought,  at  the  time  Mr.  Balch  presented 
his  claim  against  the  people,  or  at  some  other  convenient  season, 
to  have  endeavored  to  bring  the  matter  to  a  proper  adjustment ; 
and  also  that  it  was  neglect,  if  not  unfriendly,  in  Mr.  Balch,  not  to 
have  presented  his  claims  earlier,  for  a  fair  adjustmeH. 

On  the  complaint  and  charges  against  Mr.  Witherspoon  (see 
last  session),  the  action  was  as  follows  :  Having  heard  Mr.  With- 
erspoon esplam  the  first  specification  that,  he  meant  "  the  immedi- 
ate object  of  faith ;  Ae  Scriptures,  or  the  report  of  the  Apostles 
about  Christ  was  the  immediate  objecty  the  Synod  do  judge — that 
the  young  man's  mode  of  expression  was  imhappy  and  unguarded ; 
yal  it  appear*  to  this  Synod,  that  the  Presbjrtery  may  probably 
have  had  satisfactory  testimony  of  his  orthodoxy  on  that  particu- 
lar." On  the  second  specification,  Mr.  Witherspj)on  said,  he  used 
the  expression,  **  and  well  remembers  that  he  added,  it  was  also  an 
<ict  of  mercy ;  that  it  was  mercy  as  it  respected  the  sinner,  but 
justice  as  it  respected  God,  who  passed  the  act ;  that  the  atone- 
ment answered  the  demands  of  justice,  and  laid  the  ground  for  the 
tct  to  pass  in  justice."  Synod  judged — ^*/Mr.  Witherspoon's 
phrase,  that  justification,  as  it  respects  the  atcmement,  is  an  act  of 
justice,  may  be  explained  in  a  good  sense."  On  the  third  specifi- 
cation, Mr.  Witherspoon  said,  he  had  read  in  a  work  of  Mr.  Ed- 
wards, borrowed  of  Mr.  B. — "  that  the  justification  of  a  sinner  is 
:as  wholly  an  act  of  God's  free  grace  as  if  there  had  been  no  atone- 
ment," and  that  he  had  expressed  a  doubt  on  the  matter,  that  the 
atonement  might  thereby  be  superseded.  The  Synod  passed  by 
what  m^gU  have  been  said  in  private  by  Mr.  Witherspoon,  and 
judged,'"**  inasmuch  as  Mr.  Witherspoon  appears  to  have  held,  and 
still  to  hold,  that  the  justification  of  a  sinner  is  not  wholly  an  act 
of  grace,  or  not  as  wholly  a«  if  there  had  been  no  atonement,  the 
Presbytery  ought  not  to  have  proceeded  to  oidain  Mr.  Wither- 
spoon, without  endeavoring  to  bring  him  to  a  right  view  of  the  doc- 
flrine."  On  the  fourth  specification,  after  hearing  Mr.  W.^  expla- 
nation, the  Synod  judged,  "  that  Mr.  Witherspoon's  proposition  is 
.^Hottrue;  yet  he  has  explained  himself  consistently  with  truth; 
and  thdt  the  Presbjiery  oujjiit  to  have  endeavored  to  bring  him  to 

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MINUTES   OF   THE    SYNOD.  307 

a  mode  of  expression  more  consistent  with  his  own  ideas,  as  hie 
propositi<p  and  explanation  appear  to  be  very  different." 

"  Upon  the  whole,  this  Synod,  sorry  to  find  that  the  brethren 
over  the  mountains  still  retain  sc^much  of  die  spirit  of  warm  oppo- 
sition, DO  SOLEMNLY  RECOMMEND  to  Mr.  Balch,  and  those  who 
apft  opposed  to  him,  to  pray  for  and  endeavor  to  exercise  more  of 
that  spint^pf,  meekness  and  brotheriy  kindness  which  the  gospel  so 
frequently  recommends  to  us,  and  endeavor  to  cultivate  friendship 
with  each  other.  And  further,  the  S3mod  recommend  to  the  Pres- 
bytery of  Abingdon  a  more  strict  regard  to  our  standards  of  doc- 
trine and  discipline,  especially  in  introducing  young  men  to  the 
ministry  of  the  gospel."  "  The  parties  acceded  to  the  judgment." 
The  Synod  passed  orders,  for  the  purpose  of  bringing  the  sub- 
ject of  missions  before  all  the  congregations ;  and  for  obtaining 
collections  from  them  all  for  the  support  of  missionaries. 

A  petition  from  the  congregations  of  Greenspring  and  Sinking 
Spring,  with  a  remonstrance  against  the  proceedings  of  Abingdon 
Presbytery,  in  ordaining  Mr.  Bovelle  pastor  of  Sinking  Spring,  in 
the  peculiar  case  of  the  congregation,  particularly  that  there  was  so 
strong  an  opposition  to  him.  After  much  time  spent  in  hearing 
papers  produced  by  the  Presbytery  and  Mr.  Bradley,  the  represent- 
ative of  the  congregation,  the  Synod  judged  that  the  Presbytery 
**  acted  incautiously "  in  ordaining  Mr.  Bovelle  in  the  circum- 
stances ;  and  after  appointing  a  committee  to  take  the  sense  of  the 
congregation  on  the  continuance  or  discontinuance  of  the  connex- 
ion and  to  lay  the  result  before  the  Presbytery,  who  are  to  act. 
accordingly,  they  say — "  And  further,  this  Synod  do  seriously  and 
solemnly,  and  with  all  the  authority  which  they  possess  as  a  judi- 
cature of  the  church  of  Christ,  recommend  to  the  ministers  and 
people  beyond  the  mountains,  and  espedally  to  the  people  of  Sink- 
ing Spring  and  Greenspring  congregation«,  to  seek  peace  and  pur- 
sue It.  0  brethren,  live  peaceably  among  yourselves !  Let 
broilierly  love  continue.  See  that  ye  fall  not  out  by  the  way." 
The  Presbytery  of  Greenville  was  directed  to  hold  a  meeting  t)n 
the  second  Tuesday  of  February,  to  receive  the  report  of  the.  com- 
mittee and  to  determine  the  case. 

The  Rev.  William  Montgtjpiery,  of  Presbytery  of  Hopewell, 
and  Mr.  John  Matthews,  a  Ecentiate  of  Oiange  Presbytery,  were 
appointed  missionaries  to  the  Mississippi  Territory,  from  the  15th 
of  November,  to  act  as  long  as  they  shall  judge  c^mvieoMilit. 
Thomas  Hall,  a  licentiate  of  Concord  Presbytery,  was  appointed 
to  itinerate  through  the  Carolinas  and  Georgia,  for  the  S{»ce  (d 
eight  months. 

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Tennessee  is  the  daughter  of  North  Carolina,  having  been  in 
ihe  chaHereaTwnnds  of  the  colony,  and  also  reckoned  a  part  of  the 
independent  confederated  State,  Vtf']  \}}^  year  1791,  when  she  was 
reckoned  one  of  the  territories  of  the  United  States ;  and  having 
received  many  of  its  earliest  settlements  and  strongest  reinforce- 
mentsfrom  the  old  North  State,  and  from  the  original  stock  in  Ire- 
land and  their  descendants  in  the  Middle  States.  The  beantifhl 
fieldip  along  the  Holston  and  Clinch,  and  the  charming  valleys,  al- 
lured the  early  emigrants  by  the  same  inducements  as  charmed  and 
captivated  the  wander^^  from  Ireland  and  Pennsylvania,  to  fix  their 
abodes  between  the  Yadkin  and  the  Catawba.  "^ 

The  phrases — *^  weslq^  cciihties'^-^^tliOTiItains  " — ^^  mountain 
men  " — ^^  Washington  County,"  as  ased  during  the  invasion  of 
the  Carolinas,  by  Hie  "King's  forces,  had  reference  to  sections  of 
country  now  in,  or  bordering  upon  the  State  of  Tennessee.  Fergu- 
son was  in  pursuit  of  the  soldiers  of  these  regions,  when  he  visited 
Rutherford  county,  and  sent  his  insulting  message;  and  on  the 
Wataga,  the  forces  began  to  assemble  that  gave  him  the  fatal  an- 
swer at  King's  Mountain. 

The  troubles  and  trials  of  the  first  settlement  we  can  scarcely 
glance  at,  nor  in  the  present  connection  is  it  necessary,  they  being 
in  kind  and  cifcumstances  altogether  similar  to  those  of  the  pioneers 
of  the  western  part  of  the  motiier  State,  with  this  only  exception, 
they  were  farther  removed  from  market,  and  from  the  influence  of 
/  royal  authority  either  in  church  or  state.  The  wide  ranges  for  cat- 
tie  and  for  game,  were  the  first  inducements  to  settle  on  the  Hols- 
"^-v^on ;  and  the  time  of  the  first  cabin  and  the  name  of  the  pioneer 

.^  will  probably  never  be  known.     Next  to  this  influence,  was  the 
4>olicy  of  giving  bounty  for  military  service,  in  wild  lands ;  and 

/  Carolina  gave  a  value  to  the  forests  of  her  western  wilds  by  re- 
warding the  labors  and  exposure  of  her  sons,  with  titles  to  lands, 
that  jnight  become  a  home  p  them  or  their  descendants.  So  rapid 
was  the  influx  of  enterprising  men^  particularly  about  the  close  of 
the   Elevolutionary  war,  that  an  ^ort  was  made  in  the  years 

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EMIGRATION     TO   TENNE8S».  ^  809 

1784r-6,  to  form  a  State  by  the  name  of  Franklin.  This  movement 
waspremature  rather  than  micalled  for;  and  in  1791,  a  territory 
was  set  off,  and  idtimately  a  state  was  organized  by  the  najjae^^of 
,  Tennessee^Jthe-iwUap  appellation  of  the  principal  river.  Meck- 
TenSurg,  v^wan,  Orange  and  Granville  Counties,  North  Citolina, 
sent  forth  CTowds  of  emigrants,  and  nmnerous  ministers  in  their  tram?^ 
TBeTamily  of  the  Polks,  so  numerous  and  so  noted  in  the  time  of 
the  Revolution,  all  but  one  branch,  emigrated,  and  cast  their  lot  in 
-with  the  bold  spirits  that  sought  a  home  in  the  great  valley  of  the 
Mississippi.    The  old  Carolina  names  are  numerous  in  Tennessee. 

To  the  great  crowds  from  Caiolina  were  joined  many  families  of 
the  Scotchjirish  race  from  Virginia,  and  from  Pennsylvania  and 
New  JerseyT^hese  collected  families  of  the  same  race,  but  differ- 
efitrpafts^orthe  United  States,  gave  a  tone  to  the  rising  population 
of  the  State,  which  all  the  influx  of  other  i^aces  from  other  regions 
has  only  modified.  The  S^pnt(^[i-Tr;gh  i^j^^  tViPJrjjl^gp^nflnnfg  may  not 
nnwbfi  a  majnrjty  in  the  State  ;  they  may  perhaps  be  a  minority ; 
but  the  character  impressed  by'their  predecessors  will  remain  for 
ages,  perhaps  for  ever — enterprise,  independence,  and  a  desire  for 
improvement.  The  church,  the  school-house,  and  the  college,  grew 
up  with  the  log  cabins ;  and  the  principles  of  religion  were  pro- 
claimed, and  the  classics  taught  where  glass  windows  were  unknown, 
and  books  were  carried  in  bags  upon  pack-horses. 

The  first  minister  of  religion,  that  is  known  to  have  preached  in 
Tennessee,  was-a  Presbyterian  by  the.jiamc-^'Ciiniming,  from  Vir- 
ginia, who  accompanied  the  expedition  from  Carolina  against  the 
Cherokees  in  1776.  As  he  passed  through  the  Holston  settlements, 
he  preached  in  the  forts  and  stations,  those  places  of  defence  and  of 
instruction,  and,  for  a  time,  of  public  worship.  Among  the  Scotch- 
Irish  that  settled  West  Pennsylvania,  Carolina,  Virginia,  and  enter- 
edlEe^vrtMerness  of.  Tennessee,  and  were  gathered  into  forts  and 
stations,  so  often  made  the  opportunities  of  dissipation,  it  was  no 
uncommon  thing  for  those  gatherings  to  be  improved  for  instruct- 
ing children,  and  for  seasons  of  religious  worship.  Mr.  Cummins 
did  not  remain  long  in  Tennessee,  neither  did  he  organize*  any 
churches  at  that  time. 

The  first  minister  that  took  his  abode  in  Tennessee,  was  the  Rev. 
Samuel  Doak ;  and  as  he  is  identified  with  the  history  and  progress 
of  sound  learning  and  religion  in  North  Carolina,  west  of  the  Blue 
Ridge,  a  few  particulars  concerning  h^  early  training  and  the  la- 
bors of  his  maturer  years  cannot  be  improper.  His  parente,  Sam- 
uel Doak  and  Jane  Mitchell,  emigrated  very  young  from  the  North 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 

810  ^  SKE^HBS   OF    NORTH    CAROLINA. 

of  Ireland,  and  took  theif  abode  in  Chester  count}',  Pennsybraiya. 
At  the  time  of  their  marriage,  they  were  both  members  of  ilie 
church ;  and  soon  after  that  Qvent  they  emigrated  to  Virginia,  and 
settled  in  Augflsta  county,  in  the  bounds  of  New  Providence  con- 
gregation. They  were  both  of  that  party  called  the  Old  Side  in  dis- 
tinction from  that  called  the  New  Side,  which  two  then  divided  the 
Presbyterian  church.  Their  son,  Samuel,  was  bom  August,  1749. 
He  remained  with  his  parents,  and  worked  on  the  farm  till  he  was 
sixteen  years  old.  At  that  time  he  was  admitted  member  of  the 
chiu'ch  in  full  communion ;  and  soon  after  commenced  a 'course  of 
classical  study  with  Mr.  Robert  Alexfiinder,  who  resided  about  two 
miles  from  his  father's  house.  This  grammar-school  was  soon  after 
removed  two  or  three  miles  further,  to  about  the  place  where  the 
Seceder  meeting-house,  called  Old  Providence,  now  stands.  The 
school  was  taught  by  a  Mr.  Edmondson,  who  afterwards  studied 
medicine.  About  this  time  the  school  came  more  immediately 
under  the  charge  of  the  pastor,  the  Rev.  John  Brown,  who  having 
served  the  church  of  New  Providence  some  forty-four  years,  re- 
moved to  Kentucky,  and  lies  buried  near  Pisgah  church.  By  Mr. 
Brown  the  school  was  removed  to  Pleasant  Hill,  within  about  a 
mile  of  his  dwelling,  and  about  the  same  distance  north  of  the  vil- 
lage of  Fairfield.  While  here,  Mr.  Ebenezer  Smith,  the  brother  of 
John  B.  and  Samuel  Stanhope  Smith,  was  employed  as  teacher. 
A  Mr.  Archibald  succeeded  Mr.  Smith,  and  William  Graham  suc- 
ceeded Mr.  Archibald.  At  this  time  the  Presbytery  of  HanoVer 
adopted  the  school.  From  near  Fairfield  it  was  removed  to  Timber 
/  Ridge ;  and  from  thence  to  near  Lexington ;  and  is  now  Washing- 
ton College,  in  Lexington,  Virginia. 

In  Oct.,  1773,  Samuel  Doak  entered  Princeton  College  and  re- 
mained two  years.  Returning  to  Virginia  he  was  married  to  Esther 
Montgomery,  sister  of  the  Rev.  John  Montgomery,  whose  family 
belonged  to  New  Providence;  and  shortly  after  became  tutor  in 
Hampden  Sydney  College  iji  Prince  Edward  county.  Here,  for 
about  two  years,  he  pursued  the  study  of  divinity  under  the  direc- 
tion of  the  Rev.  John  B.  Smith,  the  President  of  the  College. 
Being  licensed  by  the  Hanovet  Presbytery,  after  preaching  in  Vir- 
ginia for  a  short  time,  he  removed  to  the  Hdlston  settlement,  in 
what  is  now  Sullivan  county,  Tennessee.  Not  finding  this  a  suita- 
Utt  field  for  the  designs  of  education  he  Tiad  in  view,  he  removed  in 
the  course  of  a  year  or  two  to  the  settlement  on  Little  Limestone, 
in  Washington  county,  purchased  a  farm,  and  on  his  own  land  built 
a  small  church,  and  log  college,  and  founded  Salem'  congregation. 

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His  institution  was  incorporated  by  the  Legislature  of  North  Caro- 
lina, in  1788,  under  the  name  of  "  Martin  Academy;"  and  is  the 
first  literary  institution  that  was  established  in  the  great  valley  of 
the  Mississippi.  la  1796  it  was  changed  into  a  college^  and  receiv- 
ed the  name  of  "  Washington."  From  the  incorporation  of  Martin 
Academy  till  1818,  Mr.  Doak  continued  the  President  of  the  Insti- 
tation ;  and  his  elders  of  Salem  congregation  formed  a  part  of  the 
Boird  of  Trustees.  He  procured  for  his  institution  a  small  library 
in  Philadelphia,  caused  it  to  be  transported  in  sacks  on  pack-horses, 
across  the  mountains,  and  thus  formed  the  nucleus  of  the  library  at 
Washington  College.  The  brick  buildings  overlook  the  site  of  the 
log  college ;  but  long  must  it  be  before  the  enlarged  institution  can 
equally  overshadow  the  miefulness  of  the  log  academy  and  college 
that  for  a  time  supplied  the  opportunities  for  education  for  ministers, 
lawyers  and  doctors,  in  the  early  days  of  Tennessee,  and  still  is 
sending  out  its  stream. 

Having  organized  a  number  of  churches  in  the  county  in  which 
he  lived,  also  Bethel  and  Timber  Ridge  in  Greene  county,  about 
the  year  1818  he  reagned  the  Presidency  of  Washington  College 
in  favor  of  his  son,  Rev.  John  M.  Doak,  M.D.,  and  removed  to 
Bethel.  Here  he  opened  an  academy  to  prepare  youth  for  college, 
and  named  it  Tusculum ;  and  passed  the  remainder  of  his  days  in 
usefulness  and  honor.  Under  his  son,  Samuel  W.  Doak,  the  acade- 
my has  grown  into  a  flourishing  college.  Says  a  gentleman  who  , 
knew  him  well — ^**  His  praise  is  in  all  our  churches.  During  the 
Revolutionary  war  he  was  a  warm,  decided  and  uniform  friend  to 
civil  and  religious  liberty,  took  part  in  the  defence  of  his  country, 
was  a  member  of  the  convention  that  in  1784-5  gave  rise  to  tha 
insurrectionary  state  of  Franklin ;  was  upon  the  committee  that  re- 
ported an  article  of  its  constitution,  making  provision  for  the  support 
of  learning ;  and  to  the  close  of  life  was  still  its  devoted  servant, 
advocate,  and  patron.  A  rigid  opposer  of  innovation  in  religious 
tenets ;  very  old  school  in  all  his  notions  and  actions ;  uncompro- 
mising in  his  love  of  the  truth,  and  his  hostility  to  error  or  heresy ; 
a  John  Knox  in  his  character,  fearless,  firm,  nearly  dogmatical 
and  intolerant ;  but  no  one  has  be«n  more  useful  to  church  or  state, 
except  it  be  Hall  or  Caldwell  in  N.  C,  or  Waddell  in  South  Caro- 
lina and  Georgia.  A  volume  would  not  exhaust  the  incidents  of 
his  life." 

About  the  same  time  that  M.  Doak  settled  in  Tennessee,  Rev, 
Samuel  Houston,  reared  in  the  same  congregation,  and  at  the  same 
school,  took  his  residence  in  Washington  county.    After  a  few 

Digitized  byGoOgle      '"' 


years  he  returned  to  Virginia,  and  li?ed  to  a  good  old  age  in  Rock- 
bridge county.  Having  been  a  soldier  in  the  battle  at  Guilford 
Court-house,  and  ranking  among  the  bravest  of  the  brave,  tiiere 
can  be  no  doubt  of  his  love  of  American  liberty.  While  living  in 
Tennessee  he  took  an  active  part  in  public  matters,  and  was  a  con- 
spicuous member  of  the  Franklin  convention.  A  brother  and  other 
connexions  settled  near  Houston's  station  in  Blount  county ;  and  his 
co-emigrants  formed  Providence  church  at  Maryville.  The  name 
of  Houston  is  familiar  in  Texas. 

The  Rev.  Hezekiah  Balch  and  Rev.  Samuel  Carrick  came  to  Ten- 
nessee about  the  same  time ;  both  were  members  of  Hanover  Pres- 
bytery. Mr.  Balch  from  Pennsylvania,  Donegal  Presbytery,  formed 
one  of  the  original  members  of  Orange,  and  Mr.  Carrick  had  been 
ordained  by  Hanover  Presbytery,  in  whose  bounds  he  labored  for  a 
time.  These  gentlemen  met  undesignedly  in  1789,  in  the  settle- 
ment where  Lebanon  church  now  is.  Mr.  Carrick  had  sent  an  ap- 
pointment to  preach,  and  on  a  short  notice  a  great  crowd  assembled 
to  hear  the  strange  minister.  Mr.  Balch  came  that  day.  The  place 
chosen  for  preaching  was  a  large  Indian  mound  at  the  junction  of 
Holston  and  French  Broad.  Mr.  Carrick  courteously  yielded  the 
precedency  to  Mr.  Balch  as  being  the  older  man.  After  listening 
to  the  sermon,  he  observed  "  that  he  had  selected  the  same  subject, 
and  as  it  was  not  yet,  and  could  not  be  exhausted,  he  would  still 
preach  upon  it."  After  preaching,  the  ordinance  of  Baptism  was 
administered.  Mr.  Balch  assisted  in  the  organization  of  churches ; 
under  his  patronage  Greenville  College  was  founded  and  rose  to 
usefulness.  Mr.  Carrick  organized  Lebanon  church,  and  also  the 
«hurch  in  Knoxville.  He  was  the  first  President  of  Bloimt  College 
in  that  place,  and  finished  a  life  of  usefulness  in  1808,  very  sud- 
denly. For  want  of  memoranda  little  can  here  be  said  of  these 
men,  whose  lives  afforded  matter  of  great  interest  to  the  Christian 
public,  and  must  hold  a  prominent  place  in  a  correct  history  of  Ten- 
nesseie.  Says  a  gentleman  who  knew  him — ^^  Rev.  Samuel  Carrick, 
equally  orthodox,  and  not  less  learned  or  devoted  to  the  service  of 
his  master," — ^he  is  running  a  parallel  with  Mr.  Doak, — "  was  yet 
more  liberal,  tolerant,  and  refined.  He  had  a  great  deal  of  urbanity, 
much  of  the  suaviter  in  mo^o,  less  of  the  fortiter  in  re,  dressed  neat- 
ly, behaved  courteously,  grave,  polite,  genteel,  in  short  he  was  a 
model  of  an  old-fashioned  Southern  gentleman,  and  had  been  evi- 
dently (as  all  Presbyterian  clergymen  of  that  day  were,  and  ought 
still  to  be)  well  raised.^^ 

About  the  same  time  a  son  of  the  first  minister  of  Sugar  Creek, 

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after  preaching  for  a  time  ia  tke  church  of  his  father,  removed  to 
West  Tennessee,  and  settled  near  where  Nashville  now  is,  on  the 
Cumberland  river.  A  man  of  fiiie  talents  and  capable  of  close 
thought,  he  did  the  cause  of  religion  much  service.  In  the  lat- 
ter part  of  his  life  he  had  some  difficulties  that  hindered,  for  a 
time,  his  usefulness,  hot  which  served  to  draw  forth  the  friendly  in- 
fluence and  imqualified  approbation  of  General  Jackson,  who  was 
not  unacquainted  with  Sugar  Creek  and  its  recollections.  Mr. 
Craighead  lies  buried  near  the  Hermitage. 

The  above  short  notices  are  given  merely  to  show  the  connection 
of  the  churches  in  Tennessee  with  those  in  Carolina  and  Virginia, 
to  the  first  for  the  most  emigrants,  and  to  the  second '^or  most 
ministers;  and  also  to  say, that  there  are  a  variety  of  incidents  con- 
nected with  the  first  settlements,  that  must  be,  if  preserved,  of  ex- 
ceeding interest  to  succeeding  generations. 

Abingdon  Presbytery  was  formed  August,  1785,  its  first  meeting 
being  held  at  Salem.  A  well  written  history  of  that  Presbytery,  and 
those  formed  from  it,  would  comprise  a  history  of  the  struggles  and 
tempests  of  the  Presbyterian  church,  which  were  felt  in  all  their 
force  in  Tennessee,  before  the  surface  of  the  ocean  was  agitated 
around  Philadelphia,  as  will  be  seen  by  a  reference  to  the  minutes 
of  the  Synod  of  North  Carolina,  in  the  preceding  chapter. 

We  shall  close  this  short  chapter,  by  giving  the  names  of  the  first 
trustees  of  three  of  the  Colleges : — 

1st  Washington  College  : — Rev.  Messrs.  Samuel  Doak,  Charles 
Cummins,  Edward  Crawford,  Robert  Henderson  and  Gideon  Black- 
burn : — ^Messrs.  Jonathan  Cottom,  Alexander  Matthews,  John  Nelson, 
Henry  Nelson  (father  of  two  preachers,  Kelso  Nelson  and  David 
Nelson),  John  McAllister  and  John  Blois,  who  were  elders  of  Salem 
church ;  and  Messrs.  Joseph  Anderson,  John  Sevier,  Landon  Carter, 
Daniel  Kennedy,  Leroy  Taylor,  John  Tipton,  Wm.  Cooke,  Archibald 
Roane,  James  Hamilton,  John  Rhea,  Samuel  Mitchell,  Jesse  Payne, 
James  Aiken,  Wm.  Hott,  Wm.  Chester,  David  Deaderick  and  John 

2d.  Of  Blount  College: — ^Rev.  Samuel  Carrick,  President, 
Messrs.  James  White,  Francis  Alexander  Ramsey,  George  McNutt 
and  John  Adair,  elders  in  Mr.  Carrick's  churches;  and  Messrs. 
William  Blount,*  Daniel  Smith,  David  Campbell,  Joseph  Anderson, 
John  Sevifer,  Alexander  Kelly,  Wm.  Cooke,  Willie  Blount,  Joseph 
Hamilton,  Archibald  Roane,  Charles  McClung,  George  Ruolstone 
and  Robert  Houston. 

3d.  Ghreenville  College : — ^Rev.  Messrs.  Hezekiah  Balch,  Samuel 

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Doaky  James  Balch,  Samuel  Carrick,  Robert  Henderson  and  Gideon 
Blackburn ;  ami  Messrs.  A.  Roan,  Joseph  Hamilton,  Wm.  Cooke, 
Daniel  Kennedy,  Laudon  Carter,  Joseph  Harden,  John  Rhea  and 
John  Sevier. 

The  efforts  for  Uterature  and  morals  in  Tennessee,  are  not  sur- 
passed in  any  of  the  western  or  southwestern  States,  and  they  compare 
advantageously  with  any  of  her  older  sisters.  There  is  much  pure 
religion  and  vital  goodness  in  Tennessee. 

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RBV.    TtmUS    HA£S:  315 



I^ELCHizEDEK   was  a  king,  and  a  priest  of  the  Most  High  God. 
Abraham,  the  Father  of  the  Faithful,  led,  for  once  at  least,  a  military 
e3cpedition,  and  on  his  return  from  a  complete  victory  received  the 
blessing  of  the  king  of  Salem,  whom  the  Apostle  set  forth  ws  a  type 
of  Christ  the  Lord,  tb«  author  and  finisher  of  Faith.     In  the  war  of 
the  American  Revolution  there  were  many  young  men  to  be  found 
in  the  ranks  of  our  armies,  and  in  the  prisons  of  the  enemy,  who, 
after  hazarding  their  lives  for  their  country,  entered  the  ministry 
and  spent  their  days  in  preaching  the  everlasting  gospel  of  our  Lord 
and  Saviour  Jesus  Christ, — such  as  Hunter  of  Carolina,  and  Marshall, 
and  Houston,  and  Lyle  of  Virginia.    There  were  also  many  clergy- 
men that  went  with  the  armies  to  act  as  chaplains,  and  displaj^ed  in 
the  various  dangers  and  exposures  of  the  camp  and  a  soldier's  life, 
the  cool  collected  bravery  of  men  at  peace  with  themselves  and  with 
their  God,  and  engaged  in  a  good  cause, — such  as  McCaule  of  Cen- 
tre, afterwards  of  South  Carolina,  who  was  beside  General  Davidson 
when  he  fell  at  Cowan's  Ford ;  some  of  whom  were  made  a  sacrifice 
to  their  country's  safety — as  Rosborough  of  New  Jersey.    But  there 
is  not  perhaps  another  instance  of  a  man,  a  licensed  preacher  of  the 
gospel,  that  took  part  in  military  expeditions,  and  commanded  com- 
panies, and  still  retained  the  character  and  maintained  the  dimity 
and  office  of  a  minister  of  the  gospel,  beside  that  of  James  Hall  of 
Iredell,  the  preacher  and  the  soldier.    There  were  some  ministers 
that  laid  aside  their  office  for  a  military  command,  and  never  re- 
sumed it,  as  Muhlenburg  of  Pennsylvania,  and  Thruston  of  Virginia. 
But  James  Hall  performed  both  offices,  a  military  commander  and 
a  preacher  of  righteousness ;  was  acceptable  in  bo^  as  a  young  man,     ' 
and  died  at  an  advanced  age  a  minister  of  the  gospel.     Said  Dr. 
Robina&n  of  Poplar  Tent,  "  when  a  boy  at  school  at  Charlotte,  I  saw 
James  Hall  pass  through  the  town,  with  his  three-cornered  hat  and 
long  sword,  the  captain  at  the  head  of  a  company,  and  chaplain  of 
the  regiment"    An  amalgamation  of  characters  and  offices  justified 
4Bly  by  special  emergencies,  and  to  be  successfully  attempted  only 
by  few.    Born,  of  Scotch-Irish  parentage,  at  Carlisle,  Pennsylvania, 

♦  *  Digitized  by  Google 


August  22d,  1744,  and  removed  by  them  to  Nortti  Carolina,  whea 
about  eight  years  old,  he  grew  up  in  the  upper  part  of  Rowan,  now 
Iredell,  in  the  bounds  of  the  congregation  to  which  he  afterwards 
was  pastor  during  his  whole  ministerial  life  of  thirty-eight  years. 

The  first  grants  of  land,  in  that  part  of  the  country,  bear  date 
about  the  time  that  the  fiunily  of  Dr.  Hall  emigrated  to  Carolina,  s^ 
may  be  teen  from  a  grant  in  the  possession  of  Col.  Allison,  whose 
tract  was  perhaps  the  second  that  was  located.  The  name  of  Gran- 
ville,'by  his  deputy,  is  affixed.  The  settlements  along  Fourth  Creek 
and  South  Yadkin,  from  which  the  congregations  of  Bethany,  Tabor, 
Fourth  Creek  or  Statesville,  and  Concord,  were  ultimately  formed, 
all  being  called  Fourth  Creek  for  a  length  of  time,  were  of  the 
names  of  Harris,  Alexander,  Hill,  Luckey,  Bone,  Eng,  Patterson, 
Shnipe,  Henry,  Morrison,  Johnson,  McKnight,  Stevenson,  Watts, 
Hall,  Boyd,  Milligan,  Adams,  Scroggs,  McLean,  Allison,  Purviance, 
Warson,  Ireland,  Sloan,  McLelland,  Potts,  Snoddy,  Murdock,  Bell, 
and  Ar.chibald.  Coming  from  Pennsylvania  here,  these  people 
naturally  looked  to  the  Synod  of  Philadelphia,  and  the  Presbyteries 
of  which  it  was  composed,  for  their  ministers ;  and  being  many  of 
them  pious  people,  their  "  supplications"  for  ministerial  labor  ap- 
pear very  early  on  the  records  of  the  Synod.  In  the  year  1753,  the 
following  minute  was  made,  viz. : — ^^  The  supplications  from  Vir- 
ginia and  North  Carolina  were  considered,  and  the  Synod  orders 
Mr.  McMordic  to  supply  the  vacancies  in  those  parts  for  ten  weeks, 
or  longer  if  he  find  it  needful,  and  that  he  pay  a  greater  regard  to 
the  larger  societies  that  have  supplicated  this  Synod  from  time  to 
time,  and  at  the  same  time  do  what  he  can  to  promote  the  benefit 
of  younger  settlements,  and  that  he  set  out  the  1st  of  July  next,  and 
that  Mr.  Donaldson,  in  like  manner,  supply  the  same  back  parts, 
and  continue  there  for  ten  weeks  or  as  much  longer  as  he  thinks  fit^ 
and  that  he  shall  set  out  the  1st  of  October.  The  Synod  recom- 
mends it  to  Messrs.  McMordie  and  Donaldson  to  show  a  special 
regard  to  the  vacancies  of  North  Carolina,  especially  betwixt  the 
Atkin  (Yadkin)  and  Catawba  Rivers,  in  giving  them  a  considerable 
part  of  the  time  they  spend  in  those  parts."  This  commission  cov- 
ered not  only  Fourth  Creek,  but  the  neighborhoods  that  formed  the 
old  churches  of  Conoord  Presbytery,  all  of  which  had  been  com- 
menced previous  to  this  date.  In  J765,  there  is  the  following 
order — "  That  Mr.  Donaldson  supply  the  back  inhabitants  of  Vir- 
ginia and  North  Carolina,  at  least  three  months  next  fall ;  and  that 
he  in  particular  pay  a  regard  to  the  supplications  that  were  laid  be- 
fore this  Synod  by  some  of  these  back  inhabitants.    That  Mr.  Wil- 

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REV.    JAMES    HALl.  317 

son  supply  them  in  like  manner  for  three  months  next  winter ;  and 
Mr.  McKennan  for  three  months  next  spring."  Considering  the 
small  number  of  preachers  in  the  Synod,  and  the  great  number  of 
vacancies  requiring  aid  in  Pepnsylvania,  as  well  as  south  of  the 
Potomac,  this  supply  of  nine  months  was  liberal.  In  1757  it  was 
ordered,  "  That  Mr.  Millar  supply  the  following  settlements  in  order 
in  the  fall,  each  one  Sabbath  day,  viz.,  Gather's  (Thyatira),  Osbom's 
(Centre),  Morison's  (Rocky  River),  Jersey's  on  Atkin,  Buffler's, 
Hawfield's  and  Baker's  settlements.  And  that  Mr.  Craig  supply 
the  same  one  Sabbath  day  in  the  spring."  These  Sabbaths,  one  in 
the  fall  and  the  other  in  the  spring,  were  great  days  in  the  settle- 
ments, and  people  gathered  from  their  dispersed  homes  and  followed 
the  preachers,  eager  to  catch  something  that  should  be  their  scrip- 
tural food  for  the  long  abstinence  to  come. 

In  the  year  1755,  we  find  in  the  minutes  of  the  Synod  of  New 
York,  that  the  brethren  composing  that  energetic  body,  were  not 
unmindful  of  the  southern  vacancies.  Beside  constituting  the  Pres- 
bytery of  Hanover,  they  passed  the  following  order,  viz. :  "  Upon 
sundry  petitions  from  various  parts  of  North  Carolina,  setting  forth 
their  distressing  circumstances  for  want  of  a  preached  gospel  among 
them,  and  requesting  help  from  this  synod,  Messrs.  John  Brainerd 
and  Elihu  Spencer  are  appointed  to  take  a  journey  thither  before 
winter,  and  supply  the  vacant  congregations  there,  and  in  parts  ad- 
jacent, for  six  months,  or  as  long  as  they  shall  think  necessary ; 
and  the  appointment  for  supplies  for  Mr.  Spencer's  congregation  is 
referred  till  to-morrow." 

After  the  Synods  of  New  York  and  Philadelphia  were  united,  in 
the  year  1758,  the  supply  of  the  southern  vacancies  claimed  their 
attention;  missionaries  were  sent  that  were  so  acceptable,  that 
numerous  calls  came  up  to  Synod  for  them,  to  be  located  as  settled 
pastors.  In  the  year  1766  is  the  following  minute, — ^^  a  call  for 
the  Reverend  Mr.  Spencer  from  Cathy's  settlement  (Thyatira)  and 
Fourth  Creek,  which  was  presented  to  him ;  also  a  supplication  for 
supplies  from  the  inhabitants  of  North  Carolina,  living  between  the 
waters  of  Yadkin  and  Catawba  rivers,  and  particularly  for  the  re- 
moval of  Mr.  Spencer  and  Mr.  McWhorter  to  settle  among  them." 
Then  follow  the  applications  from  Bethel  and  Poplar  Tent,  New 
Providence  and  the  Six  Mile  Spring,  Hawfields,  and  Little  River, 
and  from  Long  Canes  in  South  Carolina.  ^^  In  consequence  of  sun- 
dry applications  from  North  Carolina  ibr  supplies,  the  Synod  ap- 
pointed Messrs.  Nathan  Kerr,  George  DuflSeld,  William  Ramsay, 
David  Caldwell,  James  Lattar,  and  Robert  McMordie,  to  go  there 

Digitized  by  VjOOQIC 


as^on  as  they  can  conveniently,  aiid  each  of  them  to  tarry  half  a. 
year  in  these  vacant  congregations,  as  prudence  may  direct.** 

fourth  Creek  church  was  organized  by  the  Mr.  Elihu  Spencer 
mentioned  in  the  two  preceding  minutes,  and  embraced  the  inhabit- 
ants between  the  South  Yadkin  and  the  Catawba  rivers.  This  toolc 
place  some  time  in  the  year  1764,  or  early  in  the  year  1765,  when 
the  bounds  of  all  the  congregations  were  settled.  From  all  the 
effi>rts  made  for  settled  pastors,  there  was  but  one  congregation* 
that  of  Rocky  River,  that  could  obtain  any  preaching  except  from 
missionaries,  for  many  years ;  and  Fourth  Creek  had  no  regular 
pastor  till  James  Hall,  who  grew  up  in  the  bounds,  became  their 
minister  in  1778.  From  the  records  of  Hanover  Presbytery,  it  ap- 
pears that  Mr.  Craighead  was  directed  by  his  Presbytery  to  supply 
Fourth  Creek  two  Sabbaths,  and  Mr.  James  Hunt  the  same  number 
of  days  in  the  year  1762. 

That  these  vacancies,  some  of  them  at  least,  expected  i»  con- 
tribute to  the  support  of  their  ministers,  appears  from  the  minutes 
of  the  Synod  in  the  year  1767.  Besides  mentioning  the  reception 
of  petitions  for  supplies  from  Cathey's  settlement  (Thyatira),  Long 
Canes,  Indian  Creek,  and  Duncan's  Creek ;  and  motions  for  sup- 
plies for  Edenton,  Newbem,  Fourth  Creek,  Upper  Hico,  Haw 
River,  Goshen  in  the  forks  of  Catawba,  the  south  fork  of  Catawba, 
the  forks  of  Yadkin  and  Salisbury ;  the  following  record  is  made, 
viz. :  "  The  £(^owing  congregations  in  North  Carolina,  viz. :  Sugar 
Creek,  Fishing  Creek,  Bethel,  the  Jersey  settlement,  Centre  congre- 
gation. Poplar  Tent,  and  Rocky  River,  united  in  a  petition  for  one 
or  more  of  the  Rev.  Messrs.  Spencer,  Lewis,  McWhorter,  and 
James  Caldwell,  to  be  sent  there,  promising  for  their  encourage- 
ment that  the  sum  of  eighty  pounds  be  paid  by  any  of  these  con- 
gregations in  which  he  shall  choose  to  spend  half  of  his  time,  and 
another  eighty  pounds  by  the  vacant  congregations  he  shall  supply." 
Neither  of  the  ministers  referred  to  was  willing  to  accept  the  call, 
and  as  Mr.  Craighead  of  Sugar  Creek  was  dead,  there  was  no  set- 
tled minister  south  of  the  Yadkin  for  a  few  years. 

Secluded  in  the  forests  of  Rowan,  alike  ignorant  of  the  knowledge 
and  the  follies  of  the  great  world,  James  Hall,  grew  up  under  the 
watchful  care  of  pious  parents,  and  the  instructions  he  could  receive 
from  tliese  faithful  and  laborious  missionaries,  whose  visits  to  the 
congsegation  were,  less  often  than  welcome,  about  once  a  quarter. 
He  was  made  familiar  with  the  Bible  and  the  Westminster 
catechism  in  his  early  days,  and  his  mind  stored  with  the  best  of 
truth  before  he  pould  appreciate  the  excellence  of  the  truth  itself,  or 

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REV.    JAMES     HALL.  310 

the  motiyes  of  the  pious  paorents  who  so  assiduously  taugkt  him. 
The  Qoming  of  a  missionary  was  an  event  of  magnitude,  an  epoch 
in  the  current  of  time,  in  these  Carolina  settlements  of  Prolestant- 
Irish.  *  He  V  brought  news  from  a  far  country,  for  Philadelphia,  in 
those  days,  was  at  the  distance  of  a  horseback  journey  of  two  or 
three  weeks,  and  no  current  of  passengers  in  stages  or  rail  cars,  no 
daily  or  weekly  mail,  brought  the  latest  information;  he  was 
messenger  from  friends  and  acquaintances  left  behind,  or  coming  on ; 
he  proclaimed  the  truth  many  were  desirous  of  hearing,  pouring  in 
tiie  oil  of  grace  to  the  wounded  spirit,  coq^forting  the  bowed  down ; 
he  administered  the  ordinances,  called  the  children  to  catechual  in- 
struction, and  visited  the  sick.  Thi^  impressions  made  by  these 
visitations  were  of  the  most  happy  and  religious  kjpd,  and  were 
followed  by  hopeful  conversions.  The  asfore  important  matters  of 
discipline  and  church  order  were  particularly  attended  to  during  the 
excursions  of  the  missionaries  ;  for  instance, — in  the